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The DREAMCAST is a home video game console released by Sega
Sega
on November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, and October 14, 1999 in Europe. It was the first in the sixth generation of video game consoles , preceding Sony's PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
, Nintendo's GameCube
GameCube
and Microsoft's Xbox . The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was Sega's final home console, marking the end of the company's 18 years in the console market.

In contrast to the expensive hardware of the unsuccessful Sega
Sega
Saturn , the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was designed to reduce costs with "off-the-shelf" components, including a Hitachi
Hitachi
SH-4 CPU and an NEC
NEC
PowerVR 2 GPU . Released in Japan
Japan
to a subdued reception, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
enjoyed a successful U.S. launch backed by a large marketing campaign, but interest in the system steadily declined as Sony
Sony
built hype for the upcoming PlayStation
PlayStation
2. Sales did not meet Sega's expectations despite several price cuts, and the company continued to incur significant financial losses. After a change in leadership, Sega
Sega
discontinued the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
on March 31, 2001, withdrawing from the console business and restructuring itself as a third-party publisher. 9.13 million Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units were sold worldwide.

Although the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
had a short lifespan and limited third-party support, reviewers have considered the console ahead of its time. Its library contains many games considered creative and innovative, including _ Crazy Taxi _, _ Jet Set Radio _ and _ Shenmue
Shenmue
_, as well as high-quality ports from Sega's NAOMI arcade system board . The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was also the first console to include a built-in modem for Internet support and online play .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Development * 1.3 Launch * 1.4 Competition * 1.5 Decline

* 2 Technical specifications

* 2.1 Hardware * 2.2 Models * 2.3 Accessories

* 3 Game library * 4 Reception and legacy * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Bibliography

HISTORY

BACKGROUND

Released in 1988, the Sega
Sega
Genesis (known as the Sega
Sega
Mega Drive in Japan, Europe
Europe
and Brazil) was Sega's entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles. Selling 30.75 million units worldwide, the Genesis was the most successful console Sega
Sega
ever released. The successor to the Genesis, the Sega
Sega
Saturn , was released in Japan
Japan
in 1994. The Saturn was a CD-ROM -based console that displayed both 2D and 3D computer graphics, but its complex dual-CPU architecture made it more difficult to program for than its chief competitor, the Sony PlayStation
PlayStation
. Although the Saturn debuted before the PlayStation
PlayStation
in both Japan
Japan
and the United States, its surprise U.S. launch—which came four months earlier than originally scheduled —was marred by a lack of distribution, which remained a continuing problem for the system. Moreover, Sega's early release was undermined by Sony's simultaneous announcement that the PlayStation
PlayStation
would retail for US$299—compared to the Saturn's initial price of $399. Nintendo 's long delay in releasing a competing 3D console and the damage done to Sega's reputation by poorly supported add-ons for the Genesis (particularly the Sega
Sega
32X ) allowed Sony
Sony
to establish a foothold in the market. The PlayStation
PlayStation
was immediately successful in the U.S., in part due to a massive advertising campaign and strong third-party support engendered by Sony's excellent development tools and liberal $10 licensing fee. Sony's success was further aided by a price war in which Sega
Sega
lowered the price of the Saturn from $399 to $299 and then from $299 to $199 in order to match the price of the PlayStation–even though Saturn hardware was more expensive to manufacture and the PlayStation
PlayStation
enjoyed a larger software library. Losses on the Saturn hardware contributed to Sega's financial problems, which saw the company's revenue decline between 1992 and 1995 as part of an industry-wide slowdown. Furthermore, Sega's focus on the Saturn over the Genesis prevented it from fully capitalizing on the continued strength of the 16-bit market.

Due to long-standing disagreements with Sega
Sega
of Japan, Sega
Sega
of America CEO Tom Kalinske became less interested in his position. On July 16, 1996, Sega
Sega
announced that Shoichiro Irimajiri had been appointed chairman and CEO of Sega
Sega
of America, while Kalinske would be leaving Sega
Sega
after September 30 of that year. Sega
Sega
also announced that Sega
Sega
Enterprises cofounder David Rosen and Sega
Sega
of Japan
Japan
CEO Hayao Nakayama had resigned from their positions as chairman and co-chairman of Sega
Sega
of America, though both men remained with the company. Bernie Stolar , a former executive at Sony
Sony
Computer Entertainment of America, was named Sega
Sega
of America's executive vice president in charge of product development and third-party relations. Stolar did not support the Saturn due to his belief that the hardware was poorly designed and publicly announced at E3 1997 that "The Saturn is not our future." After the launch of the Nintendo
Nintendo
64 , sales of the Saturn and Sega's 32-bit software were sharply reduced. As of August 1997, Sony
Sony
controlled 47 percent of the console market, Nintendo
Nintendo
controlled 40 percent, and Sega
Sega
controlled only 12 percent. Neither price cuts nor high-profile games were proving helpful to the Saturn's success. Due to the Saturn's poor performance in North America, Sega
Sega
of America laid off 60 of its 200 employees in the fall of 1997. "I thought the Saturn was a mistake as far as hardware was concerned. The games were obviously terrific, but the hardware just wasn't there." —Bernie Stolar, former president of Sega
Sega
of America giving his assessment of the Saturn in 2009.

As a result of the company's deteriorating financial situation, Nakayama resigned as president of Sega
Sega
in January 1998 in favor of Irimajiri. Stolar would subsequently accede to become CEO and president of Sega
Sega
of America. Following five years of generally declining profits, in the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998, Sega suffered its first parent and consolidated financial losses since its 1988 listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange
Tokyo Stock Exchange
. Due to a 54.8% decline in consumer product sales (including a 75.4% decline overseas), the company reported a consolidated net loss of ¥35.6 billion (US$269.8 million). Shortly before announcing its financial losses, Sega revealed that it was discontinuing the Saturn in North America, with the goal of preparing for the launch of its successor. This decision effectively left the Western market without Sega
Sega
games for over one year. Rumors about the upcoming Dreamcast—spread mainly by Sega itself—leaked to the public before the last Saturn games were released.

DEVELOPMENT

As early as 1995, reports surfaced that Sega
Sega
would collaborate with Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
, The 3DO Company , Matsushita , or Alliance Semiconductor to create a new graphics processing unit , which conflicting accounts said would be used for a 64-bit "Saturn 2" or an add-on peripheral. Development of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was wholly unrelated to this rumored project. In light of the Saturn's poor market performance, Irimajiri decided to start looking outside of the company's internal hardware development division to create a new console. In 1997, Irimajiri enlisted the services of IBM
IBM
's Tatsuo Yamamoto to lead an 11-man team to work on a secret hardware project in the United States, which was referred to as "Blackbelt". Accounts vary on how an internal team led by Hideki Sato also began development on Dreamcast
Dreamcast
hardware; one account specifies that Sega
Sega
of Japan
Japan
tasked both teams, while another suggests that Sato was bothered by Irimajiri's choice to begin development externally and chose to have his hardware team begin development. Sato and his group chose the Hitachi
Hitachi
SH-4 processor architecture and the VideoLogic PowerVR2 graphics processor, manufactured by NEC
NEC
, in the production of their mainboard . Initially known as "Whitebelt", this project was later codenamed "Dural", after the metallic female fighter from Sega's _ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
_ series.

