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Embroidery
Embroidery
is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery
Embroidery
may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, embroidery is usually seen on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, dresses, stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery
Embroidery
is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color. Some of the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch. Those stitches remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Historical applications and techniques

1.2.1 The Islamic world

1.3 Automation

2 Classification 3 Materials 4 Machine 5 Qualifications 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Traditional embroidery in chain stitch on a Kazakh rug, contemporary.

Caucasian embroidery

Origins[edit] The process used to tailor, patch, mend and reinforce cloth fostered the development of sewing techniques, and the decorative possibilities of sewing led to the art of embroidery.[1] Indeed, the remarkable stability of basic embroidery stitches has been noted:

It is a striking fact that in the development of embroidery ... there are no changes of materials or techniques which can be felt or interpreted as advances from a primitive to a later, more refined stage. On the other hand, we often find in early works a technical accomplishment and high standard of craftsmanship rarely attained in later times.[2]

The art of embroidery has been found worldwide and several early examples have been found. Works in China
China
have been dated to the Warring States period
Warring States period
(5th–3rd century BC).[3] In a garment from Migration period
Migration period
Sweden, roughly 300–700 AD, the edges of bands of trimming are reinforced with running stitch, back stitch, stem stitch, tailor's buttonhole stitch, and whip-stitching, but it is uncertain whether this work simply reinforced the seams or should be interpreted as decorative embroidery.[4] Ancient Greek mythology
Greek mythology
has credited the goddess Athena
Athena
with passing down the art of embroidery along with weaving, leading to the famed competition between herself and the mortal Arachne.[5] Historical applications and techniques[edit] Depending on time, location and materials available, embroidery could be the domain of a few experts or a widespread, popular technique. This flexibility led to a variety of works, from the royal to the mundane. Elaborately embroidered clothing, religious objects, and household items often were seen as a mark of wealth and status, as in the case of Opus Anglicanum, a technique used by professional workshops and guilds in medieval England.[6] In 18th-century England
England
and its colonies, samplers employing fine silks were produced by the daughters of wealthy families. Embroidery
Embroidery
was a skill marking a girl's path into womanhood as well as conveying rank and social standing.[7] Conversely, embroidery is also a folk art, using materials that were accessible to nonprofessionals. Examples include Hardanger
Hardanger
from Norway, Merezhka from Ukraine, Mountmellick embroidery from Ireland, Nakshi kantha
Nakshi kantha
from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, and Brazilian embroidery. Many techniques had a practical use such as Sashiko
Sashiko
from Japan, which was used as a way to reinforce clothing.[8][9]

The Islamic world[edit] Further information: Islamic embroidery

Morocco fly mask embroidery, 18th–19th century

Embroidery
Embroidery
was an important art in the Medieval Islamic world. The 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
called it the "craft of the two hands". Because embroidery was a sign of high social status in Muslim societies, it became widely popular. In cities such as Damascus, Cairo
Cairo
and Istanbul, embroidery was visible on handkerchiefs, uniforms, flags, calligraphy, shoes, robes, tunics, horse trappings, slippers, sheaths, pouches, covers, and even on leather belts. Craftsmen embroidered items with gold and silver thread. Embroidery cottage industries, some employing over 800 people, grew to supply these items.[10] In the 16th century, in the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar, his chronicler Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak
Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak
wrote in the famous Ain-i-Akbari: "His majesty (Akbar) pays much attention to various stuffs; hence Irani, Ottoman, and Mongolian articles of wear are in much abundance especially textiles embroidered in the patterns of Nakshi, Saadi, Chikhan, Ari, Zardozi, Wastli, Gota and Kohra. The imperial workshops in the towns of Lahore, Agra, Fatehpur and Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
turn out many masterpieces of workmanship in fabrics, and the figures and patterns, knots and variety of fashions which now prevail astonish even the most experienced travelers. Taste for fine material has since become general, and the drapery of embroidered fabrics used at feasts surpasses every description."[11] Automation[edit]

Hand-made embroidery – Székely Land, 2014

The development of machine embroidery and its mass production came about in stages in the Industrial Revolution. The earliest machine embroidery used a combination of machine looms and teams of women embroidering the textiles by hand. This was done in France by the mid-1800s.[12] The manufacture of machine-made embroideries in St. Gallen in eastern Switzerland flourished in the latter half of the 19th century.[13] Classification[edit]

Embroidered Easter eggs. Works by Inna Forostyuk, the folk master from the Luhansk
Luhansk
region (Ukraine)

Japanese free embroidery in silk and metal threads, contemporary.

Hardanger, a whitework technique. Contemporary.

