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English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In the 2014 American Community Survey, English Americans
Americans
are (7.6%) of the total population.[5] However, demographers regard this as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans
Americans
from English stock have a tendency (since the introduction of a new "American" category in the 2000 census) to identify simply as "Americans"[6][7][8][9] or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[10] In the 1980 United States
United States
Census, over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans
Americans
claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States.[11] Eight out of the ten most common surnames in the United States
United States
are of English origin or having possible mixed British Isles
British Isles
heritage, the other two being of Spanish origin.[12] Scots-Irish Americans
Americans
are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English (specifically: County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland
Northumberland
and Yorkshire) settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
in the 17th century. In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations.[13] The overwhelming majority of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America were of English extraction, including Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison[14] and Thomas Jefferson (however Jefferson's father was of immigrant parents said to have come from the Snowdonia
Snowdonia
district of North Wales[15]). Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
was also of English descent. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity. They began migrating in large numbers without state support.[16]

Contents

1 Sense of identity 2 Number of English Americans

2.1 Colonial era 1700-1775

3 Colonial regions and census

3.1 1790 Census 3.2 2000 Census 3.3 English expatriates 3.4 Distribution 3.5 States 3.6 Cities

4 History

4.1 Early settlement and colonization 4.2 English immigration after 1776

5 Political involvement

5.1 Colonial period 5.2 The Founding Fathers 5.3 Influence

6 Language

6.1 Expressions

7 Cultural influences

7.1 Cuisine 7.2 Celebrations 7.3 Sports 7.4 Music

8 English family names 9 English place names in the United States

9.1 Alabama 9.2 California 9.3 Delaware 9.4 Georgia 9.5 Maryland 9.6 Massachusetts 9.7 New Hampshire 9.8 New Jersey 9.9 New York 9.10 Pennsylvania 9.11 The Carolinas 9.12 Virginia

10 Architecture 11 Law 12 Notable people

12.1 Presidents of English descent

13 See also 14 References

Sense of identity[edit] Americans
Americans
of English heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England
England
and the U.S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements; as well as to non-English groups having emigrated in order to establish significant communities.[17] In the succeeding years since the founding of the United States
United States
of America, English- Americans
Americans
have been less likely to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans
Americans
or other ethnic groups. While there may be many reasons for this, after centuries of intermarriage and internal geographic mobility, many are unable to determine a specific English origin. For these reasons, no other part of the pluralist American society is so difficult to describe as a separate entity as the English. English immigrants were and are often seen as an invisible ethnic group, due to the length of time their ancestors may have been in the United States, as the majority of the founding colonists were English people. Number of English Americans[edit]

Number of English Americans

Year Ref. Population % of the United States
United States
population

1980 [18][19] 49,598,035 26.34 26.34  

1990 [20] 32,651,788 13.1 13.1  

2000 [21] 24,515,138 8.7 8.7  

2010 [22] 25,927,345 8.4 8.4  

      England
England
      United States. Shows the first permanent English settlement of Jamestown in 1607.

The original 17th century settlers were overwhelmingly English. From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants outnumbered all others, therefore the cultural pattern had been firmly established as the American model.[23] Colonial era 1700-1775[edit] According to the United States
United States
Historical Census, the ethnic populations in the British American
British American
Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were:

Ethnic composition of the British American
British American
Colonies 1700 - 1775

1700 % 1755 % 1775 %

English / Welsh 80.0% English / Welsh 52.0% English 48.7%

African 11.0% African 20.0% African 20.0%

Dutch 4.0% German 7.0% Scots-Irish 7.8 %

Scottish 3.0% Scots-Irish 7.0% German 6.9%

Other European 2.0% Irish 5.0% Scottish 6.6 %

Scottish 4.0% Dutch 2.7%

Dutch 3.0% French 1.4%

Other European 2.0% Swedish 0.6%

Other 5.3%

Twelve Colonies* 100.0% Thirteen Colonies 100.0% Thirteen Colonies 100.0%

Source:[24][25][26]* Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia
was established in 1732.

Colonial regions and census[edit]

Number of Colonial English- Americans
Americans
1776

Colonies Ref. % of approximate population

New England [27] 70.5%

Middle [27] 40.6%

Southern [27] 37.4%

1790 Census[edit] The 1790 United States Census
1790 United States Census
was the first census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 2, 1790. The ancestry of the 3,929,214 population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the very first United States
United States
official census and assigning them a country of origin.[28] The estimate results indicate that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the European American
European American
population. Some 80.7% of the total United States
United States
population was of European heritage.[29] Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. Of the remaining population, more than 75% was of British origin.[30] The states with the highest percentage of English ancestry were Connecticut
Connecticut
96.2%, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
96%, Vermont
Vermont
95.4%, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
95%, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
94.1%, Maine
Maine
93.1%, Delaware
Delaware
86.3%, Virginia
Virginia
including West Virginia
Virginia
85%, Maryland
Maryland
including District of Columbia 84%, North Carolina 83.1%, Kentucky
Kentucky
and Tennessee
Tennessee
83.1%, Georgia 83.1%, South Carolina 82.4%, New York 78.2%, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
59%, New Jersey
New Jersey
58%.(% of total European ancestry). 2000 Census[edit]