Yamamoto's group opted to use 3dfx Voodoo 2 and Voodoo Banshee graphics processors alongside a Motorola
Motorola
PowerPC 603e central processing unit (CPU), but Sega
Sega
management later asked them to also use the SH-4 chip. Both processors have been described as "off the shelf " components. In 1997, 3dfx began its IPO , and as a result of legal obligations unveiled its contracts with Sega, including the development of the new console. This angered Sega
Sega
of Japan executives, who eventually decided to use the Dural chipset and cut ties with 3dfx. According to former Sega
Sega
of America vice president of communications and former NEC
NEC
brand manager Charles Bellfield, presentations of games using the NEC
NEC
solution showcased the performance and low cost delivered by the SH-4 and PowerVR architecture. He further stated that "Sega's relationship with NEC, a Japanese company, probably made a difference too." Stolar, on the other hand, "felt the US version, the 3Dfx version, should have been used. Japan
Japan
wanted the Japanese version, and Japan
Japan
won." As a result, 3dfx filed a lawsuit against both Sega
Sega
and NEC
NEC
claiming breach of contract, which would eventually be settled out of court. The choice to use the PowerVR architecture concerned Electronic Arts (EA), a longtime developer for Sega's consoles. EA had invested in 3dfx but was unfamiliar with the selected architecture, which was reportedly less powerful. As recounted by Shiro Hagiwara (a general manager at Sega's hardware division) and Ian Oliver (the managing director of Sega
Sega
subsidiary Cross Products), the SH-4 was chosen while it was still in development and following a lengthy deliberation process because it was the only available processor that "could adapt to deliver the 3D geometry calculation performance necessary." By February 1998, Sega
Sega
had renamed the Dural "Katana" (after the Japanese sword ), although certain hardware specifications such as random access memory (RAM) were not yet finalized.

Knowing that the Sega
Sega
Saturn had been set back by its high production costs and complex hardware, Sega
Sega
took a different approach with the Dreamcast. Like previous Sega
Sega
consoles, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was designed around intelligent subsystems working in parallel with one another, but the selections of hardware were more in line with what was common in personal computers than video game consoles, reducing the system's cost. According to Damien McFerran, "the motherboard was a masterpiece of clean, uncluttered design and compatibility." Chinese economist and future Sega.com CEO Brad Huang convinced Sega
Sega
chairman Isao Okawa to include a modem with every Dreamcast
Dreamcast
despite significant opposition from Okawa's staff over the additional $15 cost per unit. To account for rapid changes in home data delivery, Sega
Sega
designed the Dreamcast's modem to be modular . Sega
Sega
selected the GD-ROM
GD-ROM
media format for the system. The GD-ROM, which was jointly developed by Sega
Sega
and Yamaha Corporation
Yamaha Corporation
, could be mass-produced at a similar price to a normal CD-ROM, thus avoiding the greater expense of DVD-ROM technology. As the GD-ROM
GD-ROM
format can hold about 1 GB of data, illegally copying Dreamcast
Dreamcast
games onto a 650 MB CD-ROM sometimes required the removal of certain game features, although this did not prevent copying of Dreamcast
Dreamcast
software. Microsoft
Microsoft
developed a custom Dreamcast
Dreamcast
version of Windows CE with DirectX API and dynamic-link libraries , making it easy to port PC games to the platform, although programmers would ultimately favor Sega's development tools over those from Microsoft.

Sega
Sega
held a public competition to name its new system and considered over 5,000 different entries before choosing "Dreamcast"—a portmanteau of "dream" and "broadcast". According to Katsutoshi Eguchi, Japanese game developer Kenji Eno submitted the name and created the Dreamcast's spiral logo, but this claim has not been verified by Sega. The Dreamcast's start-up sound was composed by the Japanese musician Ryuichi Sakamoto . Because the Saturn had tarnished Sega's reputation, the company planned to remove its name from the console entirely and establish a new gaming brand similar to Sony's PlayStation
PlayStation
, but Irimajiri's management team ultimately decided to retain Sega's logo on the Dreamcast's exterior. Sega
Sega
spent US$ 50–80 million on hardware development, $150–200 million on software development, and $300 million on worldwide promotion—a sum which Irimajiri, a former Honda
Honda
executive, humorously compared to the investments required to design new automobiles.

LAUNCH

Despite taking massive losses on the Saturn, including a 75 percent drop in half-year profits just before the Japanese launch of the Dreamcast, Sega
Sega
felt confident about its new system. The Dreamcast attracted significant interest and drew many pre-orders. Sega announced that _ Sonic Adventure _, the next game starring company mascot Sonic the Hedgehog , would arrive in time for the Dreamcast's launch and promoted the game with a large-scale public demonstration at the Tokyo Kokusai Forum Hall . However, Sega
Sega
could not achieve its shipping goals for the Dreamcast's Japanese launch due to a shortage of PowerVR chipsets caused by a high failure rate in the manufacturing process. As more than half of its limited stock had been pre-ordered, Sega
Sega
stopped pre-orders in Japan. On November 27, 1998, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
launched in Japan
Japan
at a price of JP¥29,000, and the entire stock sold out by the end of the day. However, of the four games available at launch, only one—a port of _ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
3 _, the most successful arcade game Sega
Sega
ever released in Japan—sold well. Sega
Sega
estimated that an additional 200,000-300,000 Dreamcast units could have been sold with sufficient supply. Key Dreamcast software titles _Sonic Adventure_ and _ Sega
Sega
Rally Championship 2 _, which had been delayed, arrived within the following weeks, but sales continued to be slower than expected. Irimajiri hoped to sell over 1 million Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units in Japan
Japan
by February 1999, but less than 900,000 were sold, undermining Sega's attempts to build up a sufficient installed base to ensure the Dreamcast's survival after the arrival of competition from other manufacturers. There were reports of disappointed Japanese consumers returning their Dreamcasts and using the refund to purchase additional PlayStation
PlayStation
software. _Seaman _, released in July 1999, was considered the Dreamcast's first major hit in Japan. Prior to the Western launch, Sega
Sega
reduced the price of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
to JP¥19,900, effectively making the hardware unprofitable but increasing sales. The price reduction and release of Namco
Namco
's _ Soul Calibur _ helped Sega
Sega
to gain 17 percent on its shares. "Let's take the conservative estimate of 250,000 Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units at presage—that's a quarter of a million units at $200. We'll have a ratio of 1.5 or two games for every Dreamcast
Dreamcast
unit sold. That's half a million units of software. We think we'll be .5 to one on VMUs and peripheral items such as extra controllers and what have you. This could be a $60 to $80 million 24-hour period. What has ever sold $60 to $80 million in the first 24 hours?" —Peter Moore, speaking to _Electronic Gaming Monthly_ about the upcoming launch of the Dreamcast.

Working closely with Midway Games
Midway Games
(which developed four launch titles for the system) and taking advantage of the ten months following the Dreamcast's release in Japan, Sega
Sega
of America worked to ensure a more successful U.S. launch with a minimum of 15 launch games. Despite lingering bitterness over the Saturn's early release, Stolar successfully managed to repair relations with major US retailers, with whom Sega
Sega
presold 300,000 Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units. In addition, a pre-launch promotion enabled consumers to rent the system from Hollywood Video in the months preceding its September launch. Sega
Sega
of America's senior vice president of marketing Peter Moore , a fan of the attitude previously associated with Sega's brand, worked with Foote, Cone "> The PS2 provided stiff competition to the Dreamcast.

