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Essex
Essex
/ˈɛsɪks/ is a county in the East of England. Immediately north east of London, it is one of the home counties. It borders the counties of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
to the north, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the west, Kent
Kent
across the estuary of the River Thames
River Thames
to the south and London
London
to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, which is the only city in the county. Essex
Essex
occupies the eastern part of the former Kingdom of Essex, which subsequently united with the other Anglian and Saxon
Saxon
kingdoms to make England
England
a single nation state. As well as rural areas, the county also includes London
London
Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon
Basildon
and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury
Tilbury
and the borough of Southend-on-Sea.

Contents

1 History

1.1 County-wide administration 1.2 Parish-level administration – changes 1.3 Boundaries 1.4 Two unitary authorities

2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Politics

4.1 Westminster and the 2016 EU referendum 4.2 Essex
Essex
County
County
Council

4.2.1 Youth councils

4.3 Local government

5 Transport 6 Education 7 Culture 8 Sport 9 Landmarks 10 Places of interest 11 Notable people 12 Sister counties and regions 13 See also 14 Notes and references 15 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Essex The name Essex
Essex
originates in the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
(Old English) name Ēastseaxe ("East Saxons"), the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain (cf. Middlesex, Sussex and Wessex) during the Heptarchy. Originally recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what later became Middlesex
Middlesex
(which probably included Surrey) and most of what later became Hertfordshire. Its territory was later restricted to lands east of the River Lea.[2] Colchester
Colchester
in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum
Camulodunum
and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent
Kent
were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex
Essex
became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested.[3] Gradually, the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Chelmsford, Epping, Hatfield, Ongar and Waltham.[4] County-wide administration[edit] Essex County Council
Essex County Council
was formed in 1889. However, County
County
Boroughs of West Ham (1889–1965), Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
(1914–1974)[5] and East Ham (1915–1965) formed part of the county but were unitary authorities (not under county council control).[6] 12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections, leisure and planning, as shown in the map on the right. Parish-level administration – changes[edit] A few Essex
Essex
parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer, Kedington
Kedington
and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk; and Great Chishill, Little Chishill and Heydon were transferred to Cambridgeshire. Later, part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall
Chrishall
were transferred to Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; and several other small parcels of land were transferred to all those counties. Boundaries[edit] The boundary with Greater London
London
was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Chingford, Dagenham, Hornchurch, Ilford, Leyton, Romford, Walthamstow and Wanstead and Woodford districts[6] were transferred to form the London
London
boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest. Essex
Essex
became part of the East of England
England
Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having previously been part of the South East England
England
region. Two unitary authorities[edit] In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
and Thurrock
Thurrock
were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex
Essex
after successful requests to become unitary authorities (numbered 13 and 14 on the map to the right).[7][8] Essex Police
Essex Police
covers the administrative county and the two unitary authorities.[9] The county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County
County
Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council regularly met in London
London
near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county. It currently has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100. The County
County
Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates largely from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period, mostly the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. Geography[edit] See also: List of places in Essex, List of settlements in Essex
Essex
by population, and Geology of Essex The highest point of the county of Essex
Essex
is Chrishall
Chrishall
Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
border, which reaches 482 feet (147 m). The ceremonial county of Essex
Essex
is bounded to the south by the River Thames
River Thames
and its estuary (a boundary shared with Kent); to the southwest by Greater London; to the west by Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
with the boundary largely defined by the River Lea
River Lea
and the Stort; to the northwest by Cambridgeshire; to the north by Suffolk, a boundary mainly defined by the River Stour; and to the east by the North Sea. The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has effectively prevented the further sprawl of London
London
into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon
Basildon
and Harlow, originally developed to resettle Londoners following the destruction of London
London
housing in the Second World War, since which they have been significantly developed and expanded. Epping Forest
Epping Forest
also prevents the further spread of the Greater London
London
Urban Area. Because of its proximity to London
London
and the economic magnetism which that city exerts, many of Essex's settlements, particularly those on or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London
London
workers raise their families.

