The DREAMCAST is a home video game console released by
November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, and
October 14, 1999 in Europe. It was the first in the sixth generation
of video game consoles , preceding Sony's
PlayStation 2 , Nintendo's
GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox . The
Dreamcast was Sega's final home
console, marking the end of the company's 18 years in the console
In contrast to the expensive hardware of the unsuccessful
Dreamcast was designed to reduce costs with "off-the-shelf"
components, including a
Hitachi SH-4 CPU and an
PowerVR 2 GPU .
Japan to a subdued reception, the
Dreamcast enjoyed a
successful U.S. launch backed by a large marketing campaign, but
interest in the system steadily declined as
Sony built hype for the
PlayStation 2. Sales did not meet Sega's expectations despite
several price cuts, and the company continued to incur significant
financial losses. After a change in leadership,
Sega discontinued the
Dreamcast on March 31, 2001, withdrawing from the console business and
restructuring itself as a third-party publisher. 9.13 million
Dreamcast units were sold worldwide.
Dreamcast had a short lifespan and limited third-party
support, reviewers have considered the console ahead of its time. Its
library contains many games considered creative and innovative,
Crazy Taxi _, _
Jet Set Radio _ and _
Shenmue _, as well as
high-quality ports from Sega's NAOMI arcade system board . The
Dreamcast was also the first console to include a built-in modem for
Internet support and online play .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Background
* 1.2 Development
* 1.3 Launch
* 1.4 Competition
* 1.5 Decline
* 2 Technical specifications
* 2.1 Hardware
* 2.2 Models
* 2.3 Accessories
* 3 Game library
* 4 Reception and legacy
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 Bibliography
Released in 1988, the
Sega Genesis (known as the
Sega Mega Drive in
Europe and Brazil) was Sega's entry into the fourth generation
of video game consoles. Selling 30.75 million units worldwide, the
Genesis was the most successful console
Sega ever released. The
successor to the Genesis, the
Sega Saturn , was released in
1994. The Saturn was a
CD-ROM -based console that displayed both 2D
and 3D computer graphics, but its complex dual-CPU architecture made
it more difficult to program for than its chief competitor, the Sony
PlayStation . Although the Saturn debuted before the
Japan and the United States, its surprise U.S. launch—which
came four months earlier than originally scheduled —was marred by
a lack of distribution, which remained a continuing problem for the
system. Moreover, Sega's early release was undermined by Sony's
simultaneous announcement that the
PlayStation would retail for
US$299—compared to the Saturn's initial price of $399. Nintendo
's long delay in releasing a competing 3D console and the damage done
to Sega's reputation by poorly supported add-ons for the Genesis
32X ) allowed
Sony to establish a foothold in
the market. The
PlayStation was immediately successful in the U.S.,
in part due to a massive advertising campaign and strong third-party
support engendered by Sony's excellent development tools and liberal
$10 licensing fee. Sony's success was further aided by a price war
Sega lowered the price of the Saturn from $399 to $299 and
then from $299 to $199 in order to match the price of the
PlayStation–even though Saturn hardware was more expensive to
manufacture and the
PlayStation enjoyed a larger software library.
Losses on the Saturn hardware contributed to Sega's financial
problems, which saw the company's revenue decline between 1992 and
1995 as part of an industry-wide slowdown. Furthermore, Sega's focus
on the Saturn over the Genesis prevented it from fully capitalizing on
the continued strength of the 16-bit market.
Due to long-standing disagreements with
Sega of Japan,
Tom Kalinske became less interested in his position. On
July 16, 1996,
Sega announced that
Shoichiro Irimajiri had been
appointed chairman and CEO of
Sega of America, while Kalinske would be
Sega after September 30 of that year.
Sega also announced
Sega Enterprises cofounder David Rosen and
Hayao Nakayama had resigned from their positions as chairman and
Sega of America, though both men remained with the
Bernie Stolar , a former executive at
Entertainment of America, was named
Sega of America's executive vice
president in charge of product development and third-party relations.
Stolar did not support the Saturn due to his belief that the hardware
was poorly designed and publicly announced at E3 1997 that "The Saturn
is not our future." After the launch of the
Nintendo 64 , sales of
the Saturn and Sega's
32-bit software were sharply reduced. As of
Sony controlled 47 percent of the console market,
Nintendo controlled 40 percent, and
Sega controlled only 12 percent.
Neither price cuts nor high-profile games were proving helpful to the
Saturn's success. Due to the Saturn's poor performance in North
Sega of America laid off 60 of its 200 employees in the fall
of 1997. "I thought the Saturn was a mistake as far as hardware was
concerned. The games were obviously terrific, but the hardware just
wasn't there." —Bernie Stolar, former president of
Sega of America
giving his assessment of the Saturn in 2009.
As a result of the company's deteriorating financial situation,
Nakayama resigned as president of
Sega in January 1998 in favor of
Irimajiri. Stolar would subsequently accede to become CEO and
Sega of America. Following five years of generally
declining profits, in the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998, Sega
suffered its first parent and consolidated financial losses since its
1988 listing on the
Tokyo Stock Exchange
Tokyo Stock Exchange . Due to a 54.8% decline in
consumer product sales (including a 75.4% decline overseas), the
company reported a consolidated net loss of ¥35.6 billion (US$269.8
million). Shortly before announcing its financial losses, Sega
revealed that it was discontinuing the Saturn in North America, with
the goal of preparing for the launch of its successor. This decision
effectively left the Western market without
Sega games for over one
year. Rumors about the upcoming Dreamcast—spread mainly by Sega
itself—leaked to the public before the last Saturn games were
As early as 1995, reports surfaced that
Sega would collaborate with
Lockheed Martin ,
The 3DO Company , Matsushita , or Alliance
Semiconductor to create a new graphics processing unit , which
conflicting accounts said would be used for a 64-bit "Saturn 2" or an
add-on peripheral. Development of the
Dreamcast was wholly
unrelated to this rumored project. In light of the Saturn's poor
market performance, Irimajiri decided to start looking outside of the
company's internal hardware development division to create a new
console. In 1997, Irimajiri enlisted the services of
IBM 's Tatsuo
Yamamoto to lead an 11-man team to work on a secret hardware project
in the United States, which was referred to as "Blackbelt". Accounts
vary on how an internal team led by
Hideki Sato also began development
Dreamcast hardware; one account specifies that
both teams, while another suggests that Sato was bothered by
Irimajiri's choice to begin development externally and chose to have
his hardware team begin development. Sato and his group chose the
Hitachi SH-4 processor architecture and the VideoLogic PowerVR2
graphics processor, manufactured by
NEC , in the production of their
mainboard . Initially known as "Whitebelt", this project was later
codenamed "Dural", after the metallic female fighter from Sega's
Virtua Fighter _ series.
