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Sir Edmund Percival Hillary KG ONZ KBE OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay
Tenzing Norgay
became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school. He made his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier. He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force
Royal New Zealand Air Force
as a navigator during World War II. Prior to the Everest expedition, Hillary had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
in 1952. As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition
Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition
he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest. Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people
Sherpa people
of Nepal
Nepal
through the Himalayan Trust, which he established. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in Nepal. From 1985 to 1988 he served as New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and concurrently as Ambassador to Nepal. Hillary had numerous honours conferred upon him, including the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1995. Upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand.

Contents

1 Early life 2 World War II 3 Expeditions

3.1 1953 Everest expedition 3.2 After Everest

4 Public recognition 5 Personal life

5.1 Philanthropy 5.2 Political involvement

6 Death

6.1 Posthumous tributes

7 Arms 8 Publications 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Early life

Hillary's mother Gertrude Clark, 1909

Hillary was born to Percival Augustus and Gertrude (née Clark) Hillary in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919.[1][2] His family moved to Tuakau, south of Auckland, in 1920, after his father, who served at Gallipoli with the 15th (North Auckland) Regiment, was allocated land there.[2] His grandparents had emigrated from Yorkshire to northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century.[3] Hillary was educated at Tuakau
Tuakau
Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School.[2] He finished primary school two years early and at high school achieved average marks.[4] He was initially smaller than his peers and shy, but gained confidence after taking up boxing. He became interested in climbing when he was 16 following a school trip to Mount Ruapehu, after which he showed more interest in tramping than in studying and said he "wanted to see the world".[5][6] He studied mathematics and science at Auckland
Auckland
University College and in 1939 completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook
in the Southern Alps.[2] He took up beekeeping with his brother,[1][7] which occupied him in the summer while he concentrated on climbing in winter.[8] His father was a beekeeper, and although Hillary's inclination was for climbing, he became a professional beekeeper.[9][10] He joined the Radiant Living Tramping
Tramping
Club, where a health philosophy developed by Herbert Sutcliffe was taught; tours with the club through the Waitakere Ranges further developed his love of the outdoors.[11]

World War II

Hillary in Royal New Zealand Air Force
Royal New Zealand Air Force
uniform at Delta Camp, near Blenheim, New Zealand, during World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, Hillary applied to join the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) but quickly withdrew the application, later writing that he was "harassed by my religious conscience".[12] In 1943, with the Japanese threat in the Pacific and the arrival of conscription, he joined the RNZAF as a navigator in No. 6 Squadron RNZAF and later No. 5 Squadron RNZAF
No. 5 Squadron RNZAF
on Catalina flying boats.[12][13] In 1945, he was sent to Fiji
Fiji
and to the Solomon Islands, where he was badly burnt in an accident.[12] Expeditions In January 1948, Hillary and others ascended the south ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak.[14] In 1951 he was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest led by Eric Shipton,[15] before joining the successful British attempt of 1953. In 1952, Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Shipton, that attempted Cho Oyu.[16] After that attempt failed due to the lack of route from the Nepal
Nepal
side, Hillary and Lowe crossed the Nup La pass into Tibet
Tibet
and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the previous expeditions had camped.[17] 1953 Everest expedition Main article: 1953 British Mount Everest
Mount Everest
expedition

External audio

Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Scales the Heights of Literary Society, 1954, Hillary speaks 5:00–18:57, WNYC[18]

In 1949, the long-standing climbing route to the summit of Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet. For the next several years, Nepal allowed only one or two expeditions per year.[19] A Swiss expedition (in which Tenzing took part) attempted to reach the summit in 1952, but was forced back by bad weather around 800 feet (240 m) below the summit.[20] In 1952 Hillary learned that he and Lowe had been invited by the Joint Himalayan Committee for the 1953 British attempt and immediately accepted.[21] Shipton was named as leader but was replaced by Hunt. Hillary was immediately impressed by Hunt's energy and determination.[22] Hillary had intended to climb with Lowe, but Hunt named two teams for the assault: Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans; and Hillary and Tenzing.[23] Hillary, therefore, made a concerted effort to forge a working friendship with Tenzing.[22]

