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ECBATANA (/ɛkˈbætənə/ ; Old Persian : 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 _Hagmatāna_ or _Haŋmatāna_, literally "the place of gathering", Aramaic : אַחְמְתָא‎‎, Ancient Greek : Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus , elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian : 𒆳𒀀𒃵𒋫𒉡 _kura-gam-ta-nu_ in the Nabonidus Chronicle ) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran . It is believed that Ecbatana is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappe-ye Hagmatāna), near Hamedan . but the history of the city is controversial.

Excavations at Kaboutar Ahang have revealed stone age tools and pottery from 1400 to 1200 BC. According to Herodotus , Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes ' capital in the late 8th century BC by Deioces . Under the Persian kings , Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence. Later, it became the capital of the Parthian kings, at which time it became their main mint, producing drachm , tetradrachm, and assorted bronze denominations. It is also mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Ezra 6.2) under the name _Achmetha_ (also spelled _Ahmetha_, e.g. JTS Bible). Also ( Micah 5.2">

CONTENTS

* 1 Archaeology * 2 Controversies * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links

ARCHAEOLOGY

Ecbatana was first excavated in 1913 by Charles Fossey. Another excavation was conducted in 1977.

CONTROVERSIES

The Greeks thought Ecbatana to be the capital of Medes empire and ascribed its foundation to Deioces (the _Daiukku_ of the cuneiform inscriptions). It is alleged that he surrounded his palace in Ecbatana with seven concentric walls of different colours. In the 5th century BC, Herodotus wrote of Ecbatana:

"The Medes built the city now called Ecbatana, the walls of which are of great size and strength, rising in circles one within the other. The plan of the place is, that each of the walls should out-top the one beyond it by the battlements. The nature of the ground, which is a gentle hill, favors this arrangements in some degree but it is mainly effected by art. The number of the circles is seven, the royal palace and the treasuries standing within the last. The circuit of the outer wall is very nearly the same with that of Athens. On this wall the battlements are white, of the next black, of the third scarlet, of the fourth blue, the fifth orange; all these colors with paint. The last two have their battlements coated respectively with silver and gold. All these fortifications Deioces had caused to be raised for himself and his own palace."

However, this association remains problematic. There is currently no evidence of Median existence in Hagmatana hill prior to the Parthian era afterwards. Similarly, Assyrian sources never mention Hagmatana/Ecbatana. Some scholars believe the problem can be resolved by identifying the Ecbatana/Hagmatana mentioned in later Greek and Achaemenid sources with the city Sagbita/Sagbat frequently mentioned in Assyrian texts, since the Indo-Iranian sound /s/ became /h/ in many Iranian languages . The Sagbita mentioned by Assyrian sources was located in the proximity of the cities Kishesim (Kar-Nergal) and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin).

Sir Henry Rawlinson attempted to prove that there was a second and older Ecbatana in _Media Atropatene _ on the site of the modern Takht-i-Suleiman . However, the cuneiform texts imply that there was only one city of the name, and that _Takht-i Suleiman_ is the Gazaca of classical geography.

Ecbatana is the supposed capital of Astyages (_Istuvegü_), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus (549 BC).

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Near East portal * Archaeology portal

* Cities of the Ancient Near East * Cartele Abad , village 80 miles to the north

NOTES

* ^ Stausberg, Michael; Vevaina, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw (2015-04-27). _The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism_. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118786277 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "ECBATANA". Iranica. Retrieved 10 April 2014. * ^ N. Chevalier, Hamadan 1913, Une mission oublie?e, Iranica Antiqua, vol. 24, pp. 245–53, 1989 * ^ CHN News * ^ I.N. Medvedskaya, Were the Assyrians at Ecbatana?, Jan, 2002 * ^ Medvedskaya, I.N. (2002). "Were the Assyrians at Ecbatana?". _International Journal of Kurdish Studies_. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11.

REFERENCES

* Perrot and Chipiez, _History of Art in Persia_ (Eng. trans., 1892); * M Dieulafoy, _L'Art antique de Ia Perse_, pt. i. (1884); * J. de Morgan, _Mission scientifique en Perse_, ii. (1894). * Peter Knapton _et al._, Inscribed Column Bases from Hamadan, Iran, vol. 39, pp. 99–117, 2001

_ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Sayce, A. H. (1911). "Ecbatana". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica _. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 846. _Please update as needed._

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ECBATANA _.

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