The village of Finchingfield
Finchingfield
in north Essex

Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the major population centres of Basildon, Southend and Thurrock, is within the Thames Gateway
Thames Gateway
and designated for further development. Parts of the southwest of the county, such as Buckhurst Hill
Buckhurst Hill
and Chigwell, are contiguous with Greater London
London
neighbourhoods and therefore form part of the Greater London
London
Urban Area. A small part of the southwest of the county (Sewardstone), is the only settlement outside Greater London
London
to be covered by a postcode district of the London
London
post town (E4). To the north of the green belt, with the exception of major towns such as Colchester, Chelmsford
Chelmsford
and Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
the county is rural, with many small towns, villages and hamlets largely built in the traditional materials of timber and brick, with clay tile or thatched roofs. Economy[edit] Industry is largely limited to the south of the county, with the majority of the land elsewhere being given over to agriculture. Harlow is a centre for electronics, science and pharmaceutical companies. Chelmsford
Chelmsford
has been an important location for electronics companies, such as the Marconi Company, since the industry was born; it is also the location for a number of insurance and financial services organisations, and until 2015 was the home of the soft drinks producer Britvic. Basildon
Basildon
is home to New Holland Agriculture's European headquarters, and Brentwood is home to the Ford Motor Company's British HQ. Debden, near Loughton, is home to a production facility for British and foreign banknotes. Other businesses in the county are dominated by mechanical engineering, including but not limited to metalworking, glassmaking and plastics and the service sector. Colchester
Colchester
is a garrison town, and the local economy is helped by the Army's personnel living there. Basildon
Basildon
is the location of State Street Corporation's United Kingdom HQ International Financial Data Services, and remains heavily dependent on London
London
for employment, due to its proximity and direct transport routes. Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
is home to the Adventure Island theme park and is one of the few still growing British Seaside resorts, benefiting from direct, modern rail links from Fenchurch Street railway station and Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station
(placing housing in high demand, especially for financial services commuters), which thereby maintains the town's commercial and general economy. Parts of eastern Essex
Essex
suffer from high levels of deprivation; one of the most highly deprived wards is in the seaside town of Clacton.[10] In the Indices of deprivation 2007, Jaywick
Jaywick
was identified as the most deprived Lower Super Output Area in Southern England.[11] Unemployment was estimated at 44% and many homes were found to lack severely basic amenities. The Brooklands and Grasslands area of Jaywick
Jaywick
were found to be the third-most deprived area in England; two areas in Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
were rated more deprived. In contrast, west and south-west Essex
Essex
is one of the most affluent parts of eastern England, forming part of the London
London
commuter belt. There is a large middle class here, and the area is widely known for its private schools. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph found Ingatestone
Ingatestone
and Brentwood to be the 14th- and 19th-richest towns in the UK respectively.[12] Politics[edit] Westminster and the 2016 EU referendum[edit] Essex
Essex
is a strongly Conservative county, and 15 of its 18 constituency MPs have absolute majorities (over 50%) as of the 2017 UK general election. Despite the 18 Conservative MPs in Essex, the county has also witnessed several of its constituencies vote for the Labour Party: most recently, Thurrock, Harlow
Harlow
and Basildon
Basildon
in Labour's 2005 election victory. The Liberal Democrats, until 2015 had a sizeable following in Essex, gaining Colchester
Colchester
in the 1997 general election.

Results of the 2017 UK general Election in Essex

The 2015 general election saw a large vote in Essex
Essex
for the UK Independence Party (UKIP), with its only MP, Douglas Carswell, retaining the seat of Clacton that he had won in a 2014 by-election, and other strong performances, notably in Thurrock
Thurrock
and Castle Point. Following the 2017 general election, UKIP's vote share plummeted by 15.6% seeing both Conservative and Labour vote shares rise significantly by 9%. This resulted in Labour regaining second place in Essex, increasing their vote share across the county and cutting some Conservative majorities in areas which had been unaffected by the 1997 general election, namely Rochford
Rochford
and Southend East and Southend West. The most Conservative seat according to the vote share is Saffron Walden with almost 62% of the electorate voting Conservative. In contrast, Thurrock
Thurrock
is the most marginal seat. In 2015, Thurrock epitomised a 3-party race with UKIP, Labour and the Conservatives gaining 30%, 31% and 32% respectively. In 2017, the Conservatives held Thurrock
Thurrock
with an increased share of the vote, but smaller margin of victory. It remains the constituency in which UKIP
UKIP
performed best in 2017, with the party gaining 20% of the vote where all other areas had been reduced to low single figure vote shares. A new host of MPs were elected in the 2017 election, namely Alex Burghart, Vicky Ford, Giles Watling
Giles Watling
and Kemi Badenoch
Kemi Badenoch
all replacing senior Conservative politicians such as Sir Eric Pickles, Sir Simon Burns, Douglas Carswell
Douglas Carswell
and Sir Alan Haselhurst, respectively. In the EU referendum, Essex
Essex
voted overwhelmingly to leave the EU, with all 14 District Council areas voting to leave, the smallest margin being in Uttlesford.[13]