Tenzing and Hillary

The Hunt expedition totalled over 400 people, including 362 porters, 20 Sherpa guides, and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of baggage.[24][25] Lowe supervised the preparation of the Lhotse
Lhotse
Face, a huge and steep ice face, for climbing. Hillary forged a route through the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.[26][27] The expedition set up base camp in March 1953 and, working slowly, set up its final camp at the South Col
South Col
at 25,900 feet (7,890 m). On 26 May, Bourdillon and Evans attempted the climb but turned back when Evans' oxygen system failed. The pair had reached the South Summit, coming within 300 vertical feet (91 m) of the summit.[25][28] Hunt then directed Hillary and Tenzing to attempt the summit.[28] Snow and wind delayed them at the South Col
South Col
for two days. They set out on 28 May with the support of Lowe, Alfred Gregory, and Ang Nyima.[29] The two pitched a tent at 27,900 feet (8,500 m) on 28 May, while their support group returned down the mountain.[30] On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent. He spent two hours warming them over a stove before he and Tenzing, wearing 30-pound (14 kg) packs, attempted the final ascent.[31] The final obstacle was the 40-foot (12 m) rock face now called "Hillary Step"; Hillary later wrote:

I noticed a crack between the rock and the snow sticking to the East Face. I crawled inside and wriggled and jammed my way to the top ... Tenzing slowly joined me and we moved on. I chopped steps over bump after bump, wondering a little desperately where the top could be. Then I saw the ridge ahead dropped away to the north and above me on the right was a rounded snow dome. A few more whacks with my ice-axe and Tenzing and I stood on top of Everest.[32]

Hillary and Tenzing on return from the Everest's summit

Tenzing later wrote that Hillary took the first step onto the summit and he followed. They reached Everest's 29,028 ft (8,848 m) summit – the highest point on earth – at 11:30 am.[1][33] They spent about 15 minutes at the summit. Hillary took a photo of Tenzing posing with his ice-axe, but there is no photo of Hillary. BBC News attributed this to Tenzing's having never used a camera;[34][35] Tenzing's autobiography says that Hillary simply declined to have his picture taken. They also took photos looking down the mountain.[35]

Hillary (left) and George Lowe (right) with Governor-General Sir Willoughby Norrie at Government House, Wellington, 20 August 1953

Tenzing left chocolates at the summit as an offering, and Hillary left a cross given him by John Hunt.[36] Their descent was complicated by drifting snow which had covered their tracks. The first person they met was Lowe; Hillary said, "Well, George, we knocked the bastard off."[6] They returned to Kathmandu
Kathmandu
a few days later and learned that Hillary had already been appointed a Knight
Knight
Commander of the Order of the British Empire and Hunt a Knight
Knight
Bachelor.[37] News reached Britain on the day of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, and the press called it a coronation gift.[38] The 37 members of the party later received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal with mount everest expedition engraved along the rim.[39] In addition to the knighting of Hillary and Hunt, Tenzing – ineligible for knighthood as a Nepalese citizen – received the George Medal.[40][41][42] Tenzing also received the Star of Nepal
Nepal
from King Tribhuvan.[43] After Everest

In the cockpit of the Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition's DHC-2, 1956

Hillary climbed ten other peaks in the Himalayas
Himalayas
on further visits in 1956, 1960–1961, and 1963–1965. He also reached the South Pole
South Pole
as part of the Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition, for which he led the New Zealand section, on 4 January 1958. His party was the first to reach the Pole overland since Amundsen in 1911 and Scott in 1912, and the first ever to do so using motor vehicles.[44] In 1960 Hillary organized an expedition to search for the fabled abominable snowman.[45] Hillary was with the expedition for five months, although it lasted for ten.[46] No evidence of Yetis was found, instead footprints and tracks were proven to be from other causes. During the expedition, Hillary travelled to remote temples which contained " Yeti
Yeti
scalps"; however after bringing back three relics, two were shown to be from bears and one from a goat antelope.[47][48] Hillary said after the expedition: "The yeti is not a strange, superhuman creature as has been imagined. We have found rational explanations for most yeti phenomena".[49]

Hillary in 1957 after ac­com­pa­nying the first plane to land at the Marble Point
Marble Point
ground air strip, Antarctica

