HOME
ListMoto - Eastern Himalaya


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i)

THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS extend from the westernmost part of Kaligandaki Valley in central Nepal
Nepal
to northwest Yunnan
Yunnan
in China
China
, also encompassing Bhutan
Bhutan
, North-East India (its northeastern states of Sikkim
Sikkim
and the North Bengal hills), southeastern Tibet
Tibet
, and parts of northern Myanmar
Myanmar
. This region is widely considered a biodiversity hotspot , with notable biocultural diversity

CONTENTS

* 1 Geologic strata * 2 Climate * 3 Agriculture * 4 Political divisions * 5 Wildlife * 6 Notes * 7 External links

GEOLOGIC STRATA

The Eastern Himalayas have a much more sophisticated geomorphic history and pervasive topographic features than the Central Himalayas. In the southwest of the Sub-Himalayas lies the Singalila Ridge , the western end of a group of uplands in Nepal. Most of the Sub-Himalayas are in Nepal; a small portion reaches into Sikkim, India and a fragment is in the southern half of Bhutan.

The Buxa range of Indo- Bhutan
Bhutan
is also a part of the ancient rocks of the Himalayas. The ancient folds, running mainly along an east-west axis, were worn down during a long period of denudation lasting into cretaceous times, possibly over a hundred million years. During this time the carboniferous and permian rocks disappeared from the surface, except in its north near Hatisar in Bhutan
Bhutan
and in the long trench extending from Jaldhaka River to Torsa River , where limestone and coal deposits are preserved in discontinuous basins. Limestone deposits also appear in Bhutan
Bhutan
on the southern flanks of the Lower Himalayas. The rocks of the highlands are mainly sandstones of the Devonian
Devonian
age, with limestones and shales of the same period in places. The core of the mountain is exposed across the center, where Paleozoic rocks, mainly Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian
Silurian
slates and Takhstasang gneiss outcrops are visible in the northwest and northeast, the latter extending to western Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
in India.

In the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era the whole of the worn-down plateau was under sea. In this expansive shallow sea, which covered most of Assam
Assam
(India) and Bhutan, chalk deposits formed from seawater tides oscillating between land and sea levels. During subsequent periods, tertiary rocks were laid down. The Paro metamorphic belt may be found overlying Chasilakha-Soraya gneiss in some places. Silurian
Silurian
metamorphics in other places suggest long denudation of the surface. This was the time of Alpine mountain formation, and much of the movement in the palaeozoic region was probably connected with it. The Chomolhari tourmaline granites of Bhutan, stretching westwards from the Paro chu and ats much depth below the present surface, were formed during this period of uplift, fracture and subsidence.

CLIMATE

The climate of the Eastern Himalayas is characterized by temperate summers and chilly winters. The hot season commences around the middle of April reaching its maxima in June, and ending by August-end. The average summer temperature is generally 20 °C (68 °F). The average annual rainfall is 500 millimetres (20 in). Snowfall is common at higher elevations.

In the valleys of Rangeet , Teesta , and Chumbi most precipitation during winter takes the form of snowfall. Snow accumulation in the valleys greatly reduces the area's wintertime temperature. The northeast monsoon is the predominant feature of the Eastern Himalayan region's weather, while on the southern slopes cold season precipitation is more important.

AGRICULTURE

Agricultural conditions vary throughout the region. In the highlands the soil is morainic, and the hill slopes are cut by the locals into successive steps or terraces only a few meters broad, thus preventing water run-off and allowing spring crops to thrive. The region's economy relied mostly on Shifting cultivation agriculture, supplemented by hunting, fishing and barter trade. Agricultural does not produce sufficient yields to meet local neesd. The region's economy remained stagnant and at subsistence levels for centuries due to the lack of capital, investor access, or entrepreneurial knowledge. Inhabitants also relied heavily on wild and semi-cultivated species for food and herbal medicines.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS

The Eastern Himalayas consist of five distinct political/national territories:

* Nepali Himalaya (central, eastern and southern Nepal) * Darjeeling (Indian) Himalaya * Sikkim
Sikkim
(Indian) Himalaya * Bhutanese Himalaya * Arunachal (Indian) Himalaya

WILDLIFE

See also: Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
, Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows , and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests The blue poppy (Meconopsis gakyidiana ), found in the Eastern Himalayas, is the national flower of Bhutan.

The Eastern Himalayas sustain a diverse array of wildlife, including many rare species of fauna and flora. Nepal
Nepal
features, among other rare Nepali animal species , snow leopards in its Himalayan region, and one-horned rhinos, Asian elephants and wild Water Buffaloes in its southern region, making the country one of the world's greatest Biodiversity hotspots . Three major river basins of Nepal, namely the Karnali , Narayani and Koshi Basins, feature highly dense forests and shelter no less than 5% of the world's butterfly species and 8% of the world's bird species. Preserving this diverse wilderness is essential for the area's and the world's biodiversity. The area has many ecological projects intended to ensure the survival and growth of many species.

At right is pictured the national flower of Bhutan
Bhutan
(Meconopsis gakyidiana) , commonly called the blue poppy (though taxonomically it is not of the poppy Genus or species, but only poppy-like; thus it cannot produce opiom or its derivatives). The blue poppy (national flower of Bhutan) was the source of an ecological mystery for nearly a century, due to its misclassification as Meconopsis grandis. In 2017, after three years of field work and taxonomic studies, its classification was corrected by Bhutanese and Japanese researchers. The problem may have originally arisen due to the now understood finding that some Himalayan flora readily hybridize with each other and produce viable seeds, causing wider (and unknown) morphological diversity.

NOTES

* ^ "The Eastern Himalayan region". ICIMOD.org. ICIMOD. Retrieved 25 July 2017. * ^ O'Neill, Alexander; et al. (29 March 2017). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (21). doi :10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9 . Retrieved 11 May 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ O'Neill, Alexander; et al. (29 March 2017). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (21). doi :10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9 . Retrieved 11 May 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ "Himalayas Places WWF". . Retrieved 29 January 2016.

.