e • d  2017 UK general election in Essex

Party Votes cast % Seats

2010 2015 2017 ± 2010 2015 2017 ± 2010 2015 2017 ±

Conservative 417,156 436,758 528,949 92,191 49.2 49.6 59.0 9.4 17 17 18 1

Labour 157,134 171,026 261,671 90,645 18.5 19.4 29.2 9.8 0 0 0

Liberal Democrat 180,391 58,592 46,254 12,338 21.3 6.6 5.1 1.5 1 0 0

UKIP 35,150 177,756 41,478 136,278 4.1 20.2 4.6 15.6 0 1 0 1

Green 8,080 25,993 12,343 13,650 1.0 3.0 1.3 1.7 0 0 0

Independents 15,651 6,919 4,179 2,740 1.8 0.7 0.4 0.3 0 0 0

BNP 29,030 108 640 532 3.4 0.01 0.07 0.06 0 0 0

Christian People's 267 189 318 129 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.01 0 0 0

English Democrats 4,130 453 289 164 0.4 0.05 0.03 0.02 0 0 0

YPP N/A 80 110 30 N/A 0 0.01 0.01 0 0 0

Total 847,090 879,918 896,231

100% 100% 100%

18 18 18

Essex
Essex
County
County
Council[edit] This is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of Essex
Essex
in England. It has 75 councillors, elected from 70 divisions, some of which elect more than one member, and is currently controlled by the Conservative Party.[2] The council meets at County
County
Hall in the centre of Chelmsford. At the time of the 2011 census it served a population of 1,393,600, which makes it one of the largest local authorities in England. As a non-metropolitan county council, responsibilities are shared between districts (including boroughs) and in many areas also between civil parish (including town) councils. Births, marriages/civil partnerships and death registration, roads, libraries and archives, refuse disposal, most of state education, of social services and of transport are provided at the county level.[3] The county council was formed in 1889, governing the administrative county of Essex. The county council was reconstituted in 1974 as a non-metropolitan county council, regaining jurisdiction in Southend-on-Sea; however, the non-metropolitan county was reduced in size in 1998 and the council passed responsibilities to Southend-on-Sea Borough Council
Southend-on-Sea Borough Council
and Thurrock Council
Thurrock Council
in those districts. For certain services the three authorities co-operate through joint arrangements, such as the Essex
Essex
fire authority.

Composition of the Essex County Council
Essex County Council
in 2017 after the county election

At the 2013 County
County
Council elections the Conservative Party retained overall control of the council, but its majority fell from twenty-two to four councillors. UKIP, Labour and the Liberal Democrats each won nine seats. Of the three second-placed parties who won nine seats, UKIP
UKIP
gained the largest share of the county-wide vote, more than 10% ahead of Labour.[3] The Liberal Democrats remain as the official Opposition, despite winning fewer votes.[3] The Green Party gained two seats on the Council, despite its overall share of the vote falling. The Independent Loughton
Loughton
Residents Association and the Canvey Island Independent Party both returned one member and an Independent candidate was also elected. The 2017 County
County
Council elections saw a county-wide wipeout of UKIP. The Conservative Party profited most from this loss, regaining many of the seats it had lost at the previous election. Labour, despite a slight rise in its share of the vote, returned with fewer councillors. The Liberal Democrats also saw a notable revival, but were unable to translate this into seats. The Conservatives retained firm control of the council. The next election will be in 2021. The county of Essex
Essex
is divided into 12 district and borough councils with 2 unitary authorities (Southend on Sea and Thurrock). The 12 councils manage housing, local planning, refuse collection, street cleaning, elections and meet in their respective civic offices. The local representatives are elected in parts in local elections, held every year.[14] With regard to the two unitary authorities, the county council is not used to conduct business, but works closely with the unitary authorities to deliver the “best value service” to all residents.