In 1962 he was a guest on the television game show What's My Line?; he stumped the panel, comprising Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, and Merv Griffin.[50] In 1977, he led a jetboat expedition, titled "Ocean to Sky", from the mouth of the Ganges River to its source.[51] From 1977 to 1979 he commentated aboard Antarctic sightseeing flights operated by Air New Zealand.[52] In 1985, he accompanied Neil Armstrong
Neil Armstrong
in a small twin-engined ski plane over the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and landed at the North Pole. Hillary thus became the first man to stand at both poles and on the summit of Everest.[53][54][55][56] This accomplishment inspired generations of explorers to compete over what later was defined as Three Poles Challenge. In January 2007, Hillary travelled to Antarctica
Antarctica
as part of a delegation commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Scott Base.[57][58][59] Public recognition

Hillary on the New Zealand five-dollar note

On 6 June 1953 Hillary was appointed Knight
Knight
Commander of the Order of the British Empire and received the Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Coronation Medal the same year.[60] On 6 February 1987, he was the fourth appointee to the Order of New Zealand.[61] He was also awarded the Polar Medal in 1958 for his part in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition,[62][63] the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
in 1953, and the Coronation Medal in 1975.[64] On 22 April 1995 Hillary was appointed Knight
Knight
Companion of The Most Noble Order of the Garter.[65][66] On 17 June 2004 Hillary was awarded Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland.[67] The Government of India conferred on him its second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, posthumously, in 2008.[68] To mark the 50th anniversary of the first successful ascent of Everest, the Nepalese government
Nepalese government
conferred honorary citizenship upon Hillary at a special Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
celebration in Kathmandu, Nepal. He was the first foreign national to receive that honour.[69][10] Since 1992, New Zealand's $5 note has featured Hillary's portrait, making him the only living person not a current head of state ever to appear on a New Zealand banknote. In giving his permission, Hillary insisted that Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook
rather than Mount Everest
Mount Everest
be used as the backdrop.[70][71]

Statue of Hillary gazing towards Aoraki / Mount Cook, one of his favourite peaks[72]

Annual Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest
polls from 2005 to 2007 named Hillary as "New Zealand's most trusted individual".[73][74] Hillary's favoured New Zealand charity was the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre, of which he was patron for 35 years.[75] He was particularly keen on how this organisation introduced young New Zealanders to the outdoors in a very similar way to his first experience of a school trip to Mt Ruapehu at the age of 16. A 2.3-metre (7.5 ft) bronze statue of Hillary was erected outside The Hermitage Hotel at Mount Cook Village; it was unveiled by Hillary himself in 2003.[76] Various streets, institutions and organisations around New Zealand and abroad are named after him – for example, the Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate in Otara, which was established by Hillary in 2001.[77] Two Antarctic
Antarctic
features are named after Hillary. The Hillary Coast
Hillary Coast
is a section of coastline south of Ross Island and north of the Shackleton Coast.[78] The Hillary Canyon, an undersea feature in the Ross Sea, appears on the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, published by the International Hydrographic Organization.[79] Personal life

Hillary, with first wife, Louise, and son, Peter, 1955

Hillary married Louise Mary Rose on 3 September 1953, soon after the ascent of Everest; he admitted he was terrified of proposing to her and relied on her mother to propose on his behalf.[7][8][80] They had three children: Peter (born 1954), Sarah (born 1955) and Belinda (1959–1975).[1][28] In 1975 while en route to join Hillary in the village of Phaphlu, where he was helping to build a hospital, Louise and Belinda were killed in a plane crash near Kathmandu
Kathmandu
airport shortly after take-off.[7] In 1989 he married June Mulgrew, the widow of his close friend Peter Mulgrew, who died on Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Flight 901 in 1979.[8][81] His son Peter Hillary
Peter Hillary
also became a climber, summiting Everest in 1990. In May 2002 Peter climbed Everest as part of a 50th anniversary celebration; Jamling Tenzing Norgay
Tenzing Norgay
(son of Tenzing who had died in 1986) was also part of the expedition.[82] Hillary's home for most of his life was a property on Remuera Road in Auckland
Auckland
City,[83] where he enjoyed reading adventure and science fiction novels in his retirement.[83] He also built a bach at Whites Beach,[84] one of Auckland's west coast beaches in the former Waitakere City, between Anawhata
Anawhata
and North Piha;[85][86] a friend called it Hillary's place of solace, where he could escape media attention.[84] The Hillary family has had a connection with the west coast of Auckland
Auckland
since 1925, when Louise's father built a bach at Anawhata.[87] The family donated land at Whites Beach that is now crossed by trampers on the Hillary Trail, named for Edmund.[88] Hillary said of the area: "That is the thing that international travel brings home to me – it's always good to be going home. This is the only place I want to live in; this is the place I want to see out my days."[89] Philanthropy