Comparison between the 1790 and 2000 census

1790 estimates[31] 2000 Census[32]

Ancestry Number % of total Ancestry Number % of total

English 2,605,699 66.3 German 42,885,162 15.2

Other Race 756,770 19.3 African 36,419,434 12.9

Scottish 221,562 5.6 Irish 30,594,130 10.9

German 176,407 4.5 English 24,515,138 8.7

Dutch 78,959 2.0 Mexican 20,640,711 7.3

Irish 61,534 1.6 Italian 15,723,555 5.6

French 17,619 0.4 French 10,846,018 3.9

Other European 10,664 0.3 Hispanic 10,017,244 3.6

Polish 8,977,444 3.2

Scottish 4,890,581 1.7

Dutch 4,542,494 1.6

Norwegian 4,477,725 1.6

Scots-Irish 4,319,232 1.5

 United States 3,929,214 [33] 100  United States 281,421,906 100

In the 2000 census, 24.5 million Americans
Americans
reported English ancestry, 8.7% of the total U.S. population. This estimate is probably a serious undercount by over 30 million given that, in the 1980 census, around 50 million citizens claimed to be of at least partial English ancestry. As many as 80 million Americans
Americans
may be wholly or partly of English ancestry. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans
Americans
claimed wholly English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry.[34] Some Cornish Americans
Americans
may not identify as English American, even though Cornwall
Cornwall
had been part of England
England
since long before their ancestors arrived in North America. In 1900, an estimated 28,375,000 or 37.8% of the population of the United States
United States
was wholly or primarily of English ancestry from colonial stock[31] As with any ethnicity, Americans
Americans
of English descent may choose to identify themselves as just American ethnicity
American ethnicity
if their ancestry has been in the United States
United States
for many generations or if, for the same reason, they are unaware of their lineages. English expatriates[edit] In total, there are estimated to be around 678,000 British born expatriates in the United States
United States
with the majority of these born in England.[35] There are around 540,000 of any race in the United States, 40,000 Asian British, 20,000 Black British
Black British
people and approximately 10,000 people of a mixed background.[36] Distribution[edit]

Percentages by county.

Population by state.

Percentages by U.S. State.

Predominant ancestry in Florida
Florida
in 2010

States[edit] English Americans
Americans
are found in large numbers throughout America, particularly in the Northeast, South and West. According to the 2000 US census, the 10 states with the largest populations of self-reported English Americans
Americans
are:

The ten states with the most English Americans States with the highest percentages:

1 California (3,521,355 - 7.4% of state population) 1 Utah (29.0%)

2 Florida (1,468,576 - 9.2%) 2 Maine (21.5%)

3 Texas (1,462,984 - 7%) 3 Vermont (18.4%)

4 New York (1,140,036 - 6%) 4 Idaho (18.1%)

5 Ohio (1,046,671 - 9.2%) 5 New Hampshire (18.0%)

6 Pennsylvania (966,253 - 7.9%) 6 Wyoming (15.9%)

7 Michigan (988,625 - 9.9%) 7 Oregon (13.2%)

8 Illinois (831,820 - 6.7%) 8 Montana (12.7%)

9 Virginia (788,849 - 11.1%) 9 Delaware (12.1%)

10 North Carolina (767,749 - 9.5%) 10 Colorado, Rhode Island, Washington (12.0% each)

English was the highest reported European ancestry in the states of Maine, Vermont
Vermont
and Utah; joint highest along with German in the Carolinas. Cities[edit] Following are the top 20 highest percentages of people of English ancestry, in U.S. communities with 500 or more total inhabitants (for the total list of the 101 communities, see the reference):[37]

Hildale, UT
Hildale, UT
66.9% Colorado
Colorado
City, AZ 52.7% Milbridge, ME
Milbridge, ME
41.1% Panguitch, UT
Panguitch, UT
40.0% Beaver, UT
Beaver, UT
39.8% Enterprise, UT
Enterprise, UT
39.4% East Machias, ME
East Machias, ME
39.1% Marriott-Slaterville, UT
Marriott-Slaterville, UT
38.2% Wellsville, UT
Wellsville, UT
37.9% Morgan, UT
Morgan, UT
37.2% Harrington, ME
Harrington, ME
36.9% Farmington, UT
Farmington, UT
36.9% Highland, UT
Highland, UT
36.7% Nephi, UT
Nephi, UT
36.4% Fruit Heights, UT
Fruit Heights, UT
35.9% Addison, ME
Addison, ME
35.6% Farr West, UT
Farr West, UT
35.4% Hooper, UT
Hooper, UT
35.0% Lewiston, UT
Lewiston, UT
35.0% Plain City, UT
Plain City, UT
34.7%

On the left, a map showing percentages by county of Americans
Americans
who declared English ancestry in the 2000 Census. Dark blue and purple colours indicate a higher percentage: highest in the east and west (see also Maps of American ancestries). Center, a map showing the population of English Americans
Americans
by state. On the right, a map showing the percentages of English Americans
Americans
by state. History[edit]

Statue of John Smith for the first English settlement in Historic Jamestowne, Virginia.