e • d  2017 Essex County Council
Essex County Council
election

Party Votes cast % Seats

2009 2013 2017 ± 2009 2013 2017 ± 2009 2013 2017 ±

Conservative 169,975 112,229 184,901 72,672 43.3 34.4 49.3 14.9 60 42 56 14

Labour 42,334 57,290 63,470 6,180 10.8 16.4 16.9 0.5 1 9 6 3

Liberal Democrat 79,085 35,651 51,524 15,873 20.1 11.6 13.7 2.1 12 9 7 2

UKIP 18,186 90,812 29,796 61,016 4.6 27.6 7.9 19.7 0 9 0 9

Green 26,547 15,187 15,187

6.8 4.8 4.3 0.5 0 2 1 1

Independents 5,845 4,631 12,506 7,875 1.5 0.6 2.4 1.8 0 1 2 1

Residents for Uttlesford N/A N/A 5,231

N/A N/A 1.4

0 0*(1) 0 1

Canvey Island
Canvey Island
Independents 1,655 2,777 3,654 877 0.4 0.9 1.0 0.1 1 1 2 1

Loughton
Loughton
Residents 2,764 3,286 2,824 462 0.7 1.1 0.8 0.3 1 1 1

Tendring
Tendring
First 5,866 4,093 1,332 2,761 1.5 1.4 0.4 1.0 0 0 0

BNP 35,037 909 847 62 8.9 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0

English Democrats 5,212 835 58 164 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.3 0 0 0

TUSC N/A 431 N/A

N/A 0.1 N/A

0 0 0

National Front N/A 304 N/A

N/A 0.1 N/A

0 0 0

Total 392,506 328,435 372,834

100% 100% 100%

75 75 75

Youth councils[edit] The Essex County Council
Essex County Council
also has a Youth Assembly, 75 members aged between 11 and 19 who aim to represent all young people in their districts across Essex. They decide on the priorities for young people and campaign to make a difference.[15] With this, some district and unitary authorities may have their own youth councils, such as Epping Forest,[16] Uttlesford[17] and Harlow.[18] All these councilors are elected by their schools. The elections to the Young Essex
Essex
Assembly occur in the respective schools in which the candidates are standing, likewise for the youth councils at a district and unitary level. These young people will then go on to represent their school and their parish/ward or (in the case of the Young Essex Assembly) their entire district. The initiative seeks to engage younger people in the county and rely on the youth councilors of all status to work closely with schools and youth centers to improve youth services in Essex
Essex
and help promote the opinions of the Essex
Essex
youth generation.[citation needed] Local government[edit] Town and parish councils vary in size from those with a population of around 200 to those with a population of over 30,000. Annual expenditure can vary greatly, depending on the circumstances of the individual council. Parish
Parish
and town councils (local councils) have the same powers and duties, but a town council may elect a town mayor, rather than a chairman, each year in May. There are just under 300 town and parish councils within Essex.[14] Local councils play a vital role in representing the interests of their communities and improving the quality of life and the local environment. They can also influence other decision makers and can deliver services to meet local needs. Their powers and duties range from maintaining allotments and open spaces, to crime prevention and providing recreation facilities. Local councils have the right to become statutory consultees at both district and county level and, although the decision remains with the planning authorities, local councils can influence the decision-making process by making informed comments and recommendations.[14] Transport[edit]

London
London
Stansted Airport, in the north west of the county

The main airport in Essex
Essex
is London
London
Stansted Airport, serving destinations in Europe, North Africa and Asia.[19] The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government formed in May 2010 agreed not to allow a further runway until a set time period,[when?] so curtailing the operator's ambitions for expansion. London
London
Southend Airport, once one of Britain's busiest airports, opened a new runway extension, terminal building and railway station in March 2012.[20] It has a station on the Shenfield to Southend Line, with a direct link to London. Southend Airport has scheduled flights to Ireland, the Channel Islands and multiple destinations in Europe. Essex
Essex
has several smaller airfields, some of which owe their origins to military bases built during World War I or World War II, giving pleasure flights or flying lessons; these include Clacton Airfield, Earls Colne Airfield, and Stapleford Aerodrome. The Port of Tilbury
Tilbury
is one of Britain's three major ports, while the port of Harwich
Harwich
has passenger and freight services to the Hook of Holland and a freight service to Europoort. A service to Esbjerg, Denmark ceased in September 2014[21] and earlier a service to Cuxhaven in Germany
Germany
was discontinued in December 2005. The UK's largest container terminal London
London
Gateway at Shell Haven
Shell Haven
in Thurrock
Thurrock
partly opened in November 2013; final completion date is yet to be confirmed.[22] The port was opposed by the local authority and environmental and wildlife organisations.[23][24][25]

Queen Elizabeth II Bridge spanning the Thames from West Thurrock, Essex, to Dartford, Kent