Though the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
launch had been successful, Sony
Sony
still held 60 percent of the overall video game market share in North America
North America
with the PlayStation
PlayStation
at the end of 1999. On March 2, 1999, in what one report called a "highly publicized, vaporware -like announcement" Sony
Sony
revealed the first details of its "next generation PlayStation", which Ken Kutaragi claimed would allow video games to convey unprecedented emotions. The center of Sony's marketing plan and the upcoming PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
itself was a new CPU (clocked at 294 MHz ) jointly developed by Sony
Sony
and Toshiba
Toshiba
—the " Emotion Engine "—which Kutaragi announced would feature a graphics processor with 1,000 times more bandwidth than contemporary PC graphics processors and a floating-point calculation performance of 6.2 gigaflops , rivaling most supercomputers. Sony, which invested $1.2 billion in two large-scale integration semiconductor fabrication plants to manufacture the PlayStation
PlayStation
2's "Emotion Engine" and "Graphics Synthesizer", designed the machine to push more raw polygons than any video game console in history. Sony
Sony
claimed the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
could render 75 million raw polygons per second with absolutely no effects, and 38 million without accounting for features such as textures , artificial intelligence , or physics . With such effects, Sony estimated the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
could render 7.5 million to 16 million polygons per second, whereas independent estimates ranged from 3 million to 20 million, compared to Sega's estimates of more than 3 million to 6 million for the Dreamcast. The system would also utilize the DVD-ROM format, which could hold substantially more data than the Dreamcast's GD-ROM
GD-ROM
format. Because it could connect to the Internet while playing movies, music, and video games, Sony
Sony
hyped PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
as the future of home entertainment. Rumors spread that the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
was a supercomputer capable of guiding missiles and displaying _ Toy Story _-quality graphics, while Kutaragi boasted its online capabilities would give consumers the ability to "jack into _‘ The Matrix ’_!" In addition, Sony
Sony
emphasized that the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
would be backwards compatible with hundreds of popular PlayStation
PlayStation
games. Sony's specifications appeared to render the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
obsolete months before its U.S. launch, although reports later emerged that the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
was not as powerful as expected and distinctly difficult to program games for. The same year, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced that its next generation console would meet or exceed anything on the market, and Microsoft
Microsoft
began development of its own console .

Sega's initial momentum proved fleeting as U.S. Dreamcast sales—which exceeded 1.5 million by the end of 1999 —began to decline as early as January 2000. Poor Japanese sales contributed to Sega's ¥42.88 billion ($404 million) consolidated net loss in the fiscal year ending March 2000, which followed a similar loss of ¥42.881 billion the previous year and marked Sega's third consecutive annual loss. Although Sega's overall sales for the term increased 27.4%, and Dreamcast
Dreamcast
sales in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
greatly exceeded the company's expectations, this increase in sales coincided with a decrease in profitability due to the investments required to launch the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
in Western markets and poor software sales in Japan. At the same time, increasingly poor market conditions reduced the profitability of Sega's Japanese arcade business, prompting the company to close 246 locations. Knowing that "they have to fish where the fish are biting", Sega
Sega
of America president Peter Moore (who assumed his position after Stolar had been fired) and Sega
Sega
of Japan's developers focused on the U.S. market to prepare for the upcoming launch of the PS2. To that end, Sega
Sega
of America launched its own Internet service provider, Sega.com, led by CEO Brad Huang. On September 7, 2000, Sega.com launched SegaNet , the Dreamcast's Internet gaming service, at a subscription price of $21.95 per month. Although Sega
Sega
had previously released only one Dreamcast
Dreamcast
title in the U.S. that featured online multiplayer (_ ChuChu Rocket!
ChuChu Rocket!
_, a puzzle game developed by Sonic Team ), the launch of SegaNet (which allowed users to chat, send email, and surf the web) combined with _ NFL 2K1 _ (a football game including a robust online component) was intended to increase demand for the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
in the U.S. market. The service would later support games including _ Bomberman Online _, _Phantasy Star Online _, _ Quake III Arena _, and _ Unreal Tournament _. The September 7 launch coincided with a new advertising campaign to promote SegaNet, including via the MTV Video Music Awards of the same day, which Sega
Sega
sponsored for the second consecutive year. Sega employed aggressive pricing strategies with relation to online gaming. In Japan, every Dreamcast
Dreamcast
sold included a free year of Internet access, which Okawa personally paid for. Prior to the launch of SegaNet, Sega
Sega
had already offered a $200 rebate to any Dreamcast
Dreamcast
owner who purchased two years of Internet access from Sega.com. To increase SegaNet's appeal in the U.S., Sega
Sega
dropped the price of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
to $149 (compared to the PS2's U.S. launch price of $299) and offered a rebate for the full $149 price of a Dreamcast
Dreamcast
(and a free Dreamcast
Dreamcast
keyboard) with every 18-month SegaNet subscription. "We had a tremendous 18 months. Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was on fire - we really thought that we could do it. But then we had a target from Japan
Japan
that said we had to make x hundreds of millions of dollars by the holiday season and shift x millions of units of hardware, otherwise we just couldn't sustain the business. Somehow I got to make that call, not the Japanese. I had to fire a lot of people; it was not a pleasant day. So on January 31st 2001 we said Sega
Sega
is leaving hardware. We were selling 50,000 units a day, then 60,000, then 100,000, but it was just not going to be enough to get the critical mass to take on the launch of PS2. It was a big stakes game. Sega
Sega
had the option of pouring in more money and going bankrupt and they decided they wanted to live to fight another day." —Peter Moore, on the Dreamcast's discontinuation.

Moore stated that the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
would need to sell 5 million units in the U.S. by the end of 2000 in order to remain a viable platform, but Sega
Sega
ultimately fell short of this goal with some 3 million units sold. Moreover, Sega's attempts to spur increased Dreamcast
Dreamcast
sales through lower prices and cash rebates caused escalating financial losses. Instead of an expected profit, for the six months ending September 2000, Sega
Sega
posted a ¥17.98 billion ($163.11 million) loss, with the company projecting a year-end loss of ¥23.6 billion. This estimate was more than doubled to ¥58.3 billion, and in March 2001, Sega
Sega
posted a consolidated net loss of ¥51.7 billion ($417.5 million). While the PS2's October 26 U.S. launch was marred by shortages—with only 500,000 of a planned 1 million units shipped due to a manufacturing glitch—this did not benefit the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
as much as expected, as many disappointed consumers continued to wait for a PS2—while the PSone, a remodeled version of the original PlayStation, was the best-selling console in the U.S. at the start of the 2000 holiday season. According to Moore, "the PlayStation
PlayStation
2 effect that we were relying upon did not work for us ... people will hang on for as long as possible ... What effectively happened is the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
lack of availability froze the marketplace". Eventually, Sony
Sony
and Nintendo
Nintendo
held 50 and 35 percent of the US video game market, respectively, while Sega
Sega
held only 15 percent. According to Bellfield, Dreamcast
Dreamcast
software sold at an 8-to-1 ratio with the hardware, but this ratio "on a small install base didn't give us the revenue ... to keep this platform viable in the medium to long term."

DECLINE

On May 22, 2000, Okawa replaced Iramajiri as president of Sega. Okawa had long openly advocated that Sega
Sega
abandon the console business. His sentiments were not unique; Sega
Sega
co-founder David Rosen had "always felt it was a bit of a folly for them to be limiting their potential to Sega
Sega
hardware", and Stolar had previously suggested that Sega
Sega
should have sold their company to Microsoft. In September 2000, in a meeting with Sega's Japanese executives and the heads of the company's major Japanese game development studios, Moore and Bellfield recommended that Sega
Sega
abandon its console business and focus solely on software—prompting the studio heads to walk out. Nevertheless, on January 31, 2001, Sega
Sega
announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast after March 31 and the restructuring of the company as a "platform-agnostic" third-party developer. The decision was Moore's. Sega
Sega
also announced a Dreamcast
Dreamcast
price reduction to $99 to eliminate its unsold inventory, which was estimated at 930,000 units as of April 2001. After a further reduction to $79, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was cleared out of stores at $49.95. The final Dreamcast
Dreamcast
unit to be manufactured was autographed by the heads of all nine of Sega's internal game development studios as well as the heads of Visual Concepts and Wave Master and given away with 55 first-party Dreamcast
Dreamcast
games through a competition organized by _ GamePro
GamePro
_ magazine. Okawa, who had previously loaned Sega
Sega
$500 million in the summer of 1999, died on March 16, 2001; shortly before his death, he forgave Sega's debts to him and returned his $695 million worth of Sega
Sega
and CSK stock, helping the company survive the third-party transition. As part of this restructuring, nearly one-third of Sega's Tokyo workforce was laid off in 2001.