Early settlement and colonization[edit] See also: English colonial empire English settlement in America began with Jamestown in the Virginia Colony in 1607. With the permission of James I, three ships (the Susan Constant, The Discovery, and The God Speed) sailed from England
England
and landed at Cape Henry
Cape Henry
in April, under the captainship of Christopher Newport,[16] who had been hired by the London Company
London Company
to lead expeditions to what is now America.[38] The second successful colony was Plymouth Colony, founded in 1620 by people who later became known as the Pilgrims. Fleeing religious persecution in the East Midlands
East Midlands
in England, they first went to Holland, but feared losing their English identity.[39] Because of this, they chose to relocate to the New World, with their voyage being financed by English investors. In September 1620, 102 passengers set sail aboard the Mayflower, eventually settling at Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in November.[40] This story has become a central theme in the United States cultural identity. A number of English colonies were established under a system of proprietary governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements. England
England
also took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland
New Netherland
(including the New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
settlement), renaming it the Province of New York
Province of New York
in 1664.[41] With New Netherland, the English came to control the former New Sweden
New Sweden
(in what is now Delaware), which the Dutch had conquered from Sweden
Sweden
earlier.[42] This became part of Pennsylvania. English immigration after 1776[edit]

Immigration from England
England
to the United States
United States
1820 - 1970[43][44][45][46]

Years Arrivals Years Arrival

1820-1830 15,837 1901-1910 388,017

1831-1840 7,611 1911-1920 249,944

1841-1850 32,092 1921-1930 157,420

1851-1860 247,125 1931-1940 21,756

1861-1870 222,277 1941-1950 112,252

1871-1880 437,706 1951-1960 156,171

1881-1890 644,680 1961-1970 174,452

1891-1900 216,726

Arrivals Total (150 yrs) 3,084,066

Cultural similarities and a common language allowed English immigrants to integrate rapidly and gave rise to a unique Anglo-American culture. An estimated 3.5 million English immigrated to the U.S. after 1776.[47] English settlers provided a steady and substantial influx throughout the 19th century. The first wave of growing English immigration began in the late 1820s and was sustained by unrest in the United Kingdom until it peaked in 1842 and declined slightly for nearly a decade. Most of these were small farmers and tenant farmers from depressed areas in rural counties in southern and western England and urban laborers who fled from the depressions and from the social and industrial changes of the late 1820s-1840s. While some English immigrants were drawn by dreams of creating model utopian societies in America, most others were attracted by the lure of new lands, textile factories, railroads, and the expansion of mining. A number of English settlers moved to the United States
United States
from Australia in the 1850s (then a British political territory), when the California Gold Rush boomed; these included the so-called "Sydney Ducks" (see Australian Americans). During the last years of the 1860s, annual English immigration grew to over 60,000 and continued to rise to over 75,000 per year in 1872, before experiencing a decline. The final and most sustained wave of immigration began in 1879 and lasted until the depression of 1893. During this period English annual immigration averaged more than 82,000, with peaks in 1882 and 1888 and did not drop significantly until the financial panic of 1893.[48] The building of America's transcontinental railroads, the settlement of the great plains, and industrialization attracted skilled and professional emigrants from England.

England-born in the United States
United States
1850 – 2010[48][49][50]