Hillary in Warsaw
Warsaw
in 2004, wearing his Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit

Following his ascent of Everest he devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people
Sherpa people
of Nepal
Nepal
through the Himalayan Trust, which he established in 1960[90] and led until his death in 2008. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in this remote region of the Himalayas. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, a United States non-profit body that helps improve the ecology and living conditions in the Himalayas. He was also the Honorary President of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the worldwide protection of mountains.[91] Political involvement Hillary took part in the 1975 New Zealand general election, as a member of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign. His involvement in this campaign was seen as precluding his nomination as Governor-General;[92] the position was offered to Keith Holyoake
Keith Holyoake
in 1977. In 1985, Hillary was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India (concurrently High Commissioner to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Ambassador to Nepal) and spent four and a half years based in New Delhi.[93] In 1975, Hillary served as a vice president for the Abortion Law Reform Association of New Zealand,[94] a national pro-choice advocacy group.[95] He was also a patron of REPEAL, an organization seeking repeal of the restrictive Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977.[94] Death

People draped in the Flag of New Zealand
Flag of New Zealand
as Hillary's hearse passes

On 22 April 2007, while on a trip to Kathmandu, Hillary suffered a fall, and was hospitalised after returning to New Zealand.[96] On 11 January 2008 he died of heart failure at Auckland
Auckland
City Hospital.[97] Flags were lowered to half-mast on New Zealand public buildings and at Scott Base
Scott Base
in Antarctica,[98] and Prime Minister Helen Clark
Helen Clark
called Hillary's death a "profound loss to New Zealand".[99] On 21 January, Hillary's casket was taken into Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland, to lie in state.[100] A state funeral was held on 22 January 2008,[101] after which his body was cremated. On 29 February 2008 most of his ashes were scattered in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf
Hauraki Gulf
per his desire.[102] The remainder went to a Nepalese monastery near Everest; a plan to scatter them on the summit was cancelled in 2010.[103] Posthumous tributes In January 2008, Lukla
Lukla
Airport, in Lukla, Nepal, was renamed to Tenzing–Hillary Airport
Tenzing–Hillary Airport
in recognition of their promotion of its construction.[104][105] On 2 April 2008, a service of thanksgiving in Hillary's honour at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle
was attended by Queen Elizabeth, New Zealand dignitaries including Prime Minister Helen Clark, and members of Hillary's and Norgay's families; Gurkha soldiers from Nepal
Nepal
stood guard outside the ceremony.[106][107] In October 2008, it was announced that future rugby test matches between England and New Zealand would be played for the Hillary Shield.[108] In 2009 the Duke of Edinburgh's Award
Duke of Edinburgh's Award
in New Zealand – formerly the Young New Zealanders' Challenge – was renamed "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award".[109] On 5 November 2008, a commemorative set of five stamps was issued by New Zealand Post.[110][111] There have been many calls for lasting tributes to Hillary. The first major public tribute has been by way of the "Summits for Ed" tribute tour organised by the Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Foundation.[112] This tribute tour went from Bluff at the bottom of the South Island to Cape Reinga at the tip of the North Island, visiting 39 towns and cities along the way. In each venue, school children and members of the public were invited to join together to climb a significant hill or site in their area to show their respect for Hillary. The public were also invited to bring small rocks or pebbles that had special significance to them, that would be included in a memorial to Hillary at the base of Mt Ruapehu, in the grounds of the Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Outdoor Pursuits Centre. Funds donated during the tour are used by the foundation to sponsor young New Zealanders on outdoor courses. Over 8,000 persons attended these "Summit" climbs between March and May 2008.[113]