Embroidery
Embroidery
can be classified according to what degree the design takes into account the nature of the base material and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric. The main categories are free or surface embroidery, counted embroidery, and needlepoint or canvas work.[14] In free or surface embroidery, designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. Examples include crewel and traditional Chinese and Japanese embroidery. Counted-thread embroidery
Counted-thread embroidery
patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric. Counted-thread embroidery
Counted-thread embroidery
is more easily worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas, aida cloth, or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics . Examples include cross-stitch and some forms of blackwork embroidery. While similar to counted thread in regards to technique, in canvas work or needlepoint, threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that completely covers the foundation fabric.[15] Examples of canvas work include bargello and Berlin wool work. Embroidery
Embroidery
can also be classified by the similarity of appearance. In drawn thread work and cutwork, the foundation fabric is deformed or cut away to create holes that are then embellished with embroidery, often with thread in the same color as the foundation fabric. When created with white thread on white linen or cotton, this work is collectively referred to as whitework.[16] However, whitework can either be counted or free. Hardanger
Hardanger
embroidery is a counted embroidery and the designs are often geometric.[17] Conversely, styles such as Broderie anglaise
Broderie anglaise
are similar to free embroidery, with floral or abstract designs that are not dependent on the weave of the fabric.[18]

Tea-cloth, Hungary, mid-20th century

Materials[edit]

Phulkari
Phulkari
from the Punjab region
Punjab region
of India. Phulkari
Phulkari
embroidery, popular since at least the 15th century, is traditionally done on hand-spun cotton cloth with simple darning stitches using silk floss.

Laid threads, a surface technique in wool on linen. The Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century.

The fabrics and yarns used in traditional embroidery vary from place to place. Wool, linen, and silk have been in use for thousands of years for both fabric and yarn. Today, embroidery thread is manufactured in cotton, rayon, and novelty yarns as well as in traditional wool, linen, and silk. Ribbon
Ribbon
embroidery uses narrow ribbon in silk or silk/organza blend ribbon, most commonly to create floral motifs.[19] Surface embroidery techniques such as chain stitch and couching or laid-work are the most economical of expensive yarns; couching is generally used for goldwork. Canvas
Canvas
work techniques, in which large amounts of yarn are buried on the back of the work, use more materials but provide a sturdier and more substantial finished textile.[20] In both canvas work and surface embroidery an embroidery hoop or frame can be used to stretch the material and ensure even stitching tension that prevents pattern distortion. Modern canvas work tends to follow symmetrical counted stitching patterns with designs emerging from the repetition of one or just a few similar stitches in a variety of hues. In contrast, many forms of surface embroidery make use of a wide range of stitching patterns in a single piece of work.[21] Machine[edit]

Commercial machine embroidery in chain stitch on a voile curtain, China, early 21st century.

Contemporary embroidery is stitched with a computerized embroidery machine using patterns digitized with embroidery software. In machine embroidery, different types of "fills" add texture and design to the finished work. Machine embroidery
Machine embroidery
is used to add logos and monograms to business shirts or jackets, gifts, and team apparel as well as to decorate household linens, draperies, and decorator fabrics that mimic the elaborate hand embroidery of the past. There has also been a development in free hand machine embroidery, new machines have been designed that allow for the user to create free-motion embroidery which has its place in textile arts, quilting, dressmaking, home furnishings and more.[22] Qualifications[edit] City and Guilds qualification[23] in Embroidery
Embroidery
allows embroiderers to become recognized for their skill. This qualification also gives them the credibility to teach. For example, the notable textiles artist, Kathleen Laurel Sage,[24] began her teaching career by getting the City and Guilds Embroidery
Embroidery
1 and 2 qualifications. She has now gone on to write a book on the subject.[25] Gallery[edit]

Detail of embroidered silk gauze ritual garment. Rows of even, round chain stitch used for outline and color. 4th century BC, Zhou tomb at Mashan, Hubei, China.

English cope, late 15th or early 16th century. Silk
Silk
velvet embroidered with silk and gold threads, closely laid and couched. Contemporary Art Institute of Chicago textile collection.

Extremely fine underlay of St. Gallen
St. Gallen
Embroidery

Traditional Turkish embroidery. Izmir Ethnography Museum, Turkey.

Traditional Croatian embroidery.

Brightly coloured Korean embroidery.

Uzbekistan embroidery on a traditional women's parandja robe.

Traditional Peruvian embroidered floral motifs.

Woman wearing a traditional embroidered Kalash headdress, Pakistan.

Decorative embroidery on a tefillin bag in Jerusalem, Israel.

Bookmark of black fabric with multicolored Bedouin
Bedouin
embroidery and tassel of embroidery floss

Chain-stitch embroidery from England
England
circa 1775

Traditional Bulgarian Floral embrodery from Sofia and Trun.