Year Population % of foreign-born % of total population

2010 356,489 0.9

2000 423,609

1990 405,588

1980 442,499

1970 458,114 4.8 0.2

1960 528,205 5.4 0.3

1950 809,563

1940 //

1930 809,563 5.7 0.7

1920 813,853

1910 877,719 6.5 1.1

1900 840,513

1890 908,141 9.8 1.4

1880 662,676

1870 550,924 10.0 1.4

1860 431,692

1850 278,675 12.4 1.2

Also, cheaper steamship fares enabled unskilled urban workers to come to America, and unskilled and semiskilled laborers, miners, and building trades workers made up the majority of these new English immigrants. While most settled in America, a number of skilled craftsmen remained itinerant, returning to England
England
after a season or two of work. Groups of English immigrants came to America as missionaries for the Salvation Army
Salvation Army
and to work with the activities of the Evangelical and LDS Churches. The depression of 1893 sharply decreased English emigration to the United States, and it stayed low for much of the twentieth century. This decline reversed itself in the decade of World War II when over 100,000 English (18 percent of all European immigrants) came from England. In this group was a large contingent of war brides who came between 1945 and 1948. In these years four women emigrated from England
England
for every man.[48] In the 1950s, English immigration increased to over 150,000.and rose to 170,000 in the 1960s.[51] While differences developed, it is not surprising that English immigrants had little difficulty in assimilating to American life. The American resentment against the policies of the British government[52] was rarely transferred to English settlers who came to America in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Throughout American history, English immigrants and their descendants have been prominent in every level of government and in every aspect of American life. Eight of the first ten American presidents and more than that proportion of the 42 presidents, as well as the majority of sitting congressmen and congresswomen, are descended from English ancestors. The descendants of English expatriates are so numerous and so well integrated in American life that it is impossible to identify all of them. While they are the third largest ethnic nationality self-reported in the 1990 census, they retain such a pervasive representation at every level of national and state government that, on any list of American senators, Supreme Court judges, governors, or legislators, they would constitute a plurality if not an outright majority.[53] Today it is estimated that over 80 million Americans
Americans
are of English ancestry, not including African Americans
Americans
who also have some English ancestry. Political involvement[edit]

John Trumbull's famous painting, Declaration of Independence.

Colonial period[edit] As the earliest colonists of the United States, settlers from England and their descendants often held positions of power and made or helped make laws,[54] often because many had been involved in government back in England.[55] In the original 13 colonies, most laws contained elements found in the English common law system.[56] Of the 55 delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, 49 were Protestants, and two were Roman Catholics (D. Carroll, and Fitzsimons).[57] Among the Protestant delegates to the Constitutional Convention, 28 were Church of England
England
(or Episcopalian, after the American Revolutionary War was won), eight were Presbyterians, seven were Congregationalists, two were Lutherans, two were Dutch Reformed, and two were Methodists.[57] The Founding Fathers[edit] The lineage of most of the Founding Fathers was English. Such persons include Samuel Adams.[58] Other signatories of the Declaration of Independence, such as Robert Morris were English born.[59] Of the "Committee of Five" (the group delegated to draft the Declaration of Independence), (four of the five) - John Adams
John Adams
of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin[60] of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
of Virginia, and Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
of Connecticut
Connecticut
had English roots. The United States Declaration of Independence was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson. Influence[edit] While WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) have been major players in every major American political party, an exceptionally strong association has existed between WASPs and the Republican Party, both in political activity and popular consciousness. Politicians such as Leverett Saltonstall
Leverett Saltonstall
of Massachusetts, Prescott Bush
Prescott Bush
of Connecticut and Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
of New York exemplified the pro-business liberal Republicanism of their social stratum, espousing internationalist views on foreign policy, supporting social programs, and holding liberal views on issues like racial integration. A famous confrontation was the 1952 Senate election in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
where John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, defeated WASP Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.. However the challenge by Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in 1964 to the Eastern Republican establishment helped undermine the WASP dominance.[61] Goldwater himself had solid WASP credentials through his mother, but was instead mistakenly seen as part of the Jewish community (which he had never associated with). By the 1980s, the liberal Rockefeller Republican
Rockefeller Republican
wing of the party was marginalized, overwhelmed by the dominance of the Southern and Western conservative Republicans.[62] Language[edit] Main article: American English

English language
English language
distribution in the United States.

English is the most commonly spoken language in the U.S, where it is estimated that two thirds of all native speakers of English live.[63] The American English
American English
dialect developed from English colonization. It serves as the de facto official language, the language in which government business is carried out. According to the 1990 census, 94% of the U.S. population speak only English.[64] Adding those who speak English "well" or "very well" brings this figure to 96%.[64] Only 0.8% speak no English at all as compared with 3.6% in 1890. American English differs from British English in a number of ways, the most striking being in terms of pronunciation (for example, American English retains voicing of the letter "R" after vowels, unlike standard British English) and spelling (one example is the "u" in words such as color, favor (US) vs colour, favour (UK)). Less obvious differences are present in grammar and vocabulary. The differences are rarely a barrier to effective communication between American English and British English speakers, but there are certainly enough differences to cause occasional misunderstandings, usually surrounding slang or dialect differences. Some states, like California, have amended their constitutions to make English the only official language, but in practice, this only means that official government documents must at least be in English, and does not mean that they should be exclusively available only in English. For example, the standard California
California
Class C driver's license examination is available in 32 different languages. Expressions[edit] "In for a penny, in for a pound" is an expression to mean, ("if you're going to take a risk at all, you might as well make it a big risk"), is used in the United States
United States
which dates back to the colonial period, when cash in the colonies was denominated in Pounds, shillings and Pence.[65] Today, the one-cent coin is commonly known as a penny. A modern alternative expression is "In for a dime, in for a dollar". Cultural influences[edit]

American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag.