View from the Hillary Trail

The tribute song "Hillary 88", by the New Zealand duo The Kiwis, is the official world memorial song for Hillary, with the endorsement of Lady Hillary.[114] A four-day track in the Waitakere Ranges, along Auckland's west coast, is named the Hillary Trail,[115] in honour of Hillary.[88] Hillary's father-in-law, Jim Rose, who had built a bach at Anawhata
Anawhata
in 1925, wrote in his 1982 history of Anawhata
Anawhata
Beach, "My family look forward to the time when we will be able to walk from Huia to Muriwai
Muriwai
on public walking tracks like the old-time Maori could do".[87][116] Hillary loved the area, and had his own bach near Anawhata. The track was opened on 11 January 2010, the second anniversary of Hillary's death.[97][117] Rose Track, descending from Anawhata
Anawhata
Road to Whites Beach, is named after the Rose family.[89][118] The South Ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest mountain, was renamed Hillary Ridge on 18 August 2011. Hillary and three other climbers were the first party to successfully climb the ridge in 1948.[119] In September 2013 the Government of Nepal
Nepal
proposed naming a 7,681 metres (25,200 ft) mountain in Nepal
Nepal
Hillary Peak in his honour.[120] After the New Horizons
New Horizons
mission discovered a mountain range on Pluto
Pluto
on 14 July 2015, it was informally named Hillary Montes
Hillary Montes
(Hillary Mountains) by NASA.[121] The Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Mountain Legacy Medal, awarded by the Nepalese NGO Mountain Legacy "for remarkable service in the conservation of culture and nature in mountainous regions" was inaugurated in 2003, with the approval of Sir Edmund Hillary. A bronze bust of Hillary (circa 1953) by Ophelia Gordon Bell
Ophelia Gordon Bell
is in the Te Papa museum in Wellington, New Zealand.[122] The Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Archive was added to the UNESCO Memory of the world archive in 2013,[123] it is currently held by Auckland
Auckland
War Memorial Museum.[124] Arms

Coat of arms of Edmund Hillary

This box:

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Crest An azure kiwi grasping an ice axe. Escutcheon A stylised mountain range surrounded by three prayer wheels. Supporters A Fiordland crested penguin wearing a plain collar on either side. Compartment An iceflow proper. Motto Nothing venture, nothing win Orders The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
ribbon. Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)

Publications

Books written by Edmund Hillary

Title Year Publisher ISBN/ASIN Co-author Ref

High Adventure[a] 1955 Hodder & Stoughton[b] ISBN 1-932302-02-6[c] n/a [125][45]

East of Everest — An Account of the New Zealand Alpine Club Himalayan Expedition to the Barun Valley in 1954 1956 E. P. Dutton ASIN B000EW84UM George Lowe [125]

No Latitude for Error 1961 Hodder & Stoughton. ASIN B000H6UVP6 n/a [125][45]

The New Zealand Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition 1959 R.W. Stiles, printers. ASIN B0007K6D72 n/a

The Crossing of Antarctica: The Commonwealth Transantarctic Expedition, 1955–1958 1958 Cassell ASIN B000HJGZ08 Vivian Fuchs [125]

High in the thin cold air[d] 1962 Doubleday ASIN B00005W121 Desmond Doig [125]

Schoolhouse in the Clouds 1965 Hodder & Stoughton ASIN B00005WRBB n/a [125]

Nothing Venture, Nothing Win 1975 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-21296-9 n/a [125]

From the Ocean to the Sky: Jet Boating Up the Ganges 1979 Viking ISBN 0-7089-0587-0 n/a [125]

Two Generations[e] 1984 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-35420-8 Peter Hillary [f][125]

View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest 2000 Pocket ISBN 0-7434-0067-4 n/a

Notes

^ Also High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest ^ (reprinted Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
(paperback) ^ and ISBN 0-19-516734-1 ^ the story of the Himalayan Expedition, led by Sir Edmund Hillary, sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia ^ reissued as Ascent: Two Lives Explored: The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary ^ (1992) Paragon House Publishers ISBN 1-55778-408-6.