See also[edit]

Broderie de Fontenoy-le-Château Chikankari Chinese embroidery Embroidery
Embroidery
of India Mary Ann Beinecke Decorative Art Collection Sachet (scented bag) Sampler (needlework)

Notes[edit]

^ Gillow and Bryan 1999, p. 12 ^ Marie Schuette and Sigrid Muller-Christensen, The Art of Embroidery translated by Donald King, Thames and Hudson, 1964, quoted in Netherton and Owen-Crocker 2005, p. 2 ^ Gillow and Bryan 1999, p. 178 ^ Coatsworth, Elizabeth: "Stitches in Time: Establishing a History of Anglo-Saxon Embroidery", in Netherton and Owen-Crocker 2005, p. 2 ^ Synge, Lanto (2001). Art of Embroidery: History of Style and Technique. Woodbridge, England: Antique Collectors' Club. p. 32. ISBN 9781851493593.  ^ Levey and King 1993, p. 12 ^ Power, Lisa (27 March 2015). "NGV embroidery exhibition: imagine a 12-year-old spending two years on this..." The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ "Handa City Sashiko
Sashiko
Program at the Society for Contemporary Craft". Japan-America Society of Pennsylvania. 7 Oct 2016. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.  ^ " Sashiko
Sashiko
Seamwork Magazine". www.seamwork.com. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ "Saudi Aramco World :The Skill of the Two Hands".  ^ "Saudi Aramco World :Mughal Maal".  ^ Knight, Charles (1858). Pictorial Gallery of Arts. England.  ^ Röllin, Peter. Stickerei-Zeit, Kultur und Kunst in St. Gallen 1870–1930. VGS Verlagsgemeinschaft, St. Gallen
St. Gallen
1989, ISBN 3-7291-1052-7 (in German) ^ Corbet, Mary (October 3, 2016). " Needlework
Needlework
Terminology: Surface Embroidery". Retrieved November 1, 2016.  ^ Gillow and Bryan 1999, p. 198 ^ Readers Digest 1979, pp. 74–91 ^ Yvette Stanton. Early Style Hardanger. Vetty Creations. ISBN 978-0-9757677-7-1.  ^ Catherine Amoroso Leslie (1 January 2007). Needlework
Needlework
Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 34, 226, 58. ISBN 978-0-313-33548-8. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ van Niekerk 2006 ^ Readers Digest 1979, pp. 112–115 ^ Readers Digest 1979, pp. 1–19, 112–117 ^ "Using logo embroidery". Oekaki Renaissance. Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ "Creative".  ^ "A Little About Me". Kathleen Laurel Sage.  ^ The Zen Cart® Team; et al. "Embroidered Soldered and Heat Zapped Surfaces by Kathleen Laurel Sage". 

References[edit]

Berman, Pat (2000). "Berlin Work". American Needlepoint
Needlepoint
Guild. Retrieved 2009-01-24.  Caulfeild, S.F.A.; B.C. Saward (1885). The Dictionary of Needlework.  Crummy, Andrew (2010). The Prestonpans Tapestry
Tapestry
1745. Burke's Peerage & Gentry, for Battle of Prestonpans
Battle of Prestonpans
(1745) Heritage Trust.  Embroiderers' Guild Practical Study Group (1984). Needlework
Needlework
School. QED Publishers. ISBN 0-89009-785-2.  Gillow, John; Bryan Sentance (1999). World Textiles. Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown. ISBN 0-8212-2621-5.  Lemon, Jane (2004). Metal Thread Embroidery. Sterling. ISBN 0-7134-8926-X.  Levey, S. M.; D. King (1993). The Victoria and Albert Museum's Textile Collection Vol. 3: Embroidery
Embroidery
in Britain from 1200 to 1750. Victoria and Albert Museum. ISBN 1-85177-126-3.  Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, (2005). Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Volume 1. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-123-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Quinault, Marie-Jo (2003). Filet Lace, Introduction to the Linen Stitch. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-1549-9. [self-published source?] Readers Digest (1979). Complete Guide to Needlework. Readers Digest. ISBN 0-89577-059-8.  van Niekerk, Di (2006). A Perfect World in Ribbon
Ribbon
Embroidery
Embroidery
and Stumpwork. ISBN 1-84448-231-6.  Vogelsang, Gillian; Willem Vogelsang, editors (2015). TRC Needles. The TRC Digital Encyclopaedia of Decorative Needlework. Textile
Textile
Research Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Wilson, David M. (1985). The Bayeux Tapestry. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25122-3. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Embroidery
Embroidery
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Embroidery

Styles

Assisi Bargello Berlin work Blackwork Broderie anglaise Broderie perse Candlewicking Canvas
Canvas
work Celtic cross stitch Counted-thread Crewel Cross-stitch Cutwork Darning Drawn thread work Free embroidery Goldwork Hardanger Machine Needlepoint Quillwork Smocking Stumpwork Surface Suzani Whitework