Much of American culture shows influences from English culture. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies

Apple pie
Apple pie
- New England
New England
was the first region to experience large-scale English colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes seen today as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the oven-roasted Thanksgiving turkey.[66] "As American as apple pie" is a well-known phrase used to suggest that something is all-American. Roast Beef
Roast Beef
- In the middle of the 17th century a second wave of English immigrants began arriving in North America, settling mainly in the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
region of Virginia
Virginia
and Maryland, expanding upon the Jamestown settlement. There roast beef was often served with Yorkshire puddings and horseradish sauce. (It was despised by the French.)

Celebrations[edit]

The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
by English Pilgrims in 1621.

Thanksgiving - In England, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. The celebrations on this day usually include singing hymns, praying, and decorating churches with baskets of fruit and food in the festival known as Harvest Festival, Harvest Home or Harvest Thanksgiving. In the U.S. it has become a national secular holiday (official since 1863) with religious origins, but in England
England
it remains a Church festival giving thanks to God for the harvest. The first Thanksgiving was celebrated by English settlers to give thanks to God for helping the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
survive the brutal winter.[67] The modern Thanksgiving holiday traces its origins from a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast after a successful growing season. William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim the American cultural event which is generally referred to as the "First Thanksgiving".

Sports[edit]

English-born Henry Chadwick is often called the "father of Baseball".

Main article: Origins of baseball

Baseball
Baseball
- The earliest recorded game of base-ball for which the original source survives, involved none other than the family of the Prince of Wales, played indoors in London
London
in November 1748. The Prince is reported as playing "Bass-Ball" again in September 1749 in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, against Lord Middlesex.[68] The English lawyer William Bray wrote in his diary that he had played a game of baseball on Easter Monday
Easter Monday
1755 in Guildford, also in Surrey.[69][70] English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[71][72] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America by British immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders which has been played in England
England
since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in the United Kingdom pre-date use of the term "rounders".[73] American football
American football
- can be traced to early versions of rugby football, played in England
England
and first developed in American universities in the mid-19th century.[74]

Music[edit] Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

American national anthem - takes its melody from the 18th-century English song "To Anacreon in Heaven" written by John Stafford Smith from England
England
for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London
London
and lyrics written by Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key
of English descent. This became a well-known and recognized patriotic song throughout the United States, which was officially designated as the U.S. national anthem in 1931.[75][76][77] Hail to the Chief
Hail to the Chief
- is the song to announce the arrival or presence of the President of the United States. English songwriter James Sanderson (c. 1769 – c. 1841), composed the music and was first performed in 1812 in New York.[78]

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

The Liberty Song - written by John Dickinson of English descent in 1768 to the music of Englishman William Boyce's "Heart of Oak", is perhaps the first patriotic song written in America. The song contains the line "by uniting we stand, by dividing we fall", the first recorded use of the sentiment. My Country, 'Tis of Thee
My Country, 'Tis of Thee
- whose melody was indirectly derived from the British national anthem,[79] also served as a de facto anthem before the adoption of "The Star-Spangled Banner."[80]

Amazing Grace
Amazing Grace
- written by English poet and clergyman John Newton became such an icon in American culture that it has been used for a variety of secular purposes and marketing campaigns, placing it in danger of becoming a cliché.[81] Yankee Doodle
Yankee Doodle
- is written and accredited to Englishman Dr. Richard Shuckburgh an army doctor. The tune comes from the English nursery rhyme Lucy Locket.[82]

English ballads had a large influence on American folk music, eventually spawning such genres as old time, country, and bluegrass. English family names[edit] Of the top ten family names in the United States, eight have English origins or having possible mixed British Isles
British Isles
heritage, the other two being of Spanish origin. This is the first time two surnames of non- British Isles
British Isles
origin have been in the top 10 most common family names. Many African Americans
Americans
have their origins in slavery (i.e. slave name). Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners. Many freed slaves either created family names themselves or adopted the name of their former master. According to 2000 U.S. Census data, eight of the top ten surnames in the United States
United States
are of British Isles
British Isles
origin, while two are the most common surnames among Hispanics.[83] In the last UK Census in 2001, surnames in England
England
can be compared to the United States
United States
with 6 of the family names in England being in both their top ten.[84] Many English surnames are also found in Ireland. This is attributable to a number of factors, including the Protestant Plantation of Ireland, the imposition of the Penal Laws in the 1700s which forced many Irish people
Irish people
to Anglicize their surnames, and English ancestry in the Irish population itself, especially in the area around Dublin. Also, in the 9th century, Viking invaders brought many Norse names to Ireland that they had already brought to England when they established and settled the Danelaw. Scandinavian names may have been brought to England
England
in pre-Viking times, especially in the North and East, due to Anglo-Saxons from Denmark. and the Anglo-Normans who invaded Ireland in the 1170s brought many Norman French names which had already spread to England.