Yamamoto's group opted to use
Voodoo 2 and Voodoo Banshee
graphics processors alongside a
Motorola PowerPC 603e central
processing unit (CPU), but
Sega management later asked them to also
use the SH-4 chip. Both processors have been described as "off the
shelf " components. In 1997,
3dfx began its IPO , and as a result of
legal obligations unveiled its contracts with Sega, including the
development of the new console. This angered
Sega of Japan
executives, who eventually decided to use the Dural chipset and cut
ties with 3dfx. According to former
Sega of America vice president of
communications and former
NEC brand manager Charles Bellfield,
presentations of games using the
NEC solution showcased the
performance and low cost delivered by the SH-4 and PowerVR
architecture. He further stated that "Sega's relationship with NEC, a
Japanese company, probably made a difference too." Stolar, on the
other hand, "felt the US version, the 3Dfx version, should have been
Japan wanted the Japanese version, and
Japan won." As a result,
3dfx filed a lawsuit against both
NEC claiming breach of
contract, which would eventually be settled out of court. The choice
to use the
PowerVR architecture concerned
Electronic Arts (EA), a
longtime developer for Sega's consoles. EA had invested in
was unfamiliar with the selected architecture, which was reportedly
less powerful. As recounted by Shiro Hagiwara (a general manager at
Sega's hardware division) and Ian Oliver (the managing director of
Sega subsidiary Cross Products), the SH-4 was chosen while it was
still in development and following a lengthy deliberation process
because it was the only available processor that "could adapt to
deliver the 3D geometry calculation performance necessary." By
Sega had renamed the Dural "Katana" (after the Japanese
sword ), although certain hardware specifications such as random
access memory (RAM) were not yet finalized.
Knowing that the
Sega Saturn had been set back by its high production
costs and complex hardware,
Sega took a different approach with the
Dreamcast. Like previous
Sega consoles, the
Dreamcast was designed
around intelligent subsystems working in parallel with one another,
but the selections of hardware were more in line with what was common
in personal computers than video game consoles, reducing the system's
cost. According to Damien McFerran, "the motherboard was a
masterpiece of clean, uncluttered design and compatibility." Chinese
economist and future Sega.com CEO Brad Huang convinced
Isao Okawa to include a modem with every
Dreamcast despite significant
opposition from Okawa's staff over the additional $15 cost per unit.
To account for rapid changes in home data delivery,
Sega designed the
Dreamcast's modem to be modular .
Sega selected the
format for the system. The GD-ROM, which was jointly developed by
Yamaha Corporation , could be mass-produced at a similar
price to a normal CD-ROM, thus avoiding the greater expense of
DVD-ROM technology. As the
GD-ROM format can hold about 1 GB of
data, illegally copying
Dreamcast games onto a 650 MB CD-ROM
sometimes required the removal of certain game features, although this
did not prevent copying of
Microsoft developed a
Dreamcast version of
Windows CE with
DirectX API and
dynamic-link libraries , making it easy to port PC games to the
platform, although programmers would ultimately favor Sega's
development tools over those from Microsoft.
Sega held a public competition to name its new system and considered
over 5,000 different entries before choosing "Dreamcast"—a
portmanteau of "dream" and "broadcast". According to Katsutoshi
Eguchi, Japanese game developer
Kenji Eno submitted the name and
created the Dreamcast's spiral logo, but this claim has not been
verified by Sega. The Dreamcast's start-up sound was composed by the
Ryuichi Sakamoto . Because the Saturn had tarnished
Sega's reputation, the company planned to remove its name from the
console entirely and establish a new gaming brand similar to Sony's
PlayStation , but Irimajiri's management team ultimately decided to
retain Sega's logo on the Dreamcast's exterior.
Sega spent US$
50–80 million on hardware development, $150–200 million on
software development, and $300 million on worldwide promotion—a sum
which Irimajiri, a former
Honda executive, humorously compared to the
investments required to design new automobiles.
Despite taking massive losses on the Saturn, including a 75 percent
drop in half-year profits just before the Japanese launch of the
Sega felt confident about its new system. The Dreamcast
attracted significant interest and drew many pre-orders. Sega
announced that _
Sonic Adventure _, the next game starring company
mascot Sonic the Hedgehog , would arrive in time for the Dreamcast's
launch and promoted the game with a large-scale public demonstration
at the Tokyo Kokusai Forum Hall . However,
Sega could not achieve
its shipping goals for the Dreamcast's Japanese launch due to a
PowerVR chipsets caused by a high failure rate in the
manufacturing process. As more than half of its limited stock had
Sega stopped pre-orders in Japan. On November 27,
Dreamcast launched in
Japan at a price of JP¥29,000, and
the entire stock sold out by the end of the day. However, of the four
games available at launch, only one—a port of _
Virtua Fighter 3 _,
the most successful arcade game
Sega ever released in Japan—sold
Sega estimated that an additional 200,000-300,000 Dreamcast
units could have been sold with sufficient supply. Key Dreamcast
software titles _Sonic Adventure_ and _
Sega Rally Championship 2 _,
which had been delayed, arrived within the following weeks, but sales
continued to be slower than expected. Irimajiri hoped to sell over 1
Dreamcast units in
Japan by February 1999, but less than
900,000 were sold, undermining Sega's attempts to build up a
sufficient installed base to ensure the Dreamcast's survival after the
arrival of competition from other manufacturers. There were reports
of disappointed Japanese consumers returning their Dreamcasts and
using the refund to purchase additional
PlayStation software. _Seaman
_, released in July 1999, was considered the Dreamcast's first major
hit in Japan. Prior to the Western launch,
Sega reduced the price
Dreamcast to JP¥19,900, effectively making the hardware
unprofitable but increasing sales. The price reduction and release of
Namco 's _
Soul Calibur _ helped
Sega to gain 17 percent on its shares.
"Let's take the conservative estimate of 250,000
Dreamcast units at
presage—that's a quarter of a million units at $200. We'll have a
ratio of 1.5 or two games for every
Dreamcast unit sold. That's half a
million units of software. We think we'll be .5 to one on VMUs and
peripheral items such as extra controllers and what have you. This
could be a $60 to $80 million 24-hour period. What has ever sold $60
to $80 million in the first 24 hours?" —Peter Moore, speaking to
_Electronic Gaming Monthly_ about the upcoming launch of the
Working closely with
Midway Games (which developed four launch titles
for the system) and taking advantage of the ten months following the
Dreamcast's release in Japan,
Sega of America worked to ensure a more
successful U.S. launch with a minimum of 15 launch games. Despite
lingering bitterness over the Saturn's early release, Stolar
successfully managed to repair relations with major US retailers, with
Sega presold 300,000
Dreamcast units. In addition, a pre-launch
promotion enabled consumers to rent the system from Hollywood Video in
the months preceding its September launch.
Sega of America's senior
vice president of marketing Peter Moore , a fan of the attitude
previously associated with Sega's brand, worked with Foote, Cone ">
The PS2 provided stiff competition to the Dreamcast.
Dreamcast launch had been successful,
Sony still held 60
percent of the overall video game market share in
North America with
PlayStation at the end of 1999. On March 2, 1999, in what one
report called a "highly publicized, vaporware -like announcement"
Sony revealed the first details of its "next generation PlayStation",
Ken Kutaragi claimed would allow video games to convey
unprecedented emotions. The center of Sony's marketing plan and the
PlayStation 2 itself was a new CPU (clocked at 294 MHz )
jointly developed by
Toshiba —the "
Emotion Engine "—which
Kutaragi announced would feature a graphics processor with 1,000 times
more bandwidth than contemporary PC graphics processors and a
floating-point calculation performance of 6.2 gigaflops , rivaling
most supercomputers. Sony, which invested $1.2 billion in two
large-scale integration semiconductor fabrication plants to
PlayStation 2's "Emotion Engine" and "Graphics
Synthesizer", designed the machine to push more raw polygons than any
video game console in history.