References Citations

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Nepal
and New Zealand". Times Online. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2008.  ^ a b c Robert Sullivan, Time Magazine, Sir Edmund Hillary—A visit with the world's greatest living adventurer, 12 September 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Archived 25 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c National Geographic, Everest: 50 Years and Counting. Retrieved 22 January 2007. ^ Hillary, Sir Edmund (Percival). (2017). In Encyclopaedia Britannica, Britannica concise encyclopedia. Chicago, IL: Britannica Digital Learning. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ebconcise/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/0?institutionId=292 ^ a b "Sir Edmund Hillary." Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 September 2012. academic-eb-com/levels/collegiate/article/Sir-Edmund-Hillary/40469. Accessed 14 March 2018. ^ Barnett, Shaun (30 October 2012). "Hillary, Edmund Percival – Early mountaineering". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  ^ a b c Calder, Peter (11 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary's life". The New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings NZ Limited. Retrieved 11 January 2008.  ^ "Edmund Percival Hillary". Auckland
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War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2015.  ^ Langton, Graham (22 June 2007). "Ayres, Horace Henry 1912–1987". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2009.  ^ Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering
Mountaineering
from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 278.  ^ Barnett, Shaun (7 December 2010). " Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
expedition team, 1952". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.  ^ Gordon, Harry (12 January 2008). "Hillary, deity of the high country", The Australian. Retrieved 19 June 2010. ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
scales the heights of literary society". WNYC. Retrieved 31 October 2016.  ^ Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering
Mountaineering
from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 437.  ^ Hillary 1955, pp. 48,235. ^ Hillary 1955, p. 117. ^ a b Hillary 1955, p. 119. ^ Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering
Mountaineering
from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 284–286.  ^ Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing reach the top, Reuter (in The Guardian, 2 June 1953) ^ a b Reaching The Top Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 13 January 2008. ^ Hillary 1955, p. 151. ^ Elish 2007, p. 30. ^ a b c The New Zealand Edge, Sir Edmund Hillary—King Of The World. Retrieved 22 January 2007. ^ Hillary 1955, p. 197. ^ Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering
Mountaineering
from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 288.  ^ Hillary 1955, p. 213. ^ Two Generations. pp. 27–28.  ^ Everest not as tall as thought Agençe France-Presse (on abc.net.au), 10 October 2005 ^ Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
BBC News, 11 January 2008 ^ a b Joanna Wright (2003). "The Photographs Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.", in Everest, Summit of Achievement, by the Royal Geographic Society. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 0-7432-4386-2. Retrieved 11 January 2008. ^ Hillary 1955, p. 229. ^ Editorial Staff (12 June 1953). "(announcements)". The London Gazette. p. 3273. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Reuters
Reuters
(2 June 1953), "2 of British Team Conquer Everest", New York Times, p. 1, retrieved 18 December 2009  ^ Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 76. ^ ' George Medal
George Medal
for Tensing – Award Approved by the Queen' in The Times (London), issue 52663 dated Thursday 2 July 1953, p. 6 ^ Hansen, Peter H. (2004). "' Tenzing Norgay
Tenzing Norgay
[Sherpa Tenzing] (1914–1986)'" ((subscription required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January 2008.  ^ Vallely, Paul (10 May 1986). "Man of the mountains Tenzing dies". The Times. UK.  ^ McFadden, Robert D. (2008). "Edmund Hillary, First on Everest, Dies at 88". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ Ministry for Culture and Heritage (22 July 2014). " Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
in Antarctica". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November 2016.  ^ a b c Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2017). In P. Lagasse, & Columbia University, The Columbia encyclopedia (7th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/columency/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/0?institutionId=292 ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary, a Life in Pictures". news.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ "The Yeti: Asia's Abominable Snowman". Live Science. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ "Objects of Intrigue: Yeti
Yeti
Scalp". Atlas Obscura. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ "' Yeti
Yeti
scalp' fails to convince Hillary". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ " What's My Line?
What's My Line?
– Sir Edmund Hillary; Diahann Carroll; Merv Griffin [panel] (May 20, 1962)". Retrieved 11 March 2018.  ^ Ministry for Culture and Heritage (13 January 2016). "The end of the 'big mountain days' – Ed Hillary"". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November 2016.  ^ The Antarctic
Antarctic
experience – Erebus disaster New Zealand History online; retrieved 13 January 2008. ^ Attwooll, Jolyon. "Sixty fascinating Everest facts". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 22 July 2016.  ^ TIME: The Greatest Adventures of All Time – The Race to the Pole (interview with Sir Edmund) Archived 25 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ March 2003 interview with Hillary in The Guardian ^ "Video: Interview on HardTalk". BBC News. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.  ^ NDTV, Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
revisits Antarctica, 20 January 2007.[dead link] ^ Harvey, Claire (21 January 2007). "Claire Harvey on Ice: Mt Erebus sends chills of horror". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ Radio Network, PM and Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
off to Scott Base, 15 January 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2007. Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "No. 39886". The London Gazette. 12 June 1953. p. 3273.  ^ "The Order of New Zealand" (12 February 1987) 20 New Zealand Gazette 705 at 709. ^ "No. 41384". The London Gazette. 13 May 1958. p. 2997.  ^ "medal, award". Auckland
Auckland
War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2015.  ^ O'Shea, Phillip. "The orders, decorations and medals of Sir Edmund Hillary, KG, ON Z, KBE (1919–2008)" (PDF). Reserve Bank Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.  ^ Editorial Staff (25 April 1995). "State Intelligence". the London Gazette. p. 6023. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ "The Most Noble Order of the Garter-K.G." (4 May 1995) 42 1071 at 1088. ^ "Zmarł Edmund Hillary, pierwszy zdobywca Mt Everest". Gazeta.pl Wiadomości (in Polish). Agora S.A. 10 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ "Pranab, Tendulkar, Asha Bhosle
Asha Bhosle
receive Padma Vibhushan". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 May 2008.  ^ Mountaineering
Mountaineering
Great Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