Name Rank - 2000 Number Country
Country
of Origin England
England
- 2001 [84][85]

Smith 1 2,376,207 England,[86] Scotland,[87] Ireland[88] (Common however also among German Americans
Americans
who are likely originally held the surname "Schmidt") Smith

Johnson 2 1,857,160 England, Scotland
Scotland
[89] [90] Jones

Williams 3 1,534,042 England, Wales[91] Taylor

Brown 4 1,380,145 England, Ireland, Scotland[92] Brown

Jones 5 1,362,755 England, Wales[93] Williams

Miller 6 1,127,803 England, Ireland, or Scotland
Scotland
(Miller can be the anglicized version of Mueller/Müller - a surname from Germany)[94] Wilson

Davis 7 1,072,335 England, Wales[95] Johnson

García 8 858,289 Spain[96] Davies

Rodríguez 9 804,240 Spain[97] Robinson, Roderick

Wilson 10 783,051 England, Scotland[98] Wright

It should be pointed out, however, that a significant number of non-English immigrants anglicized their surnames. For example, "Smith" may come from German Schmidt, or Dutch Smit; "Johnson" from Norwegian or Danish Johansen, Dutch Jansen, or Swedish Johansson, "Brown" from German Braun, "Miller" from German Müller, and so forth.[citation needed] On the other hand, "Williams",[99] "Jones",[100] and "Davis",[101] which are often associated with Welsh ancestry due to their common occurrence in Wales, are actually mostly English, as Wales has a much smaller population (and diaspora) than England. English place names in the United States[edit]

Boston, Massachusetts, is named after Boston, England.

In 1664, the English renamed "New York" after (James II of England) the Duke of York.[102]

There are many places in the United States
United States
named after places in Great Britain as a result of the many British settlers and explorers; in addition, some places were named after the English royal family. These include the region of New England
New England
and some of the following: Alabama[edit]

Birmingham
Birmingham
after Birmingham, England

California[edit]

Westminster
Westminster
after Westminster
Westminster
in London, England

Delaware[edit]

Dover
Dover
after Dover, England Wilmington named by Proprietor Thomas Penn
Thomas Penn
after his friend Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, who was prime minister in the reign of George II of Great Britain.

Georgia[edit]

Georgia was named after King George II.[103]

Maryland[edit]

Maryland
Maryland
named so for Queen Henrietta Maria
Queen Henrietta Maria
(Queen Mary).[104]

Massachusetts[edit]

Boston
Boston
after Boston, England[105] Gloucester
Gloucester
after Gloucester, England Northampton
Northampton
after Northampton, England Southampton
Southampton
after Southampton, England[106] Springfield after Springfield, Essex, England

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
state (after Hampshire[107]) Manchester
Manchester
after Manchester, England[108]

New Jersey[edit]

Burlington County and Burlington after the English east-coast town of Bridlington.[109] Camden named by local Jacob Cooper after Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden.[110] Gloucester
Gloucester
County and Gloucester
Gloucester
City after the city of Gloucester
Gloucester
/ county of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
in England.[111] Newark after the town of Newark-on-Trent, England[112]

New York[edit]

Cornwall
Cornwall
(originally "New Cornwall") after the county of Cornwall
Cornwall
in southwest England New York City
New York City
(after the Duke of York[113]) New York (State)
New York (State)
(also after the Duke of York)

Pennsylvania[edit]

Berks County after Berkshire
Berkshire
(pronounced "Barkshire"), England Bristol
Bristol
and Bristol
Bristol
Township after Bristol, England[114] Bucks County after Buckinghamshire, England Chester
Chester
County and Chester
Chester
after Chester, England Darby derived from Derby
Derby
(pronounced "Darby"), the county town of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
(pronounced "Darbyshire")[115] Horsham
Horsham
after Horsham
Horsham
(pronounced "Hor-sham"), England Lancaster County and Lancaster after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire
Lancashire
in England, the native home of John Wright, one of the early settlers.[116] Northampton
Northampton
County after Northamptonshire, England Reading, Berks County after Reading (pronounced "Redding"), Berkshire (pronounced "Barkshire"), England Warminster
Warminster
after the small town of Warminster
Warminster
in the county of Wiltshire, at the western extremity of Salisbury Plain, England.[117] Warrington
Warrington
after Warrington, England[118] Warwick
Warwick
after Warwick, England[119]

The Carolinas[edit]

The province, named Carolina (The Carolinas-North and South) to honor King Charles I of England, was divided into SC and NC in 1729, although the actual date is the subject of debate.[120]

Virginia[edit]

The name Virginia
Virginia
was first applied by Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
(the "Virgin Queen") and Sir Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
in 1584.[121] Norfolk
Norfolk
after the county of Norfolk, England Portsmouth
Portsmouth
after Portsmouth, England[122] Richmond named by William Byrd II
William Byrd II
after Richmond, London
London
where he spent part of his childhood. Suffolk
Suffolk
after the county of Suffolk, England

Architecture[edit]

Georgian style homes in Philadelphia.