Sony claimed the
PlayStation 2 could
render 75 million raw polygons per second with absolutely no effects,
and 38 million without accounting for features such as textures ,
artificial intelligence , or physics . With such effects, Sony
PlayStation 2 could render 7.5 million to 16 million
polygons per second, whereas independent estimates ranged from 3
million to 20 million, compared to Sega's estimates of more than 3
million to 6 million for the Dreamcast. The system would also
DVD-ROM format, which could hold substantially more data
than the Dreamcast's
GD-ROM format. Because it could connect to the
Internet while playing movies, music, and video games,
PlayStation 2 as the future of home entertainment. Rumors spread
PlayStation 2 was a supercomputer capable of guiding missiles
and displaying _
Toy Story _-quality graphics, while Kutaragi boasted
its online capabilities would give consumers the ability to "jack into
The Matrix ’_!" In addition,
Sony emphasized that the
PlayStation 2 would be backwards compatible with hundreds of popular
PlayStation games. Sony's specifications appeared to render the
Dreamcast obsolete months before its U.S. launch, although reports
later emerged that the
PlayStation 2 was not as powerful as expected
and distinctly difficult to program games for. The same year,
Nintendo announced that its next generation console would meet or
exceed anything on the market, and
Microsoft began development of its
own console .
Sega's initial momentum proved fleeting as U.S. Dreamcast
sales—which exceeded 1.5 million by the end of 1999 —began to
decline as early as January 2000. Poor Japanese sales contributed to
Sega's ¥42.88 billion ($404 million) consolidated net loss in the
fiscal year ending March 2000, which followed a similar loss of
¥42.881 billion the previous year and marked Sega's third consecutive
annual loss. Although Sega's overall sales for the term increased
Dreamcast sales in
North America and
exceeded the company's expectations, this increase in sales coincided
with a decrease in profitability due to the investments required to
Dreamcast in Western markets and poor software sales in
Japan. At the same time, increasingly poor market conditions reduced
the profitability of Sega's Japanese arcade business, prompting the
company to close 246 locations. Knowing that "they have to fish
where the fish are biting",
Sega of America president Peter Moore (who
assumed his position after Stolar had been fired) and
Sega of Japan's
developers focused on the U.S. market to prepare for the upcoming
launch of the PS2. To that end,
Sega of America launched its own
Internet service provider, Sega.com, led by CEO Brad Huang. On
September 7, 2000, Sega.com launched
SegaNet , the Dreamcast's
Internet gaming service, at a subscription price of $21.95 per month.
Sega had previously released only one
Dreamcast title in the
U.S. that featured online multiplayer (_
ChuChu Rocket! _, a puzzle
game developed by
Sonic Team ), the launch of
SegaNet (which allowed
users to chat, send email, and surf the web) combined with _
NFL 2K1 _
(a football game including a robust online component) was intended to
increase demand for the
Dreamcast in the U.S. market. The service
would later support games including _
Bomberman Online _, _Phantasy
Star Online _, _
Quake III Arena _, and _
Unreal Tournament _. The
September 7 launch coincided with a new advertising campaign to
promote SegaNet, including via the
MTV Video Music Awards of the same
Sega sponsored for the second consecutive year. Sega
employed aggressive pricing strategies with relation to online gaming.
In Japan, every
Dreamcast sold included a free year of Internet
access, which Okawa personally paid for. Prior to the launch of
Sega had already offered a $200 rebate to any
who purchased two years of Internet access from Sega.com. To
increase SegaNet's appeal in the U.S.,
Sega dropped the price of the
Dreamcast to $149 (compared to the PS2's U.S. launch price of $299)
and offered a rebate for the full $149 price of a
Dreamcast (and a
Dreamcast keyboard) with every 18-month
"We had a tremendous 18 months.
Dreamcast was on fire - we really
thought that we could do it. But then we had a target from
said we had to make x hundreds of millions of dollars by the holiday
season and shift x millions of units of hardware, otherwise we just
couldn't sustain the business. Somehow I got to make that call, not
the Japanese. I had to fire a lot of people; it was not a pleasant
day. So on January 31st 2001 we said
Sega is leaving hardware. We were
selling 50,000 units a day, then 60,000, then 100,000, but it was just
not going to be enough to get the critical mass to take on the launch
of PS2. It was a big stakes game.
Sega had the option of pouring in
more money and going bankrupt and they decided they wanted to live to
fight another day." —Peter Moore, on the Dreamcast's
Moore stated that the
Dreamcast would need to sell 5 million units in
the U.S. by the end of 2000 in order to remain a viable platform, but
Sega ultimately fell short of this goal with some 3 million units
sold. Moreover, Sega's attempts to spur increased
through lower prices and cash rebates caused escalating financial
losses. Instead of an expected profit, for the six months ending
Sega posted a ¥17.98 billion ($163.11 million) loss,
with the company projecting a year-end loss of ¥23.6 billion. This
estimate was more than doubled to ¥58.3 billion, and in March 2001,
Sega posted a consolidated net loss of ¥51.7 billion ($417.5
million). While the PS2's October 26 U.S. launch was marred by
shortages—with only 500,000 of a planned 1 million units shipped due
to a manufacturing glitch—this did not benefit the
Dreamcast as much
as expected, as many disappointed consumers continued to wait for a
PS2—while the PSone, a remodeled version of the original
PlayStation, was the best-selling console in the U.S. at the start of
the 2000 holiday season. According to Moore, "the
effect that we were relying upon did not work for us ... people will
hang on for as long as possible ... What effectively happened is the
PlayStation 2 lack of availability froze the marketplace".
Nintendo held 50 and 35 percent of the US video
game market, respectively, while
Sega held only 15 percent. According
Dreamcast software sold at an 8-to-1 ratio with the
hardware, but this ratio "on a small install base didn't give us the
revenue ... to keep this platform viable in the medium to long term."
On May 22, 2000, Okawa replaced Iramajiri as president of Sega.
Okawa had long openly advocated that
Sega abandon the console
business. His sentiments were not unique;
Sega co-founder David Rosen
had "always felt it was a bit of a folly for them to be limiting their
Sega hardware", and Stolar had previously suggested that
Sega should have sold their company to Microsoft. In September 2000,
in a meeting with Sega's Japanese executives and the heads of the
company's major Japanese game development studios, Moore and Bellfield
Sega abandon its console business and focus solely on
software—prompting the studio heads to walk out. Nevertheless, on
January 31, 2001,
Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast
after March 31 and the restructuring of the company as a
"platform-agnostic" third-party developer. The decision was Moore's.
Sega also announced a
Dreamcast price reduction to $99 to eliminate
its unsold inventory, which was estimated at 930,000 units as of April
2001. After a further reduction to $79, the
Dreamcast was cleared
out of stores at $49.95. The final
Dreamcast unit to be manufactured
was autographed by the heads of all nine of Sega's internal game
development studios as well as the heads of
Visual Concepts and Wave
Master and given away with 55 first-party
Dreamcast games through a
competition organized by _
GamePro _ magazine. Okawa, who had
Sega $500 million in the summer of 1999, died on
March 16, 2001; shortly before his death, he forgave Sega's debts to
him and returned his $695 million worth of
Sega and CSK stock, helping
the company survive the third-party transition. As part of this
restructuring, nearly one-third of Sega's Tokyo workforce was laid off
Dreamcast units were sold worldwide. After the
Dreamcast's discontinuation, commercial games were still developed and
released for the system, particularly in Japan. In the United States,
game releases continued until the end of the first half of 2002. Sega
Japan continued to repair
Dreamcast units until 2007. As of 2014,
the console is still supported through various
releases. After five consecutive years of financial losses, Sega
finally posted a profit for the fiscal year ending March 2003.