9.13 million Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units were sold worldwide. After the Dreamcast's discontinuation, commercial games were still developed and released for the system, particularly in Japan. In the United States, game releases continued until the end of the first half of 2002. Sega of Japan
Japan
continued to repair Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units until 2007. As of 2014, the console is still supported through various MIL-CD independent releases. After five consecutive years of financial losses, Sega finally posted a profit for the fiscal year ending March 2003.

Reasons cited for the failure of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
include hype for the PS2; a lack of support from EA and Squaresoft , considered the most popular third-parties in the U.S. and Japan
Japan
respectively; disagreement among Sega
Sega
executives over the company's future, and Okawa's lack of commitment to the product; Sega's lack of advertising money, with Bellfield doubting that Sega
Sega
spent even "half" the $100 million it had pledged to promote the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
in the U.S.; that the market was not yet ready for online gaming; Sega's focus on "hardcore" gamers over the mainstream consumer; and poor timing. Perhaps the most frequently cited reason is the damage to Sega's reputation caused by several previous poorly supported Sega
Sega
platforms. Writing for _GamePro_, Blake Snow stated that "The much beloved console launched years ahead of the competition but ultimately struggled to shed the negative reputation had gained during the Saturn, Sega
Sega
32X, and Sega
Sega
CD days. As a result, casual gamers and jaded third-party developers doubted Sega's ability to deliver." Eurogamer
Eurogamer
's Dan Whitehead noted that the "wait and see" approach of consumers and the lack of support from EA were symptoms rather the cause of Sega's decline, concluding "Sega's misadventures during the 1990s had left both gamers and publishers wary of any new platform bearing its name." According to 1UP.com 's Jeremy Parish, "While it would be easy to point an accusatory finger at Sony
Sony
and blame them for killing the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
by overselling the PS2 ... there's a certain level of intellectual dishonesty in such a stance ... 's poor U.S. support for hardware like the Sega
Sega
CD, the 32X, and the Saturn made gamers gun shy. Many consumers felt burned after investing in expensive Sega
Sega
machines and finding the resulting libraries comparatively lacking".

The announcement of Sega's third-party transition was met with widespread enthusiasm. According to IGN's Travis Fahs, " Sega
Sega
was a creatively fertile company with a rapidly expanding stable of properties to draw from. It seemed like they were in a perfect position to start a new life as a developer/publisher." Former Working Designs president Victor Ireland wrote that "It's actually a good thing ... because now Sega
Sega
will survive, doing what they do best: software." The staff of _ Newsweek _ remarked "From _Sonic_ to _Shenmue_, Sega's programmers have produced some of the most engaging experiences in the history of interactive media ... Unshackled by a struggling console platform, this platoon of world-class software developers can do what they do best for any machine on the market". Rosen predicted "they have the potential to catch Electronic Arts". _ Game Informer _, commenting on Sega's tendency to produce under-appreciated cult classics , stated: "Let us rejoice in the fact that Sega
Sega
is making games equally among the current console crop, so that history will not repeat itself."

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

HARDWARE

Internal view of a Dreamcast
Dreamcast
console including optical drive, power supply, controller ports, and cooling fan. Mainboard
Mainboard
of a Dreamcast
Dreamcast
console.

Physically, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
measures 190 mm × 195.8 mm × 75.5 mm (7.48 in × 7.71 in × 2.97 in) and weighs 1.5 kg (3.3 lb). The Dreamcast's main CPU is a two-way 360 MIPS superscalar Hitachi
Hitachi
SH-4 32-bit RISC
RISC
clocked at 200 MHz with an 8 Kbyte instruction cache and 16 Kbyte data cache and a 128-bit graphics-oriented floating-point unit delivering 1.4 G FLOPS . Its 100 MHz NEC
NEC
PowerVR2 rendering engine, integrated with the system's ASIC , is capable of drawing more than 3 million polygons per second and of deferred shading . Sega estimated that the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was theoretically capable of rendering 7 million raw polygons per second, or 6 million with textures and lighting, but noted that "game logic and physics reduce peak graphic performance." Graphics hardware effects include trilinear filtering , gouraud shading , z-buffering , spatial anti-aliasing , per-pixel translucency sorting and bump mapping . The system can output approximately 16.77 million colors simultaneously and displays interlaced or progressive scan video at 640 × 480 video resolution . Its 67 MHz Yamaha AICA sound processor, with a 32-bit ARM7 RISC
RISC
CPU core, can generate 64 voices with PCM or ADPCM , providing ten times the performance of the Saturn's sound system. The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
has 16 MB main RAM, along with an additional 8 MB of RAM for graphic textures and 2 MB of RAM for sound. The system reads media using a 12x speed Yamaha GD-ROM
GD-ROM
Drive. In addition to Windows CE, the Dreamcast supports several Sega
Sega
and middleware application programming interfaces . In most regions, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
included a removable modem for online connectivity, which was modular for future upgrades. The original Japanese model and all PAL models had a transfer rate of 33.6 kbit/s, while consoles sold in the US and in Japan
Japan
after September 9, 1999 featured a 56 kbit/s dial-up modem.

MODELS

The limited-edition black " Sega
Sega
Sports" model. The Divers 2000 CX-1 was a special edition of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
that had a built-in television set.

Sega
Sega
constructed numerous Dreamcast
Dreamcast
models, most of which were exclusive to Japan. A refurbished Dreamcast
Dreamcast
known as the R7 was originally used as a network console in Japanese pachinko parlors. Another model, the Divers 2000 CX-1, possesses a shape similar to Sonic's head and includes a television and software for teleconferencing. A _ Hello Kitty
Hello Kitty
_ version, limited to 2000 units produced, was targeted at Japanese female gamers. Special
Special
editions were created for _Seaman_ and _Resident Evil Code: Veronica _. Color variations were sold through a service called " Dreamcast
Dreamcast
Direct" in Japan. Toyota
Toyota
also offered special edition Dreamcast
Dreamcast
units at 160 of its dealers in Japan. In North America, a limited edition black Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was released with a Sega
Sega
Sports logo on the lid, which included matching Sega
Sega
Sports-branded black controllers and two games.

ACCESSORIES

The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
controller has two dock connectors for use with multiple accessories, like the VMU

The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
controller includes both an analog stick and a digital pad, four action buttons, and two analog triggers. The system has four ports for controller inputs, although it was bundled with only one controller. The design of the Dreamcast's controller, described by the staff of _Edge _ as "an ugly evolution of Saturn\'s 3D controller ," was called " that great" by 1UP.com's Sam Kennedy and "lame" by _Game Informer_'s Andy McNamara. The staff of IGN wrote that "unlike most controllers, Sega's pad forces the user's hands into an uncomfortable parallel position." In contrast to the Sega
Sega
CD and Sega Saturn, which included internal backup memory, the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
uses a 128 kbyte memory card called the VMU (or "Visual Memory Unit") for data storage. The VMU features a small LCD screen, audio output from a one-channel PWM sound source, non-volatile memory , a directional pad, and four buttons. The VMU can present game information, be used as a minimal handheld gaming device, and connect to certain Sega arcade machines. For example, players use the VMU to call plays in _NFL 2K_ or raise virtual pets in _Sonic Adventure_. Sega
Sega
officials noted that the VMU could be used "as a private viewing area, the absence of which has prevented effective implementation of many types of games in the past." After a VMU slot was incorporated into the controller's design, Sega's engineers found many additional uses for it, so a second slot was added. This slot was generally used for vibration packs providing force feedback like Sega's "Jump Pack" and Performance's "Tremor Pack", although it could also be used for other peripherals including a microphone enabling voice control and player communication. Various third-party cards provide storage, and some contain the LCD screen addition. Iomega announced a Dreamcast-compatible zip drive that could store up to 100 MB of data on removable discs, but it was never released.