passes away 12 January 2008 The Rising Nepal
Nepal
Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
– Commemorative $5 Bank Note". www.siredmundhillary.com. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  ^ "Banknotes in circulation". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ Explaining Currency Archived 12 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. NZ Government ^ "Sir Ed tops NZ's most trusted list". Television New Zealand. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  ^ Rowan, Juliet (29 May 2007). "Parents trust firefighters, but want kids to be high-earning lawyers". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  ^ "Our Uniqueness". Hillary Outdoors Education CentresOPC. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
at The Hermitage July 2003". www.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ "Collegiate Story". sehc.school.nz. Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Collegiate. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ "Hillary Coast". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Booker, Jarrod (16 January 2008). "Hillary's first mountain could take name". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2008.  ^ Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved 22 January 2007. ^ Sailing Source, Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
to Start Rolex Sydney-Hobart Race Archived 3 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 22 January 2007. ^ National Geographic 50th Anniversary Everest Expedition Reaches Summit, National Geographic News, 25 May 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2011. ^ a b Sarney, Estelle (28 February 2009). "Sir Ed's haven on the market". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ a b "Sir Ed's bach a place of solace". Nor-west News. Huapai, New Zealand: Fairfax New Zealand. January 2008. OCLC 276732793. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ BA30 – Helensville (Map). 1:50,000. Topo50. Land Information New Zealand. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ Map 3.5 (C) Outstanding Coastal Areas (PDF) (Map). Policy Section Maps. Waitakere City
Waitakere City
Council. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ a b "Hillary Trail: The Hillary connection". Parks: Things to do. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland
Auckland
Regional Council. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ a b "Multi-day Waitakere trail named after Sir Edmund Hillary" (Press release). Auckland
Auckland
Regional Council. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ a b Dye, Stuart (14 January 2008). "Lonely site legend's special place". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland, New Zealand: Wilson and Horton. ISSN 1170-0777. OCLC 55942740. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  ^ "About us". himalayantrust.org. Himalayan Trust
Himalayan Trust
New Zealand. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  ^ "Historical faces". Mountain Wilderness. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Rowling: The man and the myth by John Henderson, Australia New Zealand Press, 1980. ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountaineer who conquered Everest and devoted his". The Independent. 12 January 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ a b "Obituaries". ALRANZ Newsletter. November 2008.  ^ "Our History". ALRANZ.org. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.  ^ Dye, Stuart (24 April 2007). "Clark sends goodwill message to Sir Edmund". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ a b McKenzie-Minifie, Martha (11 January 2008). " State funeral
State funeral
for Sir Edmund Hillary". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ "Flag flies at half-mast over a sad Scott Base". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ Clark statement on Hillary death, cnn.com; retrieved 11 January 2008. ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
lies in state". Fairfax Media. 21 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2008.  ^ " State funeral
State funeral
for Sir Ed". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 29 September 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
takes final voyage, ashes scattered at sea". The New Zealand Herald. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2011.  ^ "Sherpas cancel plan to spread Hillary ashes on Everest". BBC News. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.  ^ " Nepal
Nepal
to name Everest airport after Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
and Tenzing Norgay". International Herald Tribune. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Sharma, Gopal (11 February 2008). " Nepal
Nepal
airport, route named after Everest heroes". Reuters. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
service of thanksgiving". BBC News. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.  ^ "Third night in hospital for duke". BBC News. 5 April 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.  ^ Gray, Wynne (1 December 2008). "All Blacks: Henry's men reach summit". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2008.  ^ "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award". Retrieved 1 September 2009.  ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Stamps". New Zealand Post. Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ "Honouring Edmund Hillary". NZ History. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ Summits for Ed tribute tour Archived 13 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Foundation and Outdoor Pursuits Centre.[dead link] ^ "Summits for Ed Tribute Tour". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Horowhenua Musicians Perform Sir Edmund Hillary's Official World Memorial Song". Horowhenua District Council. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.  ^ "Regional parks: Home > Parks and facilities > Hillary Trail". Auckland
Auckland
Council. Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ Wade, Pamela (13 January 2010). "Waitakere: Backyard adventure". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland, New Zealand: Wilson and Horton. ISSN 1170-0777. OCLC 55942740. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Hillary Trail". Parks: Things to do. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland
Auckland
Regional Council. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Hillary Trail Waitakere Ranges
Waitakere Ranges
Regional Park" (PDF). Auckland Regional Council (arc). Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ Levy, Danya (10 August 2011). "Aoraki/Mt Cook ridge named after Hillary". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011.  ^ "Mount Everest: Hillary and Tenzing to have peaks named after them". The Guardian. 6 September 2013.  ^ Gipson, Lillian (25 July 2015). " New Horizons
New Horizons
Discovers Flowing Ices on Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ "Object: Sir Edmund :)Hillary". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
Archive". www.unescomow.org.nz. Retrieved 22 November 2015.  ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
– Personal papers". Auckland
Auckland
War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 22 November 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2011). In L. Rodger, & J. Bakewell, Chambers Biographical Dictionary (9th ed.). London, UK: Chambers Harrap. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/chambbd/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/1?institutionId=292