Reasons cited for the failure of the
Dreamcast include hype for the
PS2; a lack of support from EA and Squaresoft , considered the most
popular third-parties in the U.S. and
Sega executives over the company's future, and
Okawa's lack of commitment to the product; Sega's lack of advertising
money, with Bellfield doubting that
Sega spent even "half" the $100
million it had pledged to promote the
Dreamcast in the U.S.; that
the market was not yet ready for online gaming; Sega's focus on
"hardcore" gamers over the mainstream consumer; and poor timing.
Perhaps the most frequently cited reason is the damage to Sega's
reputation caused by several previous poorly supported
Writing for _GamePro_, Blake Snow stated that "The much beloved
console launched years ahead of the competition but ultimately
struggled to shed the negative reputation had gained during the
Sega 32X, and
Sega CD days. As a result, casual gamers and
jaded third-party developers doubted Sega's ability to deliver."
Eurogamer 's Dan Whitehead noted that the "wait and see" approach of
consumers and the lack of support from EA were symptoms rather the
cause of Sega's decline, concluding "Sega's misadventures during the
1990s had left both gamers and publishers wary of any new platform
bearing its name." According to
1UP.com 's Jeremy Parish, "While it
would be easy to point an accusatory finger at
Sony and blame them for
Dreamcast by overselling the PS2 ... there's a certain
level of intellectual dishonesty in such a stance ... 's poor U.S.
support for hardware like the
Sega CD, the 32X, and the Saturn made
gamers gun shy. Many consumers felt burned after investing in
Sega machines and finding the resulting libraries
The announcement of Sega's third-party transition was met with
widespread enthusiasm. According to IGN's Travis Fahs, "
Sega was a
creatively fertile company with a rapidly expanding stable of
properties to draw from. It seemed like they were in a perfect
position to start a new life as a developer/publisher." Former
Working Designs president Victor Ireland wrote that "It's actually a
good thing ... because now
Sega will survive, doing what they do best:
software." The staff of _
Newsweek _ remarked "From _Sonic_ to
_Shenmue_, Sega's programmers have produced some of the most engaging
experiences in the history of interactive media ... Unshackled by a
struggling console platform, this platoon of world-class software
developers can do what they do best for any machine on the market".
Rosen predicted "they have the potential to catch Electronic Arts".
Game Informer _, commenting on Sega's tendency to produce
under-appreciated cult classics , stated: "Let us rejoice in the fact
Sega is making games equally among the current console crop, so
that history will not repeat itself."
Internal view of a
Dreamcast console including optical drive,
power supply, controller ports, and cooling fan.
Mainboard of a
Dreamcast measures 190 mm × 195.8 mm × 75.5 mm
(7.48 in × 7.71 in × 2.97 in) and weighs 1.5 kg (3.3 lb). The
Dreamcast's main CPU is a two-way 360 MIPS superscalar
RISC clocked at 200 MHz with an 8 Kbyte instruction cache and
16 Kbyte data cache and a 128-bit graphics-oriented floating-point
unit delivering 1.4 G
FLOPS . Its 100 MHz
NEC PowerVR2 rendering
engine, integrated with the system's ASIC , is capable of drawing more
than 3 million polygons per second and of deferred shading . Sega
estimated that the
Dreamcast was theoretically capable of rendering 7
million raw polygons per second, or 6 million with textures and
lighting, but noted that "game logic and physics reduce peak graphic
performance." Graphics hardware effects include trilinear filtering ,
gouraud shading , z-buffering , spatial anti-aliasing , per-pixel
translucency sorting and bump mapping . The system can output
approximately 16.77 million colors simultaneously and displays
interlaced or progressive scan video at 640 × 480 video resolution .
Its 67 MHz Yamaha AICA sound processor, with a
core, can generate 64 voices with PCM or ADPCM , providing ten times
the performance of the Saturn's sound system. The
Dreamcast has 16 MB
main RAM, along with an additional 8 MB of RAM for graphic textures
and 2 MB of RAM for sound. The system reads media using a 12x speed
GD-ROM Drive. In addition to Windows CE, the Dreamcast
Sega and middleware application programming
interfaces . In most regions, the
Dreamcast included a removable
modem for online connectivity, which was modular for future upgrades.
The original Japanese model and all PAL models had a transfer rate of
33.6 kbit/s, while consoles sold in the US and in
September 9, 1999 featured a 56 kbit/s dial-up modem.
The limited-edition black "
Sega Sports" model. The Divers
2000 CX-1 was a special edition of the
Dreamcast that had a built-in
Sega constructed numerous
Dreamcast models, most of which were
exclusive to Japan. A refurbished
Dreamcast known as the R7 was
originally used as a network console in Japanese pachinko parlors.
Another model, the Divers 2000 CX-1, possesses a shape similar to
Sonic's head and includes a television and software for
teleconferencing. A _
Hello Kitty _ version, limited to 2000 units
produced, was targeted at Japanese female gamers.
were created for _Seaman_ and _Resident Evil Code: Veronica _. Color
variations were sold through a service called "
Dreamcast Direct" in
Toyota also offered special edition
Dreamcast units at 160 of
its dealers in Japan. In North America, a limited edition black
Dreamcast was released with a
Sega Sports logo on the lid, which
Sega Sports-branded black controllers and two games.
Dreamcast controller has two dock connectors for use with
multiple accessories, like the
Dreamcast controller includes both an analog stick and a digital
pad, four action buttons, and two analog triggers. The system has four
ports for controller inputs, although it was bundled with only one
controller. The design of the Dreamcast's controller, described by
the staff of _Edge _ as "an ugly evolution of Saturn\'s 3D controller
," was called " that great" by 1UP.com's Sam Kennedy and "lame" by
_Game Informer_'s Andy McNamara. The staff of
IGN wrote that "unlike
most controllers, Sega's pad forces the user's hands into an
uncomfortable parallel position." In contrast to the
Sega CD and Sega
Saturn, which included internal backup memory, the
Dreamcast uses a
128 kbyte memory card called the
VMU (or "Visual Memory Unit") for
data storage. The
VMU features a small LCD screen, audio output from
a one-channel PWM sound source, non-volatile memory , a directional
pad, and four buttons. The
VMU can present game information, be
used as a minimal handheld gaming device, and connect to certain Sega
arcade machines. For example, players use the
VMU to call plays in
_NFL 2K_ or raise virtual pets in _Sonic Adventure_.
noted that the
VMU could be used "as a private viewing area, the
absence of which has prevented effective implementation of many types
of games in the past." After a
VMU slot was incorporated into the
controller's design, Sega's engineers found many additional uses for
it, so a second slot was added. This slot was generally used for
vibration packs providing force feedback like Sega's "Jump Pack"
and Performance's "Tremor Pack", although it could also be used for
other peripherals including a microphone enabling voice control and
player communication. Various third-party cards provide storage, and
some contain the LCD screen addition. Iomega announced a
Dreamcast-compatible zip drive that could store up to 100 MB of data
on removable discs, but it was never released.
Various third-party controllers from companies like
Mad Catz include
additional buttons and other extra features; third-parties also
manufactured arcade-style joysticks for fighting games, such as
Agetech's Arcade Stick and Interact's Alloy Arcade Stick. Mad Catz
and Agetec created racing wheels for racing games.
against releasing its official light gun in the U.S., but some third
party light guns were available. The
Dreamcast supports a Sega
fishing "reel and rod" motion controller and a keyboard for text
entry. Although it was designed for fishing games such as _
Fishing _, _Soul Calibur_ was playable with the fishing controller,
which translated vertical and horizontal movements into on-screen
swordplay in a manner that was retroactively cited as a predecessor to
Wii Remote . The Japanese
Dreamcast port of Sega's _Cyber
Troopers Virtual-On Oratorio Tangram _ supported a "Twin Sticks"
peripheral, but the game's American publisher,
Activision , opted not
to release it in the U.S. The
Dreamcast could connect to
SNK 's Neo
Geo Pocket Color , predating Nintendo's GameCube–Game Boy Advance
link cable .