Various third-party controllers from companies like Mad Catz include additional buttons and other extra features; third-parties also manufactured arcade-style joysticks for fighting games, such as Agetech's Arcade Stick and Interact's Alloy Arcade Stick. Mad Catz and Agetec created racing wheels for racing games. Sega
Sega
decided against releasing its official light gun in the U.S., but some third party light guns were available. The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
supports a Sega fishing "reel and rod" motion controller and a keyboard for text entry. Although it was designed for fishing games such as _ Sega
Sega
Bass Fishing _, _Soul Calibur_ was playable with the fishing controller, which translated vertical and horizontal movements into on-screen swordplay in a manner that was retroactively cited as a predecessor to the Wii Remote . The Japanese Dreamcast
Dreamcast
port of Sega's _Cyber Troopers Virtual-On Oratorio Tangram _ supported a "Twin Sticks" peripheral, but the game's American publisher, Activision
Activision
, opted not to release it in the U.S. The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
could connect to SNK
SNK
's Neo Geo Pocket Color , predating Nintendo's GameCube–Game Boy Advance link cable . Sega
Sega
also produced the Dreameye , a digital camera that could be connected to the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
and used to exchange pictures and participate in video chat over the system's Internet connection. Sega hoped developers would use the Dreameye for future software, as some later did with Sony's similar EyeToy peripheral. In addition, Sega investigated systems that would have allowed users to make telephone calls with the Dreamcast, and discussed with Motorola
Motorola
the development of an Internet-enabled cell phone that would have used technology from the console to enable quick downloads of games and other data.

The console can supply video through several different accessories. The console came with A/V cables , considered at the time to be the standard for video and audio connectivity. Sega
Sega
and various third parties also manufactured RF modulator connectors and S-Video cables. A VGA
VGA
adapter allows Dreamcast
Dreamcast
games to be played on computer displays or Enhanced-definition television sets in 480p .

GAME LIBRARY

_ Sonic Adventure _ was a significant title for the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
as the first 3D platforming game in the _Sonic the Hedgehog _ series. See also: List of Dreamcast games

Before the launch of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
in Japan, Sega
Sega
announced the release of its New Arcade Operation Machine Idea (NAOMI) arcade board, which served as a cheaper alternative to the Sega
Sega
Model 3 . NAOMI shared the same technology as the Dreamcast—albeit with twice as much system, video, and audio memory and an 160 Mbyte flash ROM board in place of a GD-ROM
GD-ROM
drive—allowing nearly identical home conversions of arcade games . Games were ported from NAOMI to the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
by several leading Japanese arcade companies, including Capcom (_Marvel vs. Capcom 2 _ and _ Project Justice _), Tecmo
Tecmo
(_Dead or Alive 2 _ ), Treasure (_ Ikaruga _ ), and Sega
Sega
itself (_F355 Challenge _ and _ Crazy Taxi _).

In what has been called "a brief moment of remarkable creativity", in 2000, Sega
Sega
restructured its arcade and console development teams into nine semi-autonomous studios headed by the company's top designers. Studios included United Game Artists (UGA) (headed by former _ Sega
Sega
Rally Championship _ producer Tetsuya Mizuguchi ), Hitmaker (headed by _Crazy Taxi_ creator and future Sega
Sega
president Hisao Oguchi ), Smilebit (headed by Shun Arai and including many former _Panzer Dragoon _ and future _Yakuza _ developers from Team Andromeda ), Overworks (headed by Noriyoshi Oba and composed of developers from Sega
Sega
franchises including _ Sakura Wars
Sakura Wars
_, _Shinobi _ and _Streets of Rage _ ), Sega
Sega
AM2 (Sega's most famous arcade studio and the developer of Sega's _Virtua Fighter_ fighting game series, headed by the company's top developer, Yu Suzuki
Yu Suzuki
), and Sonic Team (the developer of Sega's flagship series, _Sonic the Hedgehog _, headed by Yuji Naka ). Sega's design houses were encouraged to experiment and benefited from a relatively lax approval process, resulting in titles such as _ Rez
Rez
_ (an attempt to simulate synaesthesia in the form of a rail shooter ), _The Typing of the Dead _ (a version of _ The House of the Dead 2 _ remade into a touch typing trainer), _Seaman_ (a pet simulator in which players use a microphone to interact with a grotesque humanoid fish whose growth is narrated by Leonard Nimoy ), and _ Segagaga _ (a Japan-exclusive role-playing-game employing commentary on the perceived over-abundance of sequels produced by the video game industry, in which players are tasked with preventing Sega
Sega
from going out of business). Sega
Sega
also revived franchises from the Genesis era, such as _ Ecco the Dolphin _. Sega's internal studios were consolidated starting in 2003, with Mizuguchi leaving the company following the merger of UGA with Sonic Team.

UGA created the music game _ Space Channel 5 _, in which players help a female outer space news reporter named Ulala fight aliens with "groove energy" by dancing. Intended for a "female casual" audience, _Space Channel 5_ is considered one of Sega's "most daring and beloved" original properties, combining a "defiantly retro" and "uplifting" soundtrack with "dazzling" and "colorful" visual presentation—despite "a lack of real gameplay substance." Neither _Space Channel 5_ nor UGA's _Rez_ were commercially successful, and the latter title was only available in the U.S. market through a PS2 port released in limited quantities. Hitmaker's arcade ports included _Crazy Taxi_—an open world arcade racing game known for its addictive gameplay, which sold over one million copies and has been frequently cited as one of the best Dreamcast
Dreamcast
games —and _Virtua Tennis _—which revitalized the tennis game genre with a simple two-button control scheme and use of minigames to test the player's technique. Smilebit's _ Jet Set Radio _—in which players control a Tokyo-based gang of youthful, rebellious inline skaters called the "GGs", who use graffiti to claim territory from rival gangs while evading an oppressive police force—has been cited as a major example of Sega's commitment to original game concepts during the Dreamcast's lifespan. Lauded for composer Hideki Naganuma 's "punchy, psychedelic" soundtrack incorporating elements of " J-pop and electro-funk " as well as its message of "self-expression and non-violent dissent ", the game also popularized cel shaded graphics. Despite wide praise for its style, some criticized _Jet Set Radio_'s gameplay as mediocre, and it failed to meet Sega's sales expectations. Produced by Rieko Kodama , the Overworks-developed traditional role-playing game _Skies of Arcadia _ was acclaimed for its surreal Jules Verne -inspired fantasy world of floating islands and sky pirates, charming protagonists, unique emphasis on the environmental properties of weapons, exciting airship battles, and memorable plot (including a sequence viewed from multiple perspectives).