American Architecture, particularly in the nation's earlier years, has long been strongly influenced by English styles. The United States Capitol building, for example, was first designed by English-educated American Architect William Thornton, and bears a resemblance to St Paul's Cathedral in London. Also, many American college campuses, such as Harvard, Penn, Yale, Brown, Williams, Princeton University, and the University of Delaware, have English Georgian or English gothic architecture. Law[edit] The American legal system also has its roots in English law.[123] For example, elements of the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
were incorporated into the United States constitution.[124] English law
English law
prior to the revolution is still part of the law of the United States, and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies. After the revolution, English law was again adopted by the now independent American States.[125] Notable people[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Americans
Americans
of English descent. Presidents of English descent[edit]

George Washington

John Adams

Thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln

Gerald Ford

George W. Bush

Most of the Presidents of the United States
United States
have had English ancestry.[126] The extent of English heritage varies in the presidents with earlier presidents being predominantly of colonial English Yankee stock. Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe, including England.

George Washington
George Washington
(English) 1st President 1789–97 (great-grandfather, John Washington
John Washington
from Purleigh, Essex, England.[127][128]) John Adams
John Adams
(English) 2nd President 1797–1801 (great-great-grandfather, Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England, immigrated to Boston, Massachusetts.[129][130]) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(English and Scots-English) 3rd President 1801–09 (Maternal English ancestry from William Randolph.) James Madison
James Madison
(English) 4th President 1809–17[14] (Isaac Maddeson, born 1590 in London, England) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(English) 6th President 1825–29 (Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England.[129][130]) Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(Scots-Irish & English) 7th President 1829-1837: His parents were Ulster-Scot colonists who emigrated from Boneybefore, near Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
in County Antrim, present-day Northern Ireland.[131] His patrilineal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, Yorkshire, England.[132] William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(English) 9th President 1841–41[133] John Tyler
John Tyler
(English) 10th President 1841–45[134] Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(English) 12th President 1849–50 Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(English) 13th President 1850–53[135] Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(English) 14th President 1853–57[136] Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(English & Welsh) 16th President 1861–65 ( Samuel Lincoln
Samuel Lincoln
baptised 1622 in Hingham, Norfolk, England, died in Hingham, Massachusetts.[137][138]) Andrew Johnson
Johnson
(Scots-Irish & English) 17th President 1865–69[139] Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(Scots-Irish, English & Scottish) 18th President, 1869–77 (Matthew Grant, born 1601 in Wool, Dorset) Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(English) 19th President 1877–81[140] James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(English, Welsh and French) 20th President 1881–81 (Edward Garfield, born 1583 in Hillmorton, Warwickshire)[141] Chester
Chester
A. Arthur (Scots-Irish & English) 21st President 1881–85 Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(Scots-Irish & English) 22nd and 24th President, 1885–89 and 1893–97 (Moses Cleveland, born 1619 in Ipswich, Suffolk) Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(Scots-Irish & English) 23rd President, 1889–93 (Benjamin Harrison, born 1594 in Northampton) William McKinley
William McKinley
(Scots-Irish & English) 25th President, 1897–1901 Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(Scots-Irish, Dutch, Scots, English & French) 26th President, 1901–09 William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
(Scots-Irish & English) 27th President 1909–13 (Robert Taft, born 1640 in Norwich, Norfolk)[142][143] Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(Scots-Irish & English) 29th President 1921–23[144] Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(English) 30th President 1923–29 (John Coolidge, born 1604 in Cottenham, Cambridgeshire)[145] Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(German, English & Irish) 31st President 1929-33 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Dutch, French & English) 32nd President 1933–45 Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(Scots-Irish, English & German) 33rd President 1945–53[146][147] Lyndon B. Johnson
Johnson
(English, Scots-Irish, German and Scottish) 36th President 1963–69 Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(Scots-Irish, Irish, English & German) 37th President, 1969–74 Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(English) 38th President 1974–77 (Phillip King, born 1709 in Dartmouth, Devon) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(Scots-Irish & English) 39th President 1977–81 (William Carter emigrated from London, England
England
to Isle of Wight County, Virginia.[148]) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(Scots-Irish, Irish, English & Scottish) 40th President 1981–89: He was the great-grandson, on his father's side, of Irish migrants from County Tipperary who came to America via Canada and England
England
in the 1840s. His mother was of Scottish and English ancestry.[149] George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(Scots-Irish, English, Dutch & German) 41st President 1989–93: County Wexford
County Wexford
historians have found that one of his ancestors, Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke nicknamed "Strongbow" offered his military services in the 12th-century Norman invasion of Wexford, Ireland. Strongbow married Aoife, daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, the Gaelic king of Leinster who had welcomed the Norman assistance to regain his throne in Ireland. .[150][151] Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(Scots-Irish & English) 42nd President 1993–2001 George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(Scots-Irish, English, Dutch, German & Welsh) 43rd President 2001–09: Reynold Bush from Messing, Essex, England emigrated in 1631 to Cambridge, Massachusetts.[152] Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(Luo, English & Irish) 44th President 2009–2017: His maternal ancestors came to America from France, England, Germany, Switzerland and Ireland.[153][154] His ancestors lived in New England
New England
and the South and by the 1800s most were in the Midwest. His father was Luo (or Jaluo) from Kenya, and was the first person in his family to travel or live outside of Africa.

