ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, or ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices , especially transistors , diodes and integrated circuits ) to design electronic circuits , devices , microprocessors , microcontrollers and other systems . The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards .
The Institute of Electrical and
* 1 Relationship to electrical engineering
* 2 History
* 5 Education and training
* 5.1 Electromagnetics * 5.2 Network analysis * 5.3 Electronic devices and circuits * 5.4 Signals and systems * 5.5 Control systems * 5.6 Communications
* 6 Professional bodies * 7 Project engineering * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links
RELATIONSHIP TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Main article: History of electronic engineering
Electronic engineering as a profession sprang from technological
improvements in the telegraph industry in the late 19th century and
the radio and the telephone industries in the early 20th century.
People were attracted to radio by the technical fascination it
inspired, first in receiving and then in transmitting. Many who went
into broadcasting in the 1920s were only 'amateurs' in the period
World War I
To a large extent, the modern discipline of electronic engineering was born out of telephone, radio, and television equipment development and the large amount of electronic systems development during World War II of radar , sonar , communication systems, and advanced munitions and weapon systems. In the interwar years, the subject was known as radio engineering and it was only in the late 1950s that the term ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING started to emerge.
In the field of electronic engineering, engineers design and test circuits that use the electromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors , capacitors , inductors , diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuner circuit , which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit.
In designing an integrated circuit, electronics engineers first construct circuit schematics that specify the electrical components and describe the interconnections between them. When completed, VLSI engineers convert the schematics into actual layouts, which map the layers of various conductor and semiconductor materials needed to construct the circuit. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by software (see electronic design automation ) but very often requires human fine-tuning to decrease space and power consumption. Once the layout is complete, it can be sent to a fabrication plant for manufacturing.
For systems of intermediate complexity engineers may use VHDL
modelling for programmable logic devices and
Integrated circuits ,
Electronic engineering has many subfields. This section describes some of the most popular subfields in electronic engineering; although there are engineers who focus exclusively on one subfield, there are also many who focus on a combination of subfields.
SIGNAL PROCESSING deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals . Signals can be either analog , in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital , in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information.
For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications . For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression , error checking and error detection of digital signals.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING deals with the transmission of information across a channel such as a co-axial cable , optical fiber or free space .
Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation . Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation . The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.
Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver . A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength . If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal's information will be corrupted by noise .
CONTROL ENGINEERING has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airplanes to the cruise control present in many modern cars . It also plays an important role in industrial automation .
Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems . For example, in a car with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the engine\'s power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure , flow and temperature . These devices are known as instrumentation .
The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory . For example, radar guns use the Doppler effect to measure the speed of oncoming vehicles. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier–Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.
Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering.
COMPUTER ENGINEERING deals with the design of computers and computer
systems. This may involve the design of new computer hardware , the
design of PDAs or the use of computers to control an industrial plant
. Development of embedded systems —systems made for specific tasks
(e.g., mobile phones)—is also included in this field. This field
includes the micro controller and its applications.
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Some electronics engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate
degree such as a Master of Science (
MSc ), Doctor of Philosophy in
In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified. Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa), Chartered Engineer or Incorporated Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (in much of the European Union).
Some trained physicists may also choose to become Electronic Engineers.
A degree in electronics generally includes units covering physics , chemistry , mathematics , project management and specific topics in electrical engineering . Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the subfields of electronic engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more subfields towards the end of the degree.
Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and
mathematics as these help to obtain both a qualitative and
quantitative description of how such systems will work. Today most
engineering work involves the use of computers and it is commonplace
to use computer-aided design and simulation software programs when
designing electronic systems. Although most electronic engineers will
understand basic circuit theory, the theories employed by engineers
generally depend upon the work they do. For example, quantum mechanics
and solid state physics might be relevant to an engineer working on
Apart from electromagnetics and network theory, other items in the syllabus are particular to electronics engineering course. Electrical engineering courses have other specialisms such as machines , power generation and distribution . This list does not include the extensive engineering mathematics curriculum that is a prerequisite to a degree.
Elements of vector calculus : divergence and curl ; Gauss\' and
Stokes\' theorems , Maxwell\'s equations : differential and integral
Wave equation ,
Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform : frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.
ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS
ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic
silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift
current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of
carriers. p-n junction diode,
Zener diode , tunnel diode ,
BJT , JFET
ANALOG CIRCUITS: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, Power supplies.
DIGITAL CIRCUITS: Boolean functions (NOT , AND , OR , XOR ,...).
Logic gates digital IC families (
DTL , TTL , ECL , MOS ,
SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS
Definitions and properties of
Laplace transform , continuous-time and
Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis and design: root
Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion , Bode and Nyquist plots .
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation,
Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID).
Discretization of continuous time systems using
Zero-order hold (
and ADCs for digital controller implementation. Limitations of digital
controllers: aliasing. State variable representation and solution of
state equation of LTI control systems. Linearization of Nonlinear
dynamical systems with state-space realizations in both frequency and
time domains. Fundamental concepts of controllability and
ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne noise conditions.
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: pulse-code modulation (PCM),
differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM),
digital modulation – amplitude, phase- and frequency-shift keying
schemes (ASK , PSK , FSK ), matched-filter receivers, bandwidth
consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes,
Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include the
Institute of Electrical and
For most engineers not involved at the cutting edge of system design and development, technical work accounts for only a fraction of the work they do. A lot of time is also spent on tasks such as discussing proposals with clients, preparing budgets and determining project schedules. Many senior engineers manage a team of technicians or other engineers and for this reason project management skills are important. Most engineering projects involve some form of documentation and strong written communication skills are therefore very important.
The workplaces of electronics engineers are just as varied as the
types of work they do.
Obsolescence of technical skills is a serious concern for electronics engineers. Membership and participation in technical societies, regular reviews of periodicals in the field and a habit of continued learning are therefore essential to maintaining proficiency. And these are mostly used in the field of consumer electronics products.
Glossary of electrical and electronics engineering
Analog signal processing
Digital signal processing
* ^ Allan R. Hambley Electrical Engineering, pp. 3, 441, Prentice
Hall, 2004 ISBN 978-0-13-147046-0
* ^ Principles of Electrical Engineering. Books.google.com.
* ^ Anthony J. Pansini Electrical Distribution Engineering, p. xiv,
The Fairmont Press Inc., 2006 ISBN 978-0-88173-546-8
* ^ Erik Barnouw A Tower in Babel, p. 28, Oxford University Press
US, 1966 ISBN 978-0-19-500474-8