Stitches

Backstitch Blanket Box Buttonhole Chain stitch Couching
Couching
and laid work Cross stitches Embroidery
Embroidery
stitch Featherstitch Holbein Parisian Running Satin stitch Sashiko Shisha Straight stitch Tent stitch

Tools and materials

Aida cloth Embroidery
Embroidery
hoop Embroidery
Embroidery
thread Evenweave Perforated paper Plainweave Plastic canvas Sampler Slip Yarn

Regional and historical

Art needlework Bunka shishu Brazilian Burmese Chikan Chinese (Cantonese, Xiang) English Indian Islamic Jacobean Kaitag Kantha Kasuti Korean Mountmellick Nakshi kantha Persian Opus Anglicanum Rushnyk Sewed muslin Ukrainian Vietnamese Vyshyvanka Zardozi

Embroideries

Butler-Bowden Cope Bayeux Tapestry Bradford carpet Hastings Embroidery Hedebo Hestia tapestry Magna Carta (An Embroidery) Margaret Layton's jacket New World Tapestry Overlord embroidery Quaker Tapestry Fragments of a Cope
Cope
with the Seven Sacraments

Designers and embroiderers

Emilie Bach Leon Conrad Kaffe Fassett Juanita Growing Thunder Fogarty Marilyn Leavitt-Imblum François Lesage Ann Macbeth May Morris Jessie Newbery Charles Germain de Saint Aubin Mary Elizabeth Turner Dimitri Vlachos - Castano Teresa Wentzler Kathleen Whyte Erica Wilson Lily Yeats

Organizations and museums

Embroiderers' Guild (UK) Embroiderer's Guild of America Embroidery
Embroidery
Software Protection Coalition Needlework
Needlework
Development Scheme Royal School of Needlework Chung Young Yang Embroidery
Embroidery
Museum Han Sang Soo Embroidery
Embroidery
Museum

Related

Appliqué Crochet Knitting Lace Needlework Quilting

v t e

Sewing

Techniques

Basting Cut Darning Ease Embellishment Fabric tube turning Floating canvas Gather Godet Gusset Heirloom sewing Shirring

Stitches

List of sewing stitches Backstitch Bar tack Blanket Blind stitch Buttonhole Catch stitch Chain stitch Cross-stitch Embroidery
Embroidery
stitch Hemstitch Lockstitch Overlock Pad stitch Pick stitch Rantering Running Sashiko Stoating Tack Topstitch Zigzag

Seams

Neckline Felled seam Seam allowance Style line

Notions Trims

Bias tape Collar stays Elastic Grommet
Grommet
/ Eyelet Interfacing Passementerie Piping Ruffle Rickrack Self-fabric Soutache Trim Twill tape Wrights

Closures

Buckle Button Buttonhole Frog Hook-and-eye Hook and loop fastener Shank Snap Zipper

Materials

Bias Yarn
Yarn
/ Thread Selvage Textiles / Fabrics

Tools

Bobbin Dress form Needlecase Needle threader Pattern notcher Pin Pincushion Pinking shears Scissors Seam ripper Sewing
Sewing
needle Stitching awl Tailor's ham Tape measure Thimble Tracing paper Tracing wheel

Trades Suppliers

Cloth merchant Draper Dressmaker Haberdasher Mercer Sewing
Sewing
occupations Tailor

Sewing
Sewing
machine manufacturers

List of sewing machine brands
List of sewing machine brands
and companies Barthélemy Thimonnier Bernina International Brother Industries Elias Howe Elna Feiyue Frister & Rossmann Janome Jones Sewing
Sewing
Machine Company Juki Merrow New Home Pfaff Sewmor Singer Tapemaster Viking / Husqvarna White

Pattern manufacturers

Butterick Burda Clothkits McCall's Simplicity

Glossary of sewing terms

v t e

Decorative arts
Decorative arts
and handicrafts

Textile

Banner-making Canvas
Canvas
work Cross-stitch Crocheting Embroidery Felting Friendship bracelet Knitting Lace-making Lucet Macrame Millinery Needlepoint Needlework Patchwork Quilting Ribbon
Ribbon
embroidery Rug hooking Rug making Sewing Shoemaking Spinning (textiles) String art Tapestry Tatting Tie-dye Weaving

Paper

Altered book Bookbinding Calligraphy Cardmaking Cast paper Collage

Decoupage Photomontage

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Kirigami Moneygami

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Paper
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Metal

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Other

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Doll
making Dollhouse Egg decorating Engraved gems Hardstone carving Lathart Lapidary Leatherworking Miniatures Micromosaic Mosaic

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