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An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 Notes

Origins[edit]

Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi

HRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk I

Amir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command". Originally simply meaning "commander-in-chief" or "leader", usually in reference to a group of people, it came to be used as a title for governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and in modern Arabic
Arabic
is analogous to the English word "prince". The word entered English in 1593, from the French émir.[2] It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[citation needed] Princely, ministerial and noble titles[edit]

Mohammed Alim Khan, emir of Bukhara, taken in 1911 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

The monarchs of Qatar, Kuwait
Kuwait
and of the constituent emirates of the United Arab Emirates are currently titled emir.[3][4][5] All members of the House of Saud
House of Saud
have the title of emir (prince).[6][7][8] The caliphs first used the title Amir al-Muminin or "Commander of the Faithful", stressing their leadership over the Islamic empire, especially over the militia. The title has been assumed by various other Muslim
Muslim
rulers, including sultans and emirs. For Shia
Shia
Muslims, they still give this title to the Caliph
Caliph
Ali
Ali
as Amir al-Muminin. The Abbasid
Abbasid
(in theory still universal) Caliph
Caliph
Ar-Radi
Ar-Radi
created the post of Amir al-Umara
Amir al-Umara
("Amir of the Amirs") for Ibn Raik; the title was used in various Islamic monarchies; see below for military use Formerly in Lebanon, the ruling emir formally used the style al-Amir al-Hakim, specifying it was still the ruler's title. Note that the title was held by Druze
Druze
and Christians
Christians
as well.[citation needed] The word emir is also used less formally for leaders in certain contexts. For example, the leader of a group of pilgrims to Mecca
Mecca
is called an emir hadji, a title sometimes used by ruling princes (as a mark of Muslim
Muslim
piety) which is sometimes awarded in their name. Where an adjectival form is necessary, "emiral" suffices.[citation needed] Amirzade, the son (hence the Persian patronymic suffix -zade) of a prince, hence the Persian princely title mirza. The traditional rulers of the predominantly Muslim
Muslim
northern regions of Nigeria
Nigeria
are known as emirs, while the titular sovereign of their now defunct empire is formally styled as the Sultan
Sultan
of Sokoto, Amir-al-Muminin (or Sarkin Musulmi in the Hausa language).[citation needed] The temporal leader of the Yazidi
Yazidi
people is known as an emir or prince.[citation needed] Amīr al-Baḥr (أمير البحر, "commander of the sea") is considered to be the etymological origin of the English admiral, the French amiral and similar terms in other European languages.

Military ranks and titles[edit] See also: Amir (Iranian Army) From the start, emir has been a military title. In certain decimally-organized Muslim
Muslim
armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India
Mughal India
Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen (divided into ten units, each under a sipah salar), ten of them under one malik. In the imperial army of Qajar
Qajar
Persia:

Amir-i-Nuyan Amir Panj, "Commander of 5,000" Amir-i-Tuman, "Commander of 10,000" http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/amir-e-tuman-commander-of-10000-men-a-military-rank-originally-used-by-the-il-khanids-in-the-7th-13th-cent

The following posts referred to "amir" under medieval Muslim
Muslim
states include:

Amir al-umara, "Amir of Amirs" (cfr. supra) or 'Commander of Commanders' Amir al-hajj, "Commander of the Hajj
Hajj
[caravan]" Amir al-ʿarab, "Commander of the Arabs [Bedouin tribes]"

In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amir-i-Kabir was a title meaning "great prince" or "great commander". Muhammad
Muhammad
Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic. Other uses[edit]

Amir is a masculine name in the Persian language
Persian language
and a prefix name for many masculine names such as Amir Ali, Amir Goul. Amir-i-Iel designates the head of an Il (tribe) in imperial Persia. The masculine Amir and feminine Amira are Arabic-language names common among both Arabs regardless of religion and Muslims regardless of ethnicity, much as Latin Rex and Regina ("king" and "queen," respectively) are common in the Western world. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the female name Emira, often interpreted as "princess", is a derivative of the male name Emir.

In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018)

Abdul Abulbul Amir, both character and song Wat Tambor in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones took the title of emir. In the Star Wars
Star Wars
universe, the title may relate to Tambor's military command. Emir
Emir
Karim, a character in Wild At Heart, a Latin American drama and sports Emir
Emir
Shah
Shah
in RuneScape

See also[edit]

Beg Bey Caliph Imam Mir Mirza Padishah Pasha Prince Rana Sayyid Shah Sheikh Sultan Vizier

Specific emirates of note

List of emirs of Harar List of emirs of Kuwait List of emirs of Qatar List of emirs of Mosul Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan

Notes[edit]

^ The West: A Narrative History, Volume Two (2 ed.). CTI Reviews. 2016. p. 661. ISBN 9781478439394. Retrieved 9 December 2017. Emir
Emir
('commander' or 'general', also 'prince'; also transliterated as amir, aamir or ameer) is a high title of nobility or office, used throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Emirs are usually considered high-ranking sheikhs, but in monarchical states the term is also used for princes, with 'Emirate' being analogous to principality in this sense.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "amir (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.  ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/kuwait-emir-qatar-gcc-170607195623973.html ^ http://www.malaysiandigest.com/frontpage/29-4-tile/711173-gulf-ministers-hold-key-talks-before-gcc-summit.html ^ https://books.google.pl/books?id=axKqDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA258&lpg=PA258&dq=uae+emirates+emirs&source=bl&ots=35rzdz1cu-&sig=0KuwlizRq4_zSZ9OnlgK3L6AE3Y&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjuiJqVi9rYAhVMjSwKHYWUAFwQ6AEIiwEwDQ#v=onepage&q=uae%20emirates%20emirs&f=false ^ Amos, Deborah (1991). " Sheikh
Sheikh
to Chic". Mother Jones. p. 28. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160807041830/https://americanbedu.com/2010/03/23/saudi-arabia-hrh-or-hh/ ^ "Family Tree". www.datarabia.com. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 

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