Sega also produced the
Dreameye , a digital camera that
could be connected to the
Dreamcast and used to exchange pictures and
participate in video chat over the system's Internet connection. Sega
hoped developers would use the
Dreameye for future software, as some
later did with Sony's similar
EyeToy peripheral. In addition, Sega
investigated systems that would have allowed users to make telephone
calls with the Dreamcast, and discussed with
Motorola the development
of an Internet-enabled cell phone that would have used technology from
the console to enable quick downloads of games and other data.
The console can supply video through several different accessories.
The console came with A/V cables , considered at the time to be the
standard for video and audio connectivity.
Sega and various third
parties also manufactured
RF modulator connectors and
VGA adapter allows
Dreamcast games to be played on computer displays
Enhanced-definition television sets in
Sonic Adventure _ was a significant title for the
the first 3D platforming game in the _Sonic the Hedgehog _ series.
List of Dreamcast games
Before the launch of the
Dreamcast in Japan,
Sega announced the
release of its New Arcade Operation Machine Idea (NAOMI) arcade board,
which served as a cheaper alternative to the
Sega Model 3 . NAOMI
shared the same technology as the Dreamcast—albeit with twice as
much system, video, and audio memory and an 160 Mbyte flash ROM board
in place of a
GD-ROM drive—allowing nearly identical home
conversions of arcade games . Games were ported from NAOMI to the
Dreamcast by several leading Japanese arcade companies, including
Capcom (_Marvel vs.
Capcom 2 _ and _
Project Justice _),
or Alive 2 _ ), Treasure (_
Ikaruga _ ), and
Sega itself (_F355
Challenge _ and _
Crazy Taxi _).
In what has been called "a brief moment of remarkable creativity",
Sega restructured its arcade and console development teams
into nine semi-autonomous studios headed by the company's top
designers. Studios included
United Game Artists (UGA) (headed by
Sega Rally Championship _ producer
Tetsuya Mizuguchi ),
Hitmaker (headed by _Crazy Taxi_ creator and future
Hisao Oguchi ), Smilebit (headed by Shun Arai and including many
former _Panzer Dragoon _ and future _Yakuza _ developers from Team
Overworks (headed by
Noriyoshi Oba and composed of
Sega franchises including _
Sakura Wars _, _Shinobi _
and _Streets of Rage _ ),
Sega AM2 (Sega's most famous arcade studio
and the developer of Sega's _Virtua Fighter_ fighting game series,
headed by the company's top developer,
Yu Suzuki ), and Sonic Team
(the developer of Sega's flagship series, _Sonic the Hedgehog _,
Yuji Naka ). Sega's design houses were encouraged to
experiment and benefited from a relatively lax approval process,
resulting in titles such as _
Rez _ (an attempt to simulate
synaesthesia in the form of a rail shooter ), _The Typing of the
Dead _ (a version of _
The House of the Dead 2 _ remade into a touch
typing trainer), _Seaman_ (a pet simulator in which players use a
microphone to interact with a grotesque humanoid fish whose growth is
Leonard Nimoy ), and _
Segagaga _ (a Japan-exclusive
role-playing-game employing commentary on the perceived over-abundance
of sequels produced by the video game industry, in which players are
tasked with preventing
Sega from going out of business).
revived franchises from the Genesis era, such as _
Ecco the Dolphin _.
Sega's internal studios were consolidated starting in 2003, with
Mizuguchi leaving the company following the merger of UGA with Sonic
UGA created the music game _
Space Channel 5 _, in which players help
a female outer space news reporter named Ulala fight aliens with
"groove energy" by dancing. Intended for a "female casual" audience,
_Space Channel 5_ is considered one of Sega's "most daring and
beloved" original properties, combining a "defiantly retro" and
"uplifting" soundtrack with "dazzling" and "colorful" visual
presentation—despite "a lack of real gameplay substance." Neither
_Space Channel 5_ nor UGA's _Rez_ were commercially successful, and
the latter title was only available in the U.S. market through a PS2
port released in limited quantities. Hitmaker's arcade ports
included _Crazy Taxi_—an open world arcade racing game known for its
addictive gameplay, which sold over one million copies and has been
frequently cited as one of the best
Dreamcast games —and _Virtua
Tennis _—which revitalized the tennis game genre with a simple
two-button control scheme and use of minigames to test the player's
technique. Smilebit's _
Jet Set Radio _—in which players control a
Tokyo-based gang of youthful, rebellious inline skaters called the
"GGs", who use graffiti to claim territory from rival gangs while
evading an oppressive police force—has been cited as a major example
of Sega's commitment to original game concepts during the Dreamcast's
lifespan. Lauded for composer
Hideki Naganuma 's "punchy, psychedelic"
soundtrack incorporating elements of "
J-pop and electro-funk " as well
as its message of "self-expression and non-violent dissent ", the
game also popularized cel shaded graphics. Despite wide praise for
its style, some criticized _Jet Set Radio_'s gameplay as mediocre, and
it failed to meet Sega's sales expectations. Produced by Rieko
Kodama , the Overworks-developed traditional role-playing game _Skies
of Arcadia _ was acclaimed for its surreal
Jules Verne -inspired
fantasy world of floating islands and sky pirates, charming
protagonists, unique emphasis on the environmental properties of
weapons, exciting airship battles, and memorable plot (including a
sequence viewed from multiple perspectives).
AM2 developed what
Sega hoped would be the Dreamcast's killer app ,
Shenmue _, a "revenge epic in the tradition of Chinese cinema ."
The action-adventure title involved the quest of protagonist Ryo
Hazuki to avenge his father's murder, but its main selling point was
its rendition of the Japanese city of Yokosuka , which included a
level of detail considered unprecedented for a video game.
Incorporating a simulated day/night cycle with variable weather,
non-player characters with regular schedules, and the ability to pick
up and examine detailed objects (also introducing the Quick-time event
in its modern form ), _Shenmue_ went over budget and was rumored to
Sega over $50 million. Originally planned as the first
installment in an 11-part saga, _Shenmue_ was eventually downsized to
a trilogy—and only one sequel was ever released. While _Shenmue_
was lauded for its innovation, visuals and music, its critical
reception was mixed; points of criticism included "invisible walls"
which limited the player's sense of freedom, boredom caused by the
inability to progress without waiting for events scheduled to occur at
specific times, excessive in-game cutscenes and a lack of challenge.
According to Moore, _Shenmue_ sold "extremely well", but the game had
no chance of making a profit due to the Dreamcast's limited installed
Shenmue II_ "was completed for a much more reasonable sum",
while Sato defended _Shenmue_ as an "investment will someday be
recouped" because "the development advances we learned ... can be
applied to other games". In addition to the mixed reception for
_Shenmue_, IGN's Travis Fahs stated that "the era wasn't as kind to
as earlier years"—citing (among others) _F355 Challenge_ as an
"acclaimed" arcade title that "didn't do much at home", and Genki 's
port of _
Virtua Fighter 3_ as inferior to the arcade version, "which
was already a couple years old and never as popular as its
predecessors." The _Virtua Fighter_ series would experience a
"tremendous comeback" with the universally acclaimed _
Virtua Fighter 4
_—which saw a console release exclusively on PS2. "If ever a
system deserved to succeed, it was Dreamcast.