AM2 developed what Sega
Sega
hoped would be the Dreamcast's killer app , _ Shenmue
Shenmue
_, a "revenge epic in the tradition of Chinese cinema ." The action-adventure title involved the quest of protagonist Ryo Hazuki to avenge his father's murder, but its main selling point was its rendition of the Japanese city of Yokosuka , which included a level of detail considered unprecedented for a video game. Incorporating a simulated day/night cycle with variable weather, non-player characters with regular schedules, and the ability to pick up and examine detailed objects (also introducing the Quick-time event in its modern form ), _Shenmue_ went over budget and was rumored to have cost Sega
Sega
over $50 million. Originally planned as the first installment in an 11-part saga, _Shenmue_ was eventually downsized to a trilogy—and only one sequel was ever released. While _Shenmue_ was lauded for its innovation, visuals and music, its critical reception was mixed; points of criticism included "invisible walls" which limited the player's sense of freedom, boredom caused by the inability to progress without waiting for events scheduled to occur at specific times, excessive in-game cutscenes and a lack of challenge. According to Moore, _Shenmue_ sold "extremely well", but the game had no chance of making a profit due to the Dreamcast's limited installed base. _ Shenmue
Shenmue
II_ "was completed for a much more reasonable sum", while Sato defended _Shenmue_ as an "investment will someday be recouped" because "the development advances we learned ... can be applied to other games". In addition to the mixed reception for _Shenmue_, IGN's Travis Fahs stated that "the era wasn't as kind to as earlier years"—citing (among others) _F355 Challenge_ as an "acclaimed" arcade title that "didn't do much at home", and Genki 's port of _ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
3_ as inferior to the arcade version, "which was already a couple years old and never as popular as its predecessors." The _Virtua Fighter_ series would experience a "tremendous comeback" with the universally acclaimed _ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
4 _—which saw a console release exclusively on PS2. "If ever a system deserved to succeed, it was Dreamcast. Dreamcast
Dreamcast
has a hell of a library. It's dying now, 18 months old, with a larger library than the 5-year-old Nintendo
Nintendo
64. It's a better library than the Nintendo 64. Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was a wonderful system." —Journalist Steven L. Kent, March 2001.

As the first fully 3D platforming game starring Sega's mascot, Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic Team's _Sonic Adventure_ was considered "the centerpiece of the launch". _Adventure_ garnered criticism for technical problems including erratic camera angles and glitches, but was praised for its "luscious" visuals, "vast, twisting environments" and iconic set pieces —including a segment in which Sonic runs down the side of a skyscraper —and has been described as the _Sonic_ series' creative apex. However, it failed "to catch on with players in nearly the way that _Mario 64 _ had done", perhaps due to a perceived lack of gameplay depth. Distinguished by its innovative use of multiple storylines with varied forms of play, _Adventure_ sold 2.5 million copies, making it the Dreamcast's best-selling title. Sonic Team also developed the Dreamcast's first online game—_ChuChu Rocket!_—which was widely complimented for its addictive puzzle gameplay and "frantic" multiplayer matches, and the critically successful music game _ Samba de Amigo _, which was noted for its expensive maracas peripheral and colorful aesthetic. Perhaps the most influential of Sonic Team's Dreamcast
Dreamcast
releases was _Phantasy Star Online_, the first online console RPG. Developed after Okawa requested an online game from Sonic Team, _PSO_ was heavily influenced by the PC action RPG _Diablo _, but refined and simplified its style of gameplay to appeal to console audiences.

In sports, Visual Concepts' _ NFL 2K _ football series and its _NBA 2K _ basketball series were critically acclaimed. _NFL 2K_ was considered an outstanding launch game for its high-quality visuals and "insightful, context-friendly, and, yes, even funny commentary ", while _NFL 2K1_ featured groundbreaking online multiplayer earlier than its chief competitor, EA's _ Madden NFL _ series. _Madden_ and _2K_ continued to compete on other platforms through 2004—with the _2K_ series introducing innovations such as a first person perspective new to the genre, and eventually launching _ ESPN NFL 2K5 _ at the aggressively low price point of $19.95—until EA signed an exclusive agreement with the National Football League , "effectively putting every other pro-football game out of business." After Sega
Sega
sold Visual Concepts for $24 million in 2005, the _NBA 2K_ series continued with publisher Take-Two Interactive
Take-Two Interactive
. During the Dreamcast's lifespan, Visual Concepts also collaborated with _Sonic the Hedgehog _ level designer Hirokazu Yasuhara on the action-adventure game _Floigan Bros. _ and developed the critically successful action game _Ooga Booga _.

To appeal to the European market, Sega
Sega
formed a French affiliate called No Cliché , which developed titles such as _ Toy Commander _. Sega
Sega
Europe
Europe
also approached Bizarre Creations to develop the critically successful racing game _ Metropolis Street Racer _, which featured detailed recreations of London, Tokyo, and San Francisco—complete with consistent time zones and fictional radio stations —and 262 individual race tracks .

Although Acclaim , SNK, Ubisoft , Midway, Activision, Infogrames , and Capcom supported the system during its first year, third-party developer support proved difficult to obtain due to the failure of the Sega
Sega
Saturn and the profitability of publishing for the PlayStation. Namco's _Soul Calibur_, for example, was released for the Dreamcast because of the relative unpopularity of the _Soul _ series at the time; Namco's more successful _Tekken _ franchise was associated with the PlayStation
PlayStation
console and PlayStation-based arcade boards. Nevertheless, _Soul Calibur_ received overwhelming critical acclaim and has been frequently described as one of the best games for the system. Capcom produced a number of fighting games for the system, including the _ Power Stone _ series, in addition to a temporary exclusive in the popular _Resident Evil _ series called _Resident Evil Code: Veronica_. The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
is also known for several shoot \'em ups , most notably Treasure's _ Bangai-O _ and _Ikaruga_.

In January 2000, three months after the system's North American launch, _ Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly
_ offered praise for the game library, stating, "...with triple-A stuff like _Soul Calibur_, _NBA 2K_, and soon _Crazy Taxi_ to kick around, we figure you're happy you took the 128-bit plunge." In a retrospective, _ PC Magazine _'s Jeffrey L. Wilson referred to Dreamcast's "killer library" and emphasized Sega's creative influence and visual innovation as being at its peak during the lifetime of the system. The staff of _Edge _ agreed with this assessment on Dreamcast's original titles, as well as Sega's arcade conversions, stating that the system "delivered the first games that could meaningfully be described as arcade perfect." _GamePro_ writer Blake Snow referred to the library as being "much celebrated". Damien McFerran of _ Retro Gamer _ praised Dreamcast's NAOMI arcade ports, opining "The thrill of playing _Crazy Taxi_ in the arcade knowing full well that a pixel-perfect conversion (and not some cut-down port) was set to arrive on the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
is an experience gamers are unlikely to witness again." Nick Montfort and Mia Consalvo, writing in _Loading... The Journal of the Canadian Game Studies Association_, argued that "the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
hosted a remarkable amount of videogame development that went beyond the odd and unusual and is interesting when considered as avant-garde ... it is hard to imagine a commercial console game expressing strong resistance to the commodity perspective and to the view that game production is commerce. But even when it comes to resisting commercialization, it is arguable that Dreamcast
Dreamcast
games came closer to expressing this attitude than any other console games have." 1UP.com's Jeremy Parish favorably compared Sega's Dreamcast
Dreamcast
output, which included some of "the most varied, creative, and fun the company had ever produced", with its "enervated" status as a third-party. Fahs noted "The Dreamcast's life was fleeting, but it was saturated with memorable titles, most of which were completely new properties." According to author Steven L. Kent , "From _Sonic Adventure_ and _Shenmue_ to _Space Channel 5_ and _Seaman_, Dreamcast
Dreamcast
delivered and delivered and delivered."

RECEPTION AND LEGACY

In December 1999, _Next Generation _ rated the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
4 out of 5 stars and stated, "If you want the most powerful system available now, showcasing the best graphics at a reasonable price, this system is for you." However, _Next Generation_ rated the Dreamcast's future prognosis as 3 stars out of 5 in the same article, noting that Sony would ship a superior hardware product in the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
in the next year, and that Nintendo
Nintendo
had said it would do the same with the GameCube. At the beginning of 2000, _Electronic Gaming Monthly_ had five reviewers score the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
8.5, 8.5, 8.5, 8.0, and 9.0 out of 10 points. By 2001, the reviewers for _Electronic Gaming Monthly_ gave the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
scores of 9.0, 9.0, 9.0, 9.0, and 9.5 out of 10. _BusinessWeek _ recognized the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
as one of the best products of 1999.