East of the Dartford
Dartford
Road Crossing to Dartford, Kent, across the Thames Estuary, a pedestrians ferry to Gravesend, Kent
Kent
operates from Tilbury
Tilbury
during limited daily hours, and there are pedestrian ferries across some of Essex's rivers and estuaries in spring and summer. The M25 and M11 motorway
M11 motorway
both cross the county in the extreme south and west, enabling regular commuting to/from parts of the county with Kent, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
and Cambridge. The A127 and A13 trunk roads are important radial routes connecting London
London
and the M25 to the south of Essex. The A12 runs across the county from south west to north east and carries traffic not just within Essex
Essex
but also between London
London
and Suffolk, east Norfolk
Norfolk
and the ports of Felixstowe and Harwich. Rail goods have several ports and dedicated lines within Essex.[26] Much of Essex
Essex
lies within the London
London
commuter belt. Abellio Greater Anglia (run by Abellio, the international arm of Nederlandse Spoorwegen) is the key railway operator in the county, providing commuter services into London
London
Liverpool
Liverpool
Street and regional services throughout the East of England. The main railway routes in Essex include:

Three lines from the City of London
London
to Southend-on-Sea: two operated by c2c from Fenchurch Street railway station
Fenchurch Street railway station
(one route via Tilbury) and by Abellio Greater Anglia
Abellio Greater Anglia
from Liverpool
Liverpool
Street station; The Great Eastern Main Line
Great Eastern Main Line
from Liverpool
Liverpool
Street to Suffolk
Suffolk
and Norfolk
Norfolk
and to the international port at Harwich
Harwich
International; The West Anglia Main Line
West Anglia Main Line
from Liverpool
Liverpool
Street to London
London
Stansted Airport and onward to Cambridgeshire.

The southern part of Epping Forest
Epping Forest
district is served by the London Underground Central line. The routes operated by Abellio Greater Anglia were operated by National Express East Anglia
National Express East Anglia
and were previously branded as 'One'. Branch lines include:

The Sunshine Coast Line
Sunshine Coast Line
linking Colchester
Colchester
to the seaside resorts of Clacton-on-Sea
Clacton-on-Sea
and Walton-on-the-Naze
Walton-on-the-Naze
via the picturesque towns of Wivenhoe
Wivenhoe
and Great Bentley. The Crouch Valley Line
Crouch Valley Line
linking Wickford
Wickford
to Southminster
Southminster
via the riverside communities including South Woodham Ferrers
South Woodham Ferrers
and Burnham-on-Crouch.[27]

South Essex
Essex
Rapid Transit is a proposed public transport scheme which would provide a fast, reliable public transport service in and between Thurrock, Basildon
Basildon
and Southend.[28] Education[edit] Further information: List of schools in Essex, List of schools in Southend-on-Sea, List of schools in Thurrock, and List of primary schools in Essex Education in Essex
Essex
is substantially provided by three authorities: Essex County Council
Essex County Council
and the two unitary authorities, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. In all there are some 90 state secondary schools provided by these authorities, the majority of which are comprehensive, although one in Uttlesford, two in Chelmsford, two in Colchester
Colchester
and four in Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
are selective grammar schools. There are also various independent schools particularly, as mentioned above, in rural parts and the west of the county.[29][30] The University of Essex, which was established in 1963, is located just outside Colchester, with two further campuses in Loughton
Loughton
and Southend-on-Sea. University Campus Suffolk, with a main campus in Ipswich
Ipswich
and five centres in the counties of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk, is a joint venture between University of Essex
University of Essex
and East Anglia polytechnic. Culture[edit]

Depiction of the first king of the East Saxons, Æscwine, his shield showing the three seaxes emblem attributed to him (from John Speed's 1611 Saxon
Saxon
Heptarchy)

The county's coat of arms comprises three Saxon
Saxon
seax knives (although they look rather more like scimitars), mainly white and pointing to the right (sic), arranged vertically one above another on a red background (Gules three Seaxes fessewise in pale Argent pomels and hilts Or points to the sinister and cutting edges upwards); the three-seax device is also used as the official logo of Essex
Essex
County Council having been granted as such in 1932.[31] The emblem was attributed to Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Essex
Essex
in Early Modern historiography. The earliest reference to the arms of the East Saxon
Saxon
kings was by Richard Verstegan, the author of A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (Antwerp, 1605), claiming that " Erkenwyne
Erkenwyne
king of the East-Saxons did beare for his armes, three [seaxes] argent, in a field gules". There is no earlier evidence substantiating Verstegan's claim, which is an anachronism for the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period seeing that heraldry only evolved in the 12th century, well after the Norman conquest. John Speed in his Historie of Great Britaine (1611) follows Verstegan in his descriptions of the arms of Erkenwyne, but he qualifies the statement by adding "as some or our heralds have emblazed".[31]

The Hay Wain
The Hay Wain
by John Constable
John Constable
shows the Essex
Essex
landscape on the right bank.