Dreamcast has a hell of
a library. It's dying now, 18 months old, with a larger library than
Nintendo 64. It's a better library than the Nintendo
Dreamcast was a wonderful system." —Journalist Steven L. Kent,
As the first fully 3D platforming game starring Sega's mascot, Sonic
the Hedgehog, Sonic Team's _Sonic Adventure_ was considered "the
centerpiece of the launch". _Adventure_ garnered criticism for
technical problems including erratic camera angles and glitches,
but was praised for its "luscious" visuals, "vast, twisting
environments" and iconic set pieces —including a segment in which
Sonic runs down the side of a skyscraper —and has been described as
the _Sonic_ series' creative apex. However, it failed "to catch on
with players in nearly the way that _Mario 64 _ had done", perhaps
due to a perceived lack of gameplay depth. Distinguished by its
innovative use of multiple storylines with varied forms of play,
_Adventure_ sold 2.5 million copies, making it the Dreamcast's
Sonic Team also developed the Dreamcast's first
online game—_ChuChu Rocket!_—which was widely complimented for its
addictive puzzle gameplay and "frantic" multiplayer matches, and
the critically successful music game _
Samba de Amigo _, which was
noted for its expensive maracas peripheral and colorful aesthetic.
Perhaps the most influential of Sonic Team's
Dreamcast releases was
_Phantasy Star Online_, the first online console RPG. Developed after
Okawa requested an online game from Sonic Team, _PSO_ was heavily
influenced by the PC action RPG _Diablo _, but refined and simplified
its style of gameplay to appeal to console audiences.
In sports, Visual Concepts' _
NFL 2K _ football series and its _NBA 2K
_ basketball series were critically acclaimed. _NFL 2K_ was
considered an outstanding launch game for its high-quality visuals
and "insightful, context-friendly, and, yes, even funny commentary ",
while _NFL 2K1_ featured groundbreaking online multiplayer earlier
than its chief competitor, EA's _
Madden NFL _ series. _Madden_ and
_2K_ continued to compete on other platforms through 2004—with the
_2K_ series introducing innovations such as a first person perspective
new to the genre, and eventually launching _
ESPN NFL 2K5 _ at the
aggressively low price point of $19.95—until EA signed an exclusive
agreement with the
National Football League , "effectively putting
every other pro-football game out of business." After
Visual Concepts for $24 million in 2005, the _NBA 2K_ series continued
Take-Two Interactive . During the Dreamcast's
Visual Concepts also collaborated with _Sonic the Hedgehog _
Hirokazu Yasuhara on the action-adventure game _Floigan
Bros. _ and developed the critically successful action game _Ooga
To appeal to the European market,
Sega formed a French affiliate
No Cliché , which developed titles such as _
Toy Commander _.
Europe also approached
Bizarre Creations to develop the
critically successful racing game _
Metropolis Street Racer _, which
featured detailed recreations of London, Tokyo, and San
Francisco—complete with consistent time zones and fictional radio
stations —and 262 individual race tracks .
Although Acclaim , SNK,
Ubisoft , Midway, Activision,
Capcom supported the system during its first year, third-party
developer support proved difficult to obtain due to the failure of the
Sega Saturn and the profitability of publishing for the PlayStation.
Namco's _Soul Calibur_, for example, was released for the Dreamcast
because of the relative unpopularity of the _Soul _ series at the
time; Namco's more successful _Tekken _ franchise was associated with
PlayStation console and PlayStation-based arcade boards.
Nevertheless, _Soul Calibur_ received overwhelming critical acclaim
and has been frequently described as one of the best games for the
Capcom produced a number of fighting games for the system,
including the _
Power Stone _ series, in addition to a temporary
exclusive in the popular _Resident Evil _ series called _Resident
Evil Code: Veronica_. The
Dreamcast is also known for several shoot
\'em ups , most notably Treasure's _
Bangai-O _ and _Ikaruga_.
In January 2000, three months after the system's North American
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly _ offered praise for the game
library, stating, "...with triple-A stuff like _Soul Calibur_, _NBA
2K_, and soon _Crazy Taxi_ to kick around, we figure you're happy you
took the 128-bit plunge." In a retrospective, _
PC Magazine _'s
Jeffrey L. Wilson referred to Dreamcast's "killer library" and
emphasized Sega's creative influence and visual innovation as being at
its peak during the lifetime of the system. The staff of _Edge _
agreed with this assessment on Dreamcast's original titles, as well as
Sega's arcade conversions, stating that the system "delivered the
first games that could meaningfully be described as arcade perfect."
_GamePro_ writer Blake Snow referred to the library as being "much
celebrated". Damien McFerran of _
Retro Gamer _ praised Dreamcast's
NAOMI arcade ports, opining "The thrill of playing _Crazy Taxi_ in the
arcade knowing full well that a pixel-perfect conversion (and not some
cut-down port) was set to arrive on the
Dreamcast is an experience
gamers are unlikely to witness again."
Nick Montfort and Mia
Consalvo, writing in _Loading... The Journal of the Canadian Game
Studies Association_, argued that "the
Dreamcast hosted a remarkable
amount of videogame development that went beyond the odd and unusual
and is interesting when considered as avant-garde ... it is hard to
imagine a commercial console game expressing strong resistance to the
commodity perspective and to the view that game production is
commerce. But even when it comes to resisting commercialization, it is
Dreamcast games came closer to expressing this attitude
than any other console games have." 1UP.com's Jeremy Parish favorably
Dreamcast output, which included some of "the most
varied, creative, and fun the company had ever produced", with its
"enervated" status as a third-party. Fahs noted "The Dreamcast's life
was fleeting, but it was saturated with memorable titles, most of
which were completely new properties." According to author Steven L.
Kent , "From _Sonic Adventure_ and _Shenmue_ to _Space Channel 5_ and
Dreamcast delivered and delivered and delivered."
RECEPTION AND LEGACY
In December 1999, _Next Generation _ rated the
Dreamcast 4 out of 5
stars and stated, "If you want the most powerful system available now,
showcasing the best graphics at a reasonable price, this system is for
you." However, _Next Generation_ rated the Dreamcast's future
prognosis as 3 stars out of 5 in the same article, noting that Sony
would ship a superior hardware product in the
PlayStation 2 in the
next year, and that
Nintendo had said it would do the same with the
GameCube. At the beginning of 2000, _Electronic Gaming Monthly_ had
five reviewers score the
Dreamcast 8.5, 8.5, 8.5, 8.0, and 9.0 out of
10 points. By 2001, the reviewers for _Electronic Gaming Monthly_
Dreamcast scores of 9.0, 9.0, 9.0, 9.0, and 9.5 out of 10.
_BusinessWeek _ recognized the
Dreamcast as one of the best products
IGN named the
Dreamcast the 8th greatest video game console
of all time, giving credit to the innovations and software for the
system. According to IGN, "The
Dreamcast was the first console to
incorporate a built-in modem for online play, and while the networking
lacked the polish and refinement of its successors, it was the first
time users could seamlessly power on and play with users around the
globe." In 2010, _PC Magazine_'s Jeffrey L. Wilson named the
Dreamcast the greatest video game console, emphasizing that the system
was "gone too soon". In 2013, _Edge_ named the
Dreamcast the 10th
best console of the last 20 years, highlighting innovations that it
added to console video gaming, including in-game voice chat,
downloadable content, and second screen technology through the use of
VMUs. _Edge_ explained the system's poor performance by stating,
"Sega's console was undoubtedly ahead of its time, and it suffered at
retail for that reason... ut its influence can still be felt today."
