ESTONIANS (Estonian : eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group related to
Finns that mainly inhabit
Estonia , a country located south of
Finland and the Finnish Gulf . Their national language belongs to
Finnic branch and is known as Estonian (Estonian : eesti keel).
Estonia is often geopolitically categorized as one of the
Estonians are linguistically, culturally and historically
related to the neighboring Finns—both belonging to the Finnic people
—differing from the non-Finnic Indo-European speaking Baltic peoples
* 1 History
* 1.1 Prehistoric roots
* 1.2 National consciousness
* 2 Emigration
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes and references
* 5 Further reading
* 6 External links
Estonia was first inhabited about 10,000 years ago, just after the
Baltic ice lake had retreated from Estonia. While it is not certain
what languages were spoken by the first settlers, it is often
maintained that speakers of early
Uralic languages related to modern
Estonian had arrived in what is now
Estonia by about 5,000 years ago.
Living in the same area for more than 5,000 years would put the
Estonians among the oldest permanent inhabitants in
Europe. On the other hand, some recent linguistic estimations suggest
that Fenno-Ugrian language arrived around the
Baltic Sea considerably
later, perhaps during the
Early Bronze Age (ca. 1800 BCE).
The oldest known endonym of the
Estonians is Maarahvas. Eesti, the
modern endonym of Estonia, is thought to be derived from the word
Aestii , the name given by the ancient
Germanic people to the Baltic
people living northeast of the
Vistula River . The Roman historian
Tacitus in 98 AD was the first to mention the "Aestii" people, and
early Scandinavians called the land south of the Gulf of Finland
"Eistland" ("Eistland" is also the current word in Icelandic for
Estonia), and the people "eistr". Proto-
Estonians (as well as other
speakers of the
Finnish language group) were also called Chuds
(чудь) in Old East Slavic chronicles .
Estonian language belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic
family of languages, as does the
Finnish language . The first known
book in Estonian was printed in 1525, while the oldest known examples
of written Estonian originate in 13th-century chronicles. Estonians
are genetically closest to their neighbouring Tver region Russians and
Latvians . However,
Estonians are still the nearest genetic relatives
Although Estonian national consciousness spread in the course of the
19th century during the
Estonian national awakening , some degree of
ethnic awareness preceded this development. By the 18th century the
self-denomination eestlane spread among
Estonians along with the older
Anton thor Helle 's translation of the Bible into Estonian
appeared in 1739, and the number of books and brochures published in
Estonian increased from 18 in the 1750s to 54 in the 1790s. By the end
of the century more than a half of adult peasants could read. The
first university-educated intellectuals identifying themselves as
Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1798–1850),
Kristjan Jaak Peterson (1801–1822) and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
(1803–1882), appeared in the 1820s. The ruling elites had remained
predominantly German in language and culture since the conquest of the
early 13th century.
Garlieb Merkel (1769–1850), a Baltic-German
Estophile , became the first author to treat the
Estonians as a
nationality equal to others; he became a source of inspiration for the
Estonian national movement, modelled on Baltic German cultural world
before the middle of the 19th century. However, in the middle of the
Estonians became more ambitious and started leaning
Finns as a successful model of national movement and, to
some extent, toward the neighbouring Latvian national movement . By
the end of 1860 the
Estonians became unwilling to reconcile with
German cultural and political hegemony. Before the attempts at
Russification in the 1880s, their view of Imperial
Estonians have strong ties to the
Nordic countries stemming from
important cultural and religious influences gained over centuries
during Scandinavian and German rule and settlement. Indeed, Estonians
consider themselves Nordic rather than Baltic , in particular
because of close ethnic and linguistic affinities with the Finns.
After the Treaty of Tartu (1920) recognised Estonia's 1918
independence from Russia, ethnic
Estonians residing in
the option of opting for Estonian citizenship (those who opted were
called optandid - 'optants') and returning to their fatherland. An
Estonians lived in
Russia in 1920. In sum, 37,578
people moved from Soviet
Estonian national costumes :
Kadrina 2. Mihkli 3. Seto 4. Paistu Estonian national
Muhu 6. Karja 7. Tõstamaa 8. Pärnu-Jaagupi
World War II
World War II , when
Estonia was invaded by the Soviet Army in
1944, large numbers of
Estonians fled their homeland on ships or
smaller boats over the
Baltic Sea . Many refugees who survived the
risky sea voyage to
Germany later moved from there to Canada
United Kingdom , the
United States or
Australia . Some of these
refugees and their descendants returned to
Estonia after the nation
regained its independence in 1991.
Over the years of independence, increasing numbers of
chosen to work abroad, primarily in Finland, but also in other
European countries, making
Estonia the country with the highest
emigration rate in Europe. This is at least partly due to the easy
access to oscillating migration to Finland.