Essex
Essex
is also home to the Dunmow Flitch Trials, a traditional ceremony that takes place every four years and consists of a test of a married couple's devotion to one another. A common claim of the origin of the Dunmow Flitch dates back to 1104 and the Augustinian
Augustinian
priory of Little Dunmow, founded by Lady Juga Baynard. Lord of the Manor Reginald Fitzwalter and his wife dressed themselves as humble folk and begged blessing of the Prior a year and a day after marriage. The prior, impressed by their devotion, bestowed upon them a flitch of bacon. Upon revealing his true identity, Fitzwalter gave his land to the priory on condition that a flitch should be awarded to any couple who could claim they were similarly devoted. By the 14th century, the Dunmow Flitch Trials appear to have achieved a significant reputation outside the local area. The author William Langland, who lived on the Welsh borders, mentions it in his 1362 book The Vision of Piers Plowman in a manner that implies general knowledge of the custom among his readers.[32] The Essex
Essex
dialect, an accent related to the Suffolk
Suffolk
dialect, was formerly prevalent in the county but has now been mostly replaced by Estuary English. Sport[edit] Essex
Essex
is home to two English Football League
English Football League
teams: Southend United and Colchester
Colchester
United. Both teams have reached as high as the Championship (the second tier of English football) at some point in their history. As of 2017-18 Southend United
Southend United
are in League One, while Colchester
Colchester
United are in League Two. Braintree Town, Chelmsford
Chelmsford
City, Concord Rangers and East Thurrock
Thurrock
United are the next highest placed football teams, playing in the National League South, while the highest domestic trophy for non-league teams, the FA Trophy, has been won on four occasions by Essex
Essex
teams: most recently by Grays
Grays
Athletic in 2005-06. Essex
Essex
County
County
Cricket Club became a First-Class County
County
in 1894. The county has won 7 County
County
Championship league titles; 6 of these were won during the dominant period between 1979 and 1992, with a gap of 25 years before the county's next title in 2017. The County
County
is also home to the Lakeside Hammers
Lakeside Hammers
speedway team (formerly Arena Essex
Essex
Hammers), the Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Chieftains ice hockey team and the Essex Leopards
Essex Leopards
basketball team. It has previously been home to the Essex
Essex
Eels rugby league team, as well as the Essex
Essex
Pirates basketball team. During the 2012 London
London
Olympics, Hadleigh Farm
Hadleigh Farm
played host to the mountain bike races. Essex
Essex
has one horse racing venue, Chelmsford
Chelmsford
City Racecourse at Great Leighs, and horse racing also took place at Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Racecourse in Galleywood
Galleywood
until 1935. The county has one current greyhound racing track, Harlow
Harlow
Stadium. Rayleigh Weir Stadium and Southend Stadium are former greyhound venues. Team Essex Volleyball Club
Team Essex Volleyball Club
is Chelmsford's national league volleyball club. It has four teams which play in Volleyball England's national volleyball league. Its Men's 1st team currently competes in the top division in the country, the Super 8s while the Women's 1st team competes one tier below the men. The club has a strong junior program and trains in The Boswells School in Chelmsford. Many famous sports stars have come from or trained in Essex. These have included swimmer Mark Foster; cricket stars Trevor Bailey, Alastair Cook
Alastair Cook
and Graham Gooch; footballers Peter Taylor, James Tomkins, Justin Edinburgh, Nigel Spink; tennis stars John Lloyd and David Lloyd; Olympic Gold-winning gymnast Max Whitlock; Olympic sailing champion Saskia Clark; World Champion snooker stars Stuart Bingham and Steve Davis; world champion boxers Terry Marsh and Frank Bruno; London
London
Marathon winner Eamonn Martin; international rugby players Malcolm O'Kelly
Malcolm O'Kelly
and Stuart Barnes; Formula 1 sports car drivers Johnny Herbert
Johnny Herbert
and Perry McCarthy. Landmarks[edit] Over 14,000 buildings have listed status in the county, and around 1000 of those are recognised as of Grade I or II* importance.[33] The buildings range from the 7th century Saxon
Saxon
church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, to the Royal Corinthian Yacht Club
Royal Corinthian Yacht Club
which was the United Kingdom's entry in the "International Exhibition of Modern Architecture" held at the Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
in New York City in 1932. Southend Pier
Southend Pier
is in the Guinness Book of Records
Guinness Book of Records
as the longest pleasure pier in the world.