Writing in _
1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die _, Duncan
Harris noted "One of the reasons that older gamers mourned the loss of
Dreamcast was that it signaled the demise of arcade gaming culture
... Sega's console gave hope that things were not about to change for
the worse and that the tenets of fast fun and bright, attractive
graphics were not about to sink into a brown and green bog of
realistic war games." Parish, writing for
USgamer , contrasted the
Dreamcast's diverse library with the "suffocating sense of
conservatism" that pervaded the gaming industry in the following
decade. Dan Whitehead of Eurogamer, discussing the Dreamcast's
portrayal "as a small, square, white plastic JFK ", commented that the
system's short lifespan "may have sealed its reputation as one of the
greatest consoles ever": "Nothing builds a cult like a tragic demise".
According to IGN's Travis Fahs, "Many hardware manufacturers have
come and gone, but it's unlikely any will go out with half as much
class as Sega."
Dreamcast (Japanese : ドリームキャスト, Hepburn :
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* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kolan, Patrick (August 7, 2007). "_Shenmue_:
Through the Ages". IGN. Archived from the original on November 4,
2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mott 2013 , p. 406.
* ^ Lamosca, Adam (June 24, 2007). "On-Screen Help, In-Game
Hindrance". _The Escapist _. Archived from the original on May 2,
2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
* ^ In 2011, Suzuki stated that the actual cost of _Shenmue_ was
$47 million: See Gallegos, Anthony (March 2, 2011). "GDC: The Future
of _Shenmue_". IGN. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014.
Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kent 2001 , p. 578.
* ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (March 19, 2014). "Creator
Yu Suzuki shares
the story of _Shenmue_\'s development". _Polygon_. Archived from the
original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2014. YU SUZUKI: The
biggest challenge we encountered was project management. By the end,
we had 300 people and no experience on such a large project. At the
time there were no project management tools ... so instead we made a
job order sheet that was a list of action items in Excel . Because we
kept testing, the items did not decrease. At one point we had 10,000
* ^ Chau, Anthony (November 3, 2000). "_Shenmue_". IGN. Archived
from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
cf. Provo, Frank (November 11, 2000). "_Shenmue_ Review". GameSpot.
Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. Retrieved October 26,
2014. Like an old style text adventure, albeit filled with
appointments and curfews. cf. Jay (December 2000). "_Shenmue_". _Game
Informer_. 10 (92): 120. Every critical encounter ... lasts for less
than a minute, and if you fail, you simply try again ... what once
seemed so intricate in the Japanese version has become elementary now
that the language barrier is broken. Determining your character's next
move requires little more than talking to someone, who will then tell
you who to see or where to go ... _Shenmue_ is not the next step in
video games; merely a glimmer of what the future of gaming might hold
... all that's left is a guy walking around an amazingly detailed
environment. If I wanted to experience that, I could see it in another
game with proven endless entertainment value. It's called life. cf.
"_Shenmue_ Review". _Edge_. November 29, 2000. Archived from the
original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015. _Shenmue_ is
much more than an interactive movie, but certainly does not deliver
the freedom expected. It's involving, and ultimately rewarding, but
only represents a step towards what may be possible in the future,
rather than the milestone _Edge_ hoped for. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link )
* ^ In a 2009 retrospective, IGN's then senior vice-president of
content Peer Schneider, among others, criticized IGN's contemporary
coverage of _Shenmue_, stating: "I'm as amazed today as I was back in
2000 when we gave it a 9.7." See "Where the F@!* is _Shenmue_?". IGN.
September 11, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014.
Retrieved October 26, 2014. The game was defended by
IGN UK's Martin
Robinson: "_Shenmue_'s stupendously large canvas, its superlative
evocation of a time and place that to date remains alien territory to
videogames and its unfading beauty all ensure it classic status ...
the sweetest memory came just this year, when on a trip to
my girlfriend I convinced her to come with me to Yokosuka, the port
town that stars in the original game and is only an hour's ride from
central Tokyo. It's the ultimate
Dreamcast fanboy's pilgrimage, and as
I took my first steps down Dobuita Street and recognized locations I'd
walked past countless times before—Kurita's Military Store, Mary's
Embroidery Store and the parking lot where Ryo honed his fighting
skills—I couldn't help but go a little dewy eyed."
* ^ Kent 2001 , pp. 587, 578.
* ^ cf. Matt (December 2000). "_F355 Challenge: Passione Rossa_".
_Game Informer_. 10 (92): 124. _F355 Challenge_ was breathtaking when
played in the three-monitor coin-op unit, but it seems to lose impact
on Dreamcast. For an alternative perspective, see Wiley, Mike
(September 19, 2000). "_F355 Challenge_". IGN. Archived from the
original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014. It is
* ^ cf. "_
Virtua Fighter 3tb_". _Game Informer_. October 25, 1999.
Archived from the original on June 3, 2000. Retrieved October 26,
2014. cf. Gantayat, Anoop (October 1, 1999). "_
Virtua Fighter 3tb_".
IGN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved October
26, 2014. cf. "_
Virtua Fighter 3 TB_ Review". _Edge_. December 23,
1998. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved March
5, 2015. The omission of a proper 'versus' selection is unforgivable,
forcing twoplayer fights to be organised via the singleplayer mode.
Purists may well argue that the arcade original lacked said option,
but in _Edge_'s view, buyers of modern coin-op conversions have the
right to expect more from their investments than unenhanced
* ^ "_
Virtua Fighter 4_". Metacritic. Archived from the original on
January 17, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2014. cf. Andy (May 2002).
Virtua Fighter 4_". _Game Informer_. 12 (109): 78–79. Will change
everything you have ever come to expect from this genre. cf. "The Top
50 Games of 2003: _
Virtua Fighter 4: Evolution_". _Game Informer_. 14
(129): 64. January 2004. The most balanced and challenging fighting
game the world has ever seen.
* ^ "_GI_ "Quotables"". _Game Informer_. 11 (100): 44–45. August
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mott 2013 , p. 370.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Justice, Brandon (September 8, 1999). "_Sonic
Adventure_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014.
Retrieved November 4, 2014. Engrossing, demanding, and utterly
awe-inspiring, Yuji Naka's vision has finally come full circle in this
* ^ _A_ _B_ "_Sonic Adventure_-Dreamcast". _Game Informer_. October
27, 1999. Archived from the original on December 3, 2000. Retrieved
November 4, 2014. I wish more time was spent to make this game truly
remarkable, rather than the decent game we see today.
* ^ Smith, Sean (June 22, 2006). "Company Profile: Sonic Team".
Retro Gamer. 3 (26): 27.
* ^ Noble, McKinley (May 6, 2009). "The 20 Best Platformers: 1989
to 2009: Number 7: _Sonic Adventure_". _GamePro_. p. 3. Archived from
the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
* ^ DeMaria & Wilson 2004 , p. 312.
* ^ While _
Sonic Adventure 2 _ was positively reviewed, the extent
of its improvements over the original have been debated. See "_Sonic
Adventure 2_ (Dreamcast)".
Metacritic . Archived from the original on
December 27, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf. Chau, Anthony
(June 22, 2001). "_
Sonic Adventure 2_". IGN. Archived from the
original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. There aren't
many viewing problems ... be prepared to take a more active role when
playing. cf. Reiner (August 2001). "_
Sonic Adventure 2_". _Game
Informer_. 11 (100): 100. Hardly any mistakes from the original were
fixed ... The lackluster difficulty and cartoon-like presentation is
perfect for kids, but it really does nothing for hardcore gamers or
_Sonic_ fans of yesteryear.