The U.S. Presidents which lacked recent English ancestry were James Monroe, Martin Van Buren, James K. Polk, James Buchanan, Woodrow Wilson, Dwight Eisenhower, and John F. Kennedy. Also, President Donald Trump does not have recent English ancestry, with all of his recent ancestry coming from Germany
Germany
and Scotland.[155] See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal England
England
portal

English diaspora Americans
Americans
or American people Anglo America English (ethnic group) Anglo-American relations Anglo-Celtic Australian Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Main Line Boston
Boston
Brahmin British American Demographic history of the United States English colonial empire English place names in the United States Scotch-Irish American European American Immigration to the United States Scottish American Welsh American Maps of American ancestries White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Yankee American ethnicity White Southerners Old Stock Americans

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Publications. ISBN 0-486-26751-2.  ^ a b Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England Archived March 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Henry Adams". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "The Presidents, Andrew Jackson". American Heritage.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2009.  ^ Jackson, Elmer Martin (1985). Keeping the lamp of remembrance lighted: a genealogical narrative with pictures and charts about the Jacksons and their allied families. Maryland: Hagerstown Bookbinding and Printing Co. p. 9. ^ "The Ninth President • 1841-1841: illiam Henry Harrison". Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ "AmericanHeritage.com / The Presidents: John Tyler". Web.archive.org. 2 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ "AmericanHeritage.com / The Presidents: Millard Fillmore". Web.archive.org. 11 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ "The Fourteenth President • 1853-1857: Franklin Pierce". Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ Lea, James Henry; Hutchinson, John Robert (21 August 2017). "The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln". Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 21 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ "Ancestors of Abraham Lincoln". Genbox.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "AmericanHeritage.com / The Presidents: Andrew Johnson". Web.archive.org. 11 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ "The Nineteenth President • 1877-1881: Rutherford Birchard Hayes". Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ "The Twentieth President • 1881-1881: James Abram Garfield". Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ Marck, John T. "William H. Taft". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ "The Presidents, William Taft". American Heritage.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2009.  ^ "Warren Gamaliel Harding". thinkquest.com. Retrieved 2008-04-16.  ^ "The Thirtieth President • 1923-1929: Calvin Coolidge". Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  ^ Marck, John T. "Harry S. Truman". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-04-16.  ^ "The Presidents, Harry S Truman". American Heritage.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2009.  ^ " Jimmy Carter
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v t e

British diaspora

Cornish diaspora English diaspora Scottish diaspora Welsh diaspora

Africa

Egypt Kenya Namibia (Afrikaners) Nigeria South Africa (Afrikaners) Zimbabwe

Asia

Burma Hong Kong India

English Scottish

Japan Pakistan Sri Lanka United Arab Emirates

Europe

France Germany Ireland

English Scottish

Portugal Spain Russia

Anglo-Russian Scottish Russians Irish Russians

Turkey

North America

Canada

Anglo-Indian Cornish English Manx Scottish (Quebec) Welsh

Jamaica

English Scottish

Mexico Nicaragua

English

United States

Cornish English Manx Scottish Scotch-Irish Welsh

Oceania

Australia

Cornish English Manx Scottish Welsh

New Zealand

Scottish Welsh

South America

Argentina

English Scottish Welsh

Brazil

English Scottish

Chile

English Scottish Welsh

Paraguay

English

Peru Uruguay

v t e

European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch German Mennonites from Russia

Hungarian

Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk

Ukrainian

Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs

Turkish4

Southern Europe

Italian

Sicilian

Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe

Belgian

Flemish

British

Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/Ulster Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7

Louisiana Creole

Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I. 2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans
Americans
are the American people
American people
from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

v t e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth

By religion

Baha'is Buddhists Christians

Catholics Coptics Protestants

Hindus Jains Jews Muslims

Ahmadiyyas

Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians

By continent and ethnicity

Africa

African diaspora in the Americas

Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans

Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

African immigrants to the United States

Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States

Asia

Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

East Asia

Chinese Americans

Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans

Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans

South Asia

Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans

Southeast Asia

Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans

West Asia

Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans

Europe

White Americans

English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans

Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans

Oceania

Pacific Islands Americans

Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans

Americans
Americans
of Euro Oceanic origin

Australian Americans New Zealand Americans

North America

Native Americans
Americans
and Alaska Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

South America

Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans

Multiethnic

Melungeon

People of the United States
United States
/ Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity

.