Recognising the problems arising from both low birth rate and high
emigration, the country has launched various measures to both increase
the birth rate and to lure migrant
Estonians back to Estonia. Former
Toomas Hendrik Ilves has lent his support to the campaign
Talendid koju! (Bringing talents home) which aims to coordinate and
promote the return of
Estonians who have particular skills needed in
ESTONIANS IN CANADA
The largest permanent Estonian community outside
Estonia is in Canada
with about 24,000 people (according to some sources up to 50,000
people). In the late 1940s and early 1950s, about 17,000 arrived in
Toronto is the city with the largest population of Estonians
outside of Estonia. The first Estonian World Festival was held in
Toronto in 1972. Some famous
Estonian Canadians include Endel Tulving
Elmar Tampõld .
* Demographics of
Estonian national awakening
List of Estonian Americans
* List of notable
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "Population by ethnic nationality". Statistics
Retrieved 30 March 2016.
* ^ "Tilastokeskus - Population". Retrieved 4 May 2015.
* ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more
ancestry categories reported 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year
United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2 September 2014.
* ^ A B "Canada-
Estonia Relations". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
* ^ "Eestlased Rootsis".
* ^ Об итогах Всероссийской переписи
населения 2010 года (IN RUSSIAN). RUSSIAN FEDERAL STATE
STATISTICS SERVICE. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL (PPT) ON 18 JANUARY
2012. RETRIEVED 17 MARCH 2015.
* ^ "2054.0 Australian Census Analytic Program: Australians\'
Ancestries (2001 (Corrigendum))" (PDF). Australian Bureau of
Statistics . 2001. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
* ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January
Norway . Accessed 01 May 2016.
* ^ "United Kingdom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
* ^ "The distribution of the population by nationality and mother
tongue". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. 2001.
* ^ "Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census
Night, classified by place of birth and age group". Central Statistics
Office Ireland. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011.
* ^ "Estemb in
Belgium and Luxembourg". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
* ^ http://www.statistikbanken.dk/FT
* ^ "Dialog". rannsokn.hagstofa.is.
* ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 June 2015).
Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established
Democracies and Countries in Transition. Springer. p. 131. ISBN
Estonia is considered Protestant when classified by
its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart
2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim
to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart
Estonia as a Protestant ex-Communist society.
* ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 September 2011). "Is
Estonia really the
least religious country in the world?".
The Guardian . For this
situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past
(the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German
ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain
of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia,
religion has never played an important role on the political or
ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was
dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies
that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the
state and Lutheran church ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940.
Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Virpi Laitinena; et al. (2002). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity
Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking
Forefathers" (PDF). Human Heredity. pp. 68–78.
* ^ Unrepresented Nations and peoples organization By Mary Kate
Simmons; p141 ISBN 978-90-411-0223-2
* ^ Petri Kallio 2006: Suomalais-ugrilaisen kantakielen
absoluuttisesta kronologiasta. — Virittäjä 2006. (With English
* ^ Häkkinen, Jaakko (2009). "Kantauralin ajoitus ja paikannus:
perustelut puntarissa. – Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja"
(PDF). p. 92.
* ^ A B Ariste, Paul (1956). "Maakeel ja eesti keel. Eesti NSV
Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 5: 117–24; Beyer, Jürgen (2007). Ist
maarahvas (‚Landvolk'), die alte Selbstbezeichnung der Esten, eine
Lehnübersetzung? Eine Studie zur Begriffsgeschichte des Ostseeraums".
Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung . 56: 566–593.
* ^ Nelis, Mari; et al. (2009). "Genetic Structure of Europeans: A
View from the North–East".
PLOS ONE . 5 (3). doi
* ^ Gellner, Ernest (1996). "Do nations have navels?". Nations and
Nationalism . 2 (2): 365–70.
* ^ A B Raun, Toivo U (2003). "Nineteenth- and early
twentieth-century Estonian nationalism revisited". Nations and
Nationalism . 9 (1): 129–147. doi :10.1111/1469-8219.00078 .
* ^ Piirimäe, Helmut. Historical heritage: the relations between
Estonia and her Nordic neighbors. In M. Lauristin et al. (eds.),
Return to the Western world: Cultural and political perspectives on
the Estonian post-communist transition. Tartu: Tartu University Press,
* ^ Estonian foreign ministry report, 2004
* ^ Estonian foreign ministry report, 2002
* ^ Лоткин И.В. "Оптационная кампания и
эвакуация граждан прибалтийских
государств на историческую родину в
начале 1920-х годов" (PDF). library.krasu.ru (in Russian).
* ^ Past, E. (2015). By Land and By Sea. booklocker.com.
* ^ "The CIA World Factbook Country Comparison of net migration
* ^ "Toome talendid Eestimaale tagasi - Talendid Koju!".
* ^ "Estonian Embassy in Ottawa". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
* ^ "The Estonian Presence in Toronto". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
* Petersoo, Pille (January 2007). "Reconsidering otherness:
constructing Estonian identity". Nations and Nationalism . 13 (1):
117–133. doi :10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00276.x .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PEOPLE OF ESTONIA .
* Office of the Minister for Population and Ethnic Affairs:
Estonia To Thirlmere