In 2009, IGN named the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
the 8th greatest video game console of all time, giving credit to the innovations and software for the system. According to IGN, "The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was the first console to incorporate a built-in modem for online play, and while the networking lacked the polish and refinement of its successors, it was the first time users could seamlessly power on and play with users around the globe." In 2010, _PC Magazine_'s Jeffrey L. Wilson named the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
the greatest video game console, emphasizing that the system was "gone too soon". In 2013, _Edge_ named the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
the 10th best console of the last 20 years, highlighting innovations that it added to console video gaming, including in-game voice chat, downloadable content, and second screen technology through the use of VMUs. _Edge_ explained the system's poor performance by stating, "Sega's console was undoubtedly ahead of its time, and it suffered at retail for that reason... ut its influence can still be felt today." Writing in _ 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die _, Duncan Harris noted "One of the reasons that older gamers mourned the loss of the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was that it signaled the demise of arcade gaming culture ... Sega's console gave hope that things were not about to change for the worse and that the tenets of fast fun and bright, attractive graphics were not about to sink into a brown and green bog of realistic war games." Parish, writing for USgamer , contrasted the Dreamcast's diverse library with the "suffocating sense of conservatism" that pervaded the gaming industry in the following decade. Dan Whitehead of Eurogamer, discussing the Dreamcast's portrayal "as a small, square, white plastic JFK ", commented that the system's short lifespan "may have sealed its reputation as one of the greatest consoles ever": "Nothing builds a cult like a tragic demise". According to IGN's Travis Fahs, "Many hardware manufacturers have come and gone, but it's unlikely any will go out with half as much class as Sega."

NOTES

* ^ Dreamcast
Dreamcast
(Japanese : ドリームキャスト, Hepburn : _Dorīmukyasuto_)