The church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-on-Sea

The Grade I listed Hedingham Castle, with the best preserved Norman keep in the UK

Thaxted
Thaxted
Guildhall, dating from around 1450

The 17th century Audley End
Audley End
House, Saffron Walden

Royal Corinthian Yacht Club, Burnham-on-Crouch

Colchester
Colchester
Castle, Colchester

Hylands House, south of Writtle
Writtle
and south-west of Chelmsford

Southend Pier, Southend-on-Sea

Places of interest[edit] Main article: List of places of interest in Essex

Key

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Skyline of Southend-on-Sea

Abberton Reservoir Ashdon
Ashdon
(The site of the ancient Bartlow Hills
Bartlow Hills
and also a claimant as the location of the Battle of Ashingdon) Ashingdon
Ashingdon
(The site of the Battle of Ashingdon
Battle of Ashingdon
in 1016), near Southend, with its isolated St Andrews Church and site of England's earliest aerodrome at South Fambridge Audley End House
Audley End House
and Gardens, Saffron Walden
Saffron Walden
Brentwood Cathedral
Brentwood Cathedral
Clacton-on-Sea Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Cathedral Colchester
Colchester
Castle [34] Colchester
Colchester
Zoo Colne Valley Railway
Colne Valley Railway
Cressing Temple East Anglian Railway Museum
East Anglian Railway Museum
Epping Forest Epping Ongar Railway
Epping Ongar Railway
Finchingfield
Finchingfield
(home of the author Dodie Smith) Frinton-on-Sea Great Bentley, which has the largest village green in England[citation needed] Hadleigh Castle Harlow
Harlow
New Town Hedingham Castle, between Stansted and Colchester, to the north of Braintree Ingatestone
Ingatestone
Hall, Ingatestone, between Brentwood and Chelmsford Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker Lakeside Shopping Centre Loughton, near Epping Forest Maldon historic market town, close to Chelmsford
Chelmsford
and the North Sea, and site of the Battle of Maldon Mangapps Railway Museum
Mangapps Railway Museum
(Burnham-on-Crouch) Marsh Farm Country Park (South Woodham Ferrers) Mersea Island, birdwatching and rambling resort with one settlement, West Mersea Mistley Towers, Manningtree, between Colchester
Colchester
and Ipswich, near Alton Water. Mountfitchet Castle , Stansted North Weald Airfield Orsett Hall
Orsett Hall
Hotel, Prince Charles Avenue, Orsett
Orsett
near Chadwell St Mary St Peter-on-the-Wall
St Peter-on-the-Wall
Saffron Walden
Saffron Walden
Southend Pier Thames Estuary
Thames Estuary
Tilbury
Tilbury
Fort Thaxted, south of Saffron Walden Thurrock
Thurrock
Thameside Nature Park University of Essex
University of Essex
( Wivenhoe
Wivenhoe
Park, Colchester
Colchester
and Loughton) Waltham Abbey

Notable people[edit] Further information: Category:People from Essex Sister counties and regions[edit]

Jiangsu, China Picardy, France Thuringia, Germany Henrico County, Virginia, United States Accra, Ghana

See also[edit]

Essex
Essex
girl The Earl of Essex List of Lord Lieutenants of Essex Healthcare in Essex List of High Sheriffs of Essex Custos Rotulorum of Essex – Keepers of the Rolls Historical list of MPs of Essex
Essex
constituency Q Camp: WWII camp in Essex List of civil parishes in England The Only Way Is Essex List of Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest in Essex Essex
Essex
Police Essex Police
Essex Police
and Crime Commissioner

Notes and references[edit]