* ^ "_Sonic Adventure_". Edge. 7 (68): 70–73. February 1999.
Sampling one of the earlier levels out of context could leave many
with the impression that _Adventure_ is a flashy but essentially
shallow experience. It isn't until a good portion of the game world
has been explored with a few of the characters ... that the charm and
style of Sega's title is fully appreciated ...It must be said,
however, that none of _Adventure_ is hugely challenging to the
experienced player ... _Edge_ only managed to discover a few places
where poor collision detection detracted from the gameplay ... Given
the never-before-witnessed scope and detail of _Adventure_'s levels,
these are forgiveable–but somehow the smaller problems are not ...
The camera's occasional visits behind walls do little to aid the case
for forgiveness, either, although it never frustrates to the extent
Banjo-Kazooie _ does ... a wonderfully absorbing game
* ^ Boutros, Daniel (August 4, 2006). "A Detailed Cross-Examination
of Yesterday and Today\'s Best-Selling Platform Games". Gamasutra.
Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved October 19,
* ^ Justice, Brandon (March 7, 2000). "_Chu Chu Rocket_". IGN.
Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved October 30,
2014. cf. Jay (May 2, 2000). "_Chu Chu Rocket_-Dreamcast". _Game
Informer_. Archived from the original on December 5, 2000. Retrieved
November 4, 2014. I consider it the best and most original puzzle game
Tetris _. cf.Nutt, Christian (December 13, 1999). "_ChuChu
Rocket!_ Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September
15, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
* ^ Mott 2013 , p. 385.
* ^ "_Samba de Amigo_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the
original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2014. cf.
Justice, Brandon (October 18, 2000). "_Samba De Amigo_". IGN. Archived
from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
cf. Gerstmann, Jeff (June 16, 2000). "_Samba De Amigo_ Review".
GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved
November 4, 2014.
* ^ Mott 2013 , p. 405.
* ^ For a negative review, see Reiner (December 2000). "_Samba de
Amigo_". _Game Informer_. 10 (92): 124. cf. "Retro Reviews: _Samba de
Amigo_". _Game Informer_. 18 (178): 110. February 2008.
* ^ Mott 2013 , p. 435.
* ^ Parish, Jeremy. "The Decade That Was: Essential Newcomers:
_Phantasy Star Online_". 1UP.com. Retrieved November 27, 2015. cf.
Oestreicher, Jason (July 4, 2013). "Time Sinks-_Phantasy Star
Online_". _Game Informer_. Archived from the original on March 5,
2016. Retrieved November 5, 2014. Certainly, by today's standards, it
was rudimentary and repetitive. But at the same time, it was
revolutionary. cf. "Retrospective: _Phantasy Star Online_". _Edge_.
June 15, 2014. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.
Retrieved March 5, 2015.
* ^ "_NFL 2K1_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original
on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. "_NFL 2K2_
(Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 10,
2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. "_NBA 2K1_ (Dreamcast)".
Metacritic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved
November 5, 2014. cf. "_NBA 2K2_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived
from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ "Best Launch Titles". GameSpot. September 30, 2005. Archived
from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
cf. Kato, Matthew (February 2012). "Which Game Console Had the Best
Launch Lineup? We Look Back to Find Out". _Game Informer_. 22 (226):
* ^ Kato; Reiner (September 2003). "_ESPN NFL Football_". _Game
Informer_. 13 (125): 106. _Madden_ has become a deeper simulation, but
it hasn't evolved to the degree that Sega's title has. _ESPN NFL
Football_ is jam-packed with new features, innovative ideas, and
must-see elements. First-person football sounds like a nightmare, but
Sega figured out a way to make it work.
* ^ Bissell, Tom (January 26, 2012). "Kickoff: _Madden NFL_ and the
Future of Video Game Sports". _
Grantland _. Archived from the original
on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ Feldman, Curt; Surette, Tim (December 13, 2004). "Big Deal: EA
and NFL ink exclusive licensing agreement". GameSpot. Archived from
the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ "SEGA Sells
Visual Concepts Entertainment to Take-Two
Interactive". Businesswire. January 24, 2005. Archived from the
original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ GI Staff (August 2003). "Sonic's Architect: GI Interviews
Game Informer . 13 (124): 116. cf. Andy (August
2001). "_Floigan Bros._". _Game Informer_. 11 (100): 101.
* ^ "_Ooga Booga_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the
original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ cf. "_Toy Commander_-Dreamcast". _
Game Informer _. October 25,
1999. Archived from the original on December 3, 2000. Retrieved
October 24, 2014. cf. Justice, Brandon (November 4, 1999). "_Toy
Commander_". IGN. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014.
Retrieved October 24, 2014.
* ^ "The Making Of: _Metropolis Street Racer_". _Edge_. October 7,
2012. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved March
* ^ "_Metropolis Street Racer_ (Dreamcast)". Archived from the
original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2014. cf. Paul
(December 2000). "_Metropolis Street Racer_". _Game Informer_. 10
(92): 121. I found the game's control and physics to be exceptional.
Likewise, the graphics are brilliant and are probably the best of any
racing game on the Dreamcast. cf. Justice, Brandon (January 19,
2001). "_Metropolis Street Racer_". IGN. Archived from the original on
November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ Mott 2013 , p. 432.
* ^ "_Soul Calibur_ (Dreamcast)". Metacritic. Archived from the
original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
* ^ Mott 2013 , pp. 421, 432-434.
* ^ Mott 2013 , pp. 382, 465.
* ^ "...Should you buy a
Dreamcast or Wait?". _Electronic Gaming
Monthly_. EGM Media, LLC. (126): 150. January 2000.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wilson, Jeffrey L. (May 28, 2010). "The 10 Greatest
Video Game Consoles of All Time". _PCmag.com_. Archived from the
original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 26, 2014. A
collection of creative, fun, and quirky games that you'd be
hard-pressed to find in such abundance on any other platform.
* ^ Kent, Steven L. (October 9, 2006). "SOMETIMES THE BEST". Sad
Sam's Place. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014.
Retrieved October 31, 2014.
* ^ "The War for the Living Room". _Next Generation_. Imagine Media
(2.1.4): 95. December 1999.
* ^ Davison, John; et al. (January 2000). "Electronic Gaming
Monthly 2000 Buyer's Guide". _Electronic Gaming Monthly_. EGM Media,
* ^ Leahy, Dan; et al. (January 2001). "Electronic Gaming Monthly
2001 Buyer's Guide". _Electronic Gaming Monthly_. EGM Media, LLC.
* ^ Kennedy, Sam (December 10, 1999). "Business Week Praises the
Dreamcast - GameSpot.com". Retrieved February 23, 2013.
* ^ Mott 2013 , p. 434.
* ^ Parish, Jeremy (September 13, 2014). "What if
Won?". USgamer. Archived from the original on December 15, 2014.
Retrieved January 20, 2015.
* Mott, Tony (2013). _1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die
_. New York City: Universe Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7893-2090-2 .
* DeMaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny L. (2004). _High Score!: The
Illustrated History of Electronic Games_. Emeryville, California:
McGraw-Hill/Osborne. ISBN 0-07-223172-6 .
* Kent, Steven L. (2001). _The Ultimate History of Video Games: The
Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World_.
Roseville, California: Prima Publishing . ISBN 0-7615-3643-4 .
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