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Power_. 20 (211): 71. * ^ Chau, Anthony (November 14, 2000). "_Skies of Arcadia_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Shoemaker, Brad (October 16, 2000). "_Skies of Arcadia_ Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Reiner. "_ Skies of Arcadia
Skies of Arcadia
Legends_". _Game Informer_. Archived from the original on November 12, 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. "Time Extend: _Skies of Arcadia_". _Edge_. July 19, 2009. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. The moment when Vyse officially leaves home ... with his skyfaring dad acknowledging him as an equal, is as touching as it isn't melodramatic, with both parents on hand to offer their blessings instead of blubbery histrionics. Vyse's down-to-earth nature is buffered by the aforementioned Aika, an ever-present confidante and childhood friend, and a playful female companion. More games need a marriage like this: splitting the emotional and verbal duties of the lead character into a double act, a sexless husband and wife who can reassure and question one another without the game having to resort to the internal monologue of a glum teen. Aika and Vyse's relationship is flirty and loving, but never blooms into the dreaded romantic subplot, filled with ellipses and uncomfortable mutterings. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 438. * ^ "_Shenmue_, the History". July 13, 1999. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kolan, Patrick (August 7, 2007). "_Shenmue_: Through the Ages". IGN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mott 2013 , p. 406. * ^ Lamosca, Adam (June 24, 2007). "On-Screen Help, In-Game Hindrance". _The Escapist _. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. * ^ In 2011, Suzuki stated that the actual cost of _Shenmue_ was $47 million: See Gallegos, Anthony (March 2, 2011). "GDC: The Future of _Shenmue_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kent 2001 , p. 578. * ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (March 19, 2014). "Creator Yu Suzuki
Yu Suzuki
shares the story of _Shenmue_\'s development". _Polygon_. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2014. YU SUZUKI: The biggest challenge we encountered was project management. By the end, we had 300 people and no experience on such a large project. At the time there were no project management tools ... so instead we made a job order sheet that was a list of action items in Excel . Because we kept testing, the items did not decrease. At one point we had 10,000 of them. * ^ Chau, Anthony (November 3, 2000). "_Shenmue_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. cf. Provo, Frank (November 11, 2000). "_Shenmue_ Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. Like an old style text adventure, albeit filled with appointments and curfews. cf. Jay (December 2000). "_Shenmue_". _Game Informer_. 10 (92): 120. Every critical encounter ... lasts for less than a minute, and if you fail, you simply try again ... what once seemed so intricate in the Japanese version has become elementary now that the language barrier is broken. Determining your character's next move requires little more than talking to someone, who will then tell you who to see or where to go ... _Shenmue_ is not the next step in video games; merely a glimmer of what the future of gaming might hold ... all that's left is a guy walking around an amazingly detailed environment. If I wanted to experience that, I could see it in another game with proven endless entertainment value. It's called life. cf. "_Shenmue_ Review". _Edge_. November 29, 2000. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. _Shenmue_ is much more than an interactive movie, but certainly does not deliver the freedom expected. It's involving, and ultimately rewarding, but only represents a step towards what may be possible in the future, rather than the milestone _Edge_ hoped for. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ In a 2009 retrospective, IGN's then senior vice-president of content Peer Schneider, among others, criticized IGN's contemporary coverage of _Shenmue_, stating: "I'm as amazed today as I was back in 2000 when we gave it a 9.7." See "Where the F@!* is _Shenmue_?". IGN. September 11, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. The game was defended by IGN UK's Martin Robinson: "_Shenmue_'s stupendously large canvas, its superlative evocation of a time and place that to date remains alien territory to videogames and its unfading beauty all ensure it classic status ... the sweetest memory came just this year, when on a trip to Japan
Japan
with my girlfriend I convinced her to come with me to Yokosuka, the port town that stars in the original game and is only an hour's ride from central Tokyo. It's the ultimate Dreamcast
Dreamcast
fanboy's pilgrimage, and as I took my first steps down Dobuita Street and recognized locations I'd walked past countless times before—Kurita's Military Store, Mary's Embroidery Store and the parking lot where Ryo honed his fighting skills—I couldn't help but go a little dewy eyed." * ^ Kent 2001 , pp. 587, 578. * ^ cf. Matt (December 2000). "_F355 Challenge: Passione Rossa_". _Game Informer_. 10 (92): 124. _F355 Challenge_ was breathtaking when played in the three-monitor coin-op unit, but it seems to lose impact on Dreamcast. For an alternative perspective, see Wiley, Mike (September 19, 2000). "_F355 Challenge_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. It is smoooooth. * ^ cf. "_ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
3tb_". _Game Informer_. October 25, 1999. Archived from the original on June 3, 2000. Retrieved October 26, 2014. cf. Gantayat, Anoop (October 1, 1999). "_ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
3tb_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. cf. "_ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
3 TB_ Review". _Edge_. December 23, 1998. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. The omission of a proper 'versus' selection is unforgivable, forcing twoplayer fights to be organised via the singleplayer mode. Purists may well argue that the arcade original lacked said option, but in _Edge_'s view, buyers of modern coin-op conversions have the right to expect more from their investments than unenhanced facsimiles. * ^ "_ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
4_". Metacritic. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2014. cf. Andy (May 2002). "_ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
4_". _Game Informer_. 12 (109): 78–79. Will change everything you have ever come to expect from this genre. cf. "The Top 50 Games of 2003: _ Virtua Fighter
Virtua Fighter
4: Evolution_". _Game Informer_. 14 (129): 64. January 2004. The most balanced and challenging fighting game the world has ever seen. * ^ "_GI_ "Quotables"". _Game Informer_. 11 (100): 44–45. August 2001. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mott 2013 , p. 370. * ^ _A_ _B_ Justice, Brandon (September 8, 1999). "_Sonic Adventure_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. Engrossing, demanding, and utterly awe-inspiring, Yuji Naka's vision has finally come full circle in this phenomenal title. * ^ _A_ _B_ "_Sonic Adventure_-Dreamcast". _Game Informer_. October 27, 1999. Archived from the original on December 3, 2000. Retrieved November 4, 2014. I wish more time was spent to make this game truly remarkable, rather than the decent game we see today. * ^ Smith, Sean (June 22, 2006). "Company Profile: Sonic Team". Retro Gamer. 3 (26): 27. * ^ Noble, McKinley (May 6, 2009). "The 20 Best Platformers: 1989 to 2009: Number 7: _Sonic Adventure_". _GamePro_. p. 3. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2014. * ^ DeMaria & Wilson 2004 , p. 312. * ^ While _ Sonic Adventure 2 _ was positively reviewed, the extent of its improvements over the original have been debated. See "_Sonic Adventure 2_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic . Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Chau, Anthony (June 22, 2001). "_ Sonic Adventure 2_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. There aren't many viewing problems ... be prepared to take a more active role when playing. cf. Reiner (August 2001). "_ Sonic Adventure 2_". _Game Informer_. 11 (100): 100. Hardly any mistakes from the original were fixed ... The lackluster difficulty and cartoon-like presentation is perfect for kids, but it really does nothing for hardcore gamers or _Sonic_ fans of yesteryear. * ^ "_Sonic Adventure_". Edge. 7 (68): 70–73. February 1999. Sampling one of the earlier levels out of context could leave many with the impression that _Adventure_ is a flashy but essentially shallow experience. It isn't until a good portion of the game world has been explored with a few of the characters ... that the charm and style of Sega's title is fully appreciated ...It must be said, however, that none of _Adventure_ is hugely challenging to the experienced player ... _Edge_ only managed to discover a few places where poor collision detection detracted from the gameplay ... Given the never-before-witnessed scope and detail of _Adventure_'s levels, these are forgiveable–but somehow the smaller problems are not ... The camera's occasional visits behind walls do little to aid the case for forgiveness, either, although it never frustrates to the extent that _ Banjo-Kazooie _ does ... a wonderfully absorbing game experience. * ^ Boutros, Daniel (August 4, 2006). "A Detailed Cross-Examination of Yesterday and Today\'s Best-Selling Platform Games". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014. * ^ Justice, Brandon (March 7, 2000). "_Chu Chu Rocket_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014. cf. Jay (May 2, 2000). "_Chu Chu Rocket_-Dreamcast". _Game Informer_. Archived from the original on December 5, 2000. Retrieved November 4, 2014. I consider it the best and most original puzzle game since _ Tetris
Tetris
_. cf.Nutt, Christian (December 13, 1999). "_ChuChu Rocket!_ Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2014. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 385. * ^ "_Samba de Amigo_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Justice, Brandon (October 18, 2000). "_Samba De Amigo_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Gerstmann, Jeff (June 16, 2000). "_Samba De Amigo_ Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2014. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 405. * ^ For a negative review, see Reiner (December 2000). "_Samba de Amigo_". _Game Informer_. 10 (92): 124. cf. "Retro Reviews: _Samba de Amigo_". _Game Informer_. 18 (178): 110. February 2008. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 435. * ^ Parish, Jeremy. "The Decade That Was: Essential Newcomers: _Phantasy Star Online_". 1UP.com. Retrieved November 27, 2015. cf. Oestreicher, Jason (July 4, 2013). "Time Sinks-_Phantasy Star Online_". _Game Informer_. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2014. Certainly, by today's standards, it was rudimentary and repetitive. But at the same time, it was revolutionary. cf. "Retrospective: _Phantasy Star Online_". _Edge_. June 15, 2014. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. * ^ "_NFL 2K1_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. "_NFL 2K2_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. "_NBA 2K1_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. "_NBA 2K2_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ "Best Launch Titles". GameSpot. September 30, 2005. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. Kato, Matthew (February 2012). "Which Game Console Had the Best Launch Lineup? We Look Back to Find Out". _Game Informer_. 22 (226): 99. * ^ Kato; Reiner (September 2003). "_ESPN NFL Football_". _Game Informer_. 13 (125): 106. _Madden_ has become a deeper simulation, but it hasn't evolved to the degree that Sega's title has. _ESPN NFL Football_ is jam-packed with new features, innovative ideas, and must-see elements. First-person football sounds like a nightmare, but Sega
Sega
figured out a way to make it work. * ^ Bissell, Tom (January 26, 2012). "Kickoff: _Madden NFL_ and the Future of Video Game Sports". _ Grantland _. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ Feldman, Curt; Surette, Tim (December 13, 2004). "Big Deal: EA and NFL ink exclusive licensing agreement". GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ "SEGA Sells Visual Concepts Entertainment to Take-Two Interactive". Businesswire. January 24, 2005. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ GI Staff (August 2003). "Sonic's Architect: GI Interviews Hirokazu Yasuhara". Game Informer . 13 (124): 116. cf. Andy (August 2001). "_Floigan Bros._". _Game Informer_. 11 (100): 101. * ^ "_Ooga Booga_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ cf. "_Toy Commander_-Dreamcast". _ Game Informer _. October 25, 1999. Archived from the original on December 3, 2000. Retrieved October 24, 2014. cf. Justice, Brandon (November 4, 1999). "_Toy Commander_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2014. * ^ "The Making Of: _Metropolis Street Racer_". _Edge_. October 7, 2012. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. * ^ "_Metropolis Street Racer_ (Dreamcast)". Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. Paul (December 2000). "_Metropolis Street Racer_". _Game Informer_. 10 (92): 121. I found the game's control and physics to be exceptional. Likewise, the graphics are brilliant and are probably the best of any racing game on the Dreamcast. cf. Justice, Brandon (January 19, 2001). "_Metropolis Street Racer_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 432. * ^ "_Soul Calibur_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014. * ^ Mott 2013 , pp. 421, 432-434. * ^ Mott 2013 , pp. 382, 465. * ^ "...Should you buy a Dreamcast
Dreamcast
or Wait?". _Electronic Gaming Monthly_. EGM Media, LLC. (126): 150. January 2000. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wilson, Jeffrey L. (May 28, 2010). "The 10 Greatest Video Game Consoles of All Time". _PCmag.com_. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014. A collection of creative, fun, and quirky games that you'd be hard-pressed to find in such abundance on any other platform. * ^ Kent, Steven L. (October 9, 2006). "SOMETIMES THE BEST". Sad Sam's Place. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014. * ^ "The War for the Living Room". _Next Generation_. Imagine Media (2.1.4): 95. December 1999. * ^ Davison, John; et al. (January 2000). "Electronic Gaming Monthly 2000 Buyer's Guide". _Electronic Gaming Monthly_. EGM Media, LLC. * ^ Leahy, Dan; et al. (January 2001). "Electronic Gaming Monthly 2001 Buyer's Guide". _Electronic Gaming Monthly_. EGM Media, LLC. * ^ Kennedy, Sam (December 10, 1999). "Business Week Praises the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
- GameSpot.com". Retrieved February 23, 2013. * ^ Mott 2013 , p. 434. * ^ Parish, Jeremy (September 13, 2014). "What if Dreamcast
Dreamcast
Had Won?". USgamer. Archived from the original on December 15, 2014. Retrieved January 20, 2015.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Mott, Tony (2013). _1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die _. New York City: Universe Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7893-2090-2 . * DeMaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny L. (2004). _High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games_. Emeryville, California: McGraw-Hill/Osborne. ISBN 0-07-223172-6 . * Kent, Steven L. (2001). _The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World_. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing . ISBN 0-7615-3643-4 .

* v * t * e

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ACCESSORIES

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Adapter * Dreameye * Light guns * VGA
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_

LIST OF GAMES

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