^ " Essex
Essex
2017/2018". High Sheriff's Association of England
England
and Wales. Retrieved 9 June 2017.  ^ Vision of Britain Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Essex
Essex
ancient county boundaries map ^ The Free Dictionary – definition ^ Raymond Grant (1991). The royal forests of England. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-781-X. 086299781X.  see table, p224 for Essex
Essex
Stanestreet and p221-229 for details of each forest ^ Vision of Britain Archived 14 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. – Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
MB/CB ^ a b Vision of Britain Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Essex
Essex
admin county (historic map Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ Essex County Council
Essex County Council
– District or Borough Councils ^ OPSI – The Essex
Essex
(Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
and Thurrock
Thurrock
and District of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 ^ OPSI – The Essex
Essex
(Police Area and Authority) Order 1997 ^ "Did you know deprivation in Chelmsford
Chelmsford
Diocese". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2016.  ^ "Jackwich: Village 'third most deprived area in UK'". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2016.  ^ "Britain's richest towns: 20 – 11". The Daily Telegraph. London. 18 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014.  ^ "Recap: EU referendum 2016 Essex
Essex
reaction to historic Brexit vote". Essex
Essex
Live. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ a b c "Local government structure". www.essex.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "About us". www.young-essex-assembly.org.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ Warr, Mike. "Youth Council". www.eppingforestdc.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ R4U (14 December 2016). "Residents for Uttlesford
Uttlesford
[R4U] R4U's Uttlesford
Uttlesford
Youth Council initiative gets green light". Residents for Uttlesford. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "Youth Council Harlow
Harlow
Council". www.harlow.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ Cheap flights from London
London
Stansted to Sharm El Sheikh. easyJet.com (17 February 2013). Retrieved on 17 July 2013. ^ Topham, Gwyn (5 March 2012). " London
London
Southend airport: flying under the radar (and to the left of the pier)". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ "DFDS Harwich
Harwich
to Esbjerg ferry route's final journey - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 16 September 2017.  ^ " London
London
Gateway : Home". www.londongateway.com. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ Portswatch: Current Port Proposals: London
London
Gateway (Shell Haven). Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ Thurrock
Thurrock
Council. (26 February 2003). Shell Haven
Shell Haven
public inquiry opens Archived 15 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ Dredging News Online. (18 May 2008). Harbour Development, Shell Haven, UK. Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ "OS Maps - online and App mapping system Ordnance Survey Shop". getamap.ordnancesurvey.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ "National Rail Enquiries - Official source for UK train times and timetables". www.nationalrail.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ "FAQs". www.sert.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Essex
Essex
County
County
Council. (2006). Secondary School Information. Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ independent schools Directory. (2009). Independent Schools in Essex. Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ a b Robert Young. (2009). Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales. Essex. Retrieved 16 April 2009. ^ "Dunmow Flitch Trials - History - Background". www.dunmowflitchtrials.co.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ Bettley, James. (2008). Essex
Essex
Explored: Essex
Essex
Architecture. Essex County
County
Council. Retrieved 15 April 2009. ^ " Colchester
Colchester
Castle Museum-Index". Colchestermuseums.org.uk. Archived from the original on 12 April 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Essex.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Essex
Essex
(England).

Essex
Essex
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Essex
Essex
Wildlife Trust Visit Essex Essex
Essex
County
County
Council Essex
Essex
Weather Centre Weather forecasts part-funded by Essex
Essex
County Council Seax
Seax
Essex
Essex
Archives Online Images of Essex
Essex
at the English Heritage
English Heritage
Archive

Neighbouring counties

Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
/ Suffolk Suffolk

Hertfordshire

Essex

North Sea

Greater London Kent Thames Estuary

v t e

1974–1996 ←   Ceremonial counties of England   → current

Bedfordshire Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire

v t e

Ceremonial county
Ceremonial county
of Essex

Unitary authorities

Southend-on-Sea Thurrock

Boroughs or districts

Basildon Braintree Brentwood Castle Point Chelmsford Colchester Epping Forest Harlow Maldon Rochford Tendring Uttlesford

Major settlements

Aveley Basildon Billericay Braintree Brentwood Brightlingsea Buckhurst Hill Burnham-on-Crouch Canvey Island Chelmsford Chigwell Chipping Ongar Clacton-on-Sea Coggeshall Colchester Corringham Dovercourt Eastwood Epping Frinton-on-Sea Grays Great Dunmow Hadleigh Halstead Harlow Harwich Holland-on-Sea Leigh-on-Sea Loughton Maldon Manningtree Pitsea Purfleet Rayleigh Rochford Saffron Walden Shoeburyness South Benfleet Southend-on-Sea South Woodham Ferrers Southminster Stanford-le-Hope Thaxted Tilbury Waltham Abbey Walton-on-the-Naze West Mersea West Thurrock Wickford Witham Wivenhoe

Rivers

Blackwater Brain Cam Can Chelmer Ching Cobbins Brook Colne Crouch River Lea River Lee Flood Relief Channel Mardyke Pincey Brook Prittle Brook Roach Roding Roman Stort Stour Stour Brook Ter Thames

Topics

Flag Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sherif

.