Sources

Elish, Dan (2007). Edmund Hillary: First to the Top. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-761-42224-2.  Hillary, Edmund (1955). High Adventure. 649. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-16734-4.  Johnston, Alexa; Larsen, David (2005). Reaching the Summit: Sir Edmund Hillary's Life of Adventure. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-756-61527-7.  Johnston, Alexa (2013). Sir Edmund Hillary: An Extraordinary Life. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited. p. 504. ISBN 978-0143006466.  Little, Paul (2012). After Everest: Inside the private world of Edmund Hillary. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-877505-20-1.  Tuckey, Harriet (2013). Everest: The First Ascent — How a Champion of Science Helped to Conquer the Mountain. Lyons Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-762-79192-7. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Edmund Hillary

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edmund Hillary.

Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography On top of the world: Ed Hillary at nzhistory.net.nz Videos (10) at the New Zealand National Film Unit Obituary of Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
at tributes.com Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountain Climbing at Smithsonian Folkways Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, 17 April 1979 Edmund Hillary's collection at Auckland
Auckland
War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
addressing The New York Herald Tribune Book and Author Luncheon, February 10, 1954 broadcast by WNYC

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 9847762 LCCN: n50035179 ISNI: 0000 0001 0868 4310 GND: 118551086 SELIBR: 304783 SUDOC: 02916432X BNF: cb11907527z (data) BIBSYS: 90555237 NLA: 35966812 NDL: 00443345 NKC: jn20000602942 BNE: XX1032

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