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The Dorians
Dorians
(/ˈdɔːriənz/; Greek: Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes
Hellenes
(or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).[2] They are almost always referred to as just "the Dorians", as they are called in the earliest literary mention of them in the Odyssey,[3] where they already can be found inhabiting the island of Crete. They were diverse in way of life and social organization, varying from the populous trade center of the city of Corinth, known for its ornate style in art and architecture, to the isolationist, military state of Sparta. And yet, all Hellenes
Hellenes
knew which localities were Dorian, and which were not. Dorian states at war could more likely, but not always, count on the assistance of other Dorian states. Dorians
Dorians
were distinguished by the Doric Greek
Doric Greek
dialect and by characteristic social and historical traditions. In the 5th century BC, Dorians
Dorians
and Ionians
Ionians
were the two most politically important Greek ethne, whose ultimate clash resulted in the Peloponnesian War. The degree to which fifth-century Hellenes self-identified as "Ionian" or "Dorian" has itself been disputed. At one extreme Édouard Will concludes that there was no true ethnic component in fifth-century Greek culture, in spite of anti-Dorian elements in Athenian propaganda.[4] At the other extreme John Alty reinterprets the sources to conclude that ethnicity did motivate fifth-century actions.[5] Moderns viewing these ethnic identifications through the fifth- and fourth-century BC literary tradition have been profoundly influenced by their own social politics. Also, according to E.N. Tigerstedt, nineteenth-century European admirers of virtues they considered "Dorian" identified themselves as "Laconophile" and found responsive parallels in the culture of their day as well; their biases contribute to the traditional modern interpretation of "Dorians".[6]

Contents

1 Origin

1.1 Peloponnesian dialect replacement 1.2 Dorian invasion 1.3 Post-migrational distribution of the Dorians

2 Identity

2.1 Ethnonym

2.1.1 Dorian of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Pylos 2.1.2 Dorians
Dorians
of upland Doris 2.1.3 Lancers 2.1.4 Chosen Greeks

2.2 Distinctions of language 2.3 Other cultural distinctions

3 Ancient traditions

3.1 Homer 3.2 Tyrtaeus 3.3 Herodotus 3.4 Thucydides 3.5 Plato 3.6 Pausanias 3.7 Diodorus Siculus 3.8 Strabo

4 See also 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Origin[edit] Accounts vary as to the Dorians' place of origin. One theory, widely believed in ancient times, is that they originated in the northern mountainous regions of Greece, ancient Macedonia and Epirus, and obscure circumstances brought them south into the Peloponnese, to certain Aegean islands, Magna Graecia, Lapithos
Lapithos
and Crete. Mythology gave them a Greek origin and eponymous founder, Dorus son of Hellen, the mythological patriarch of the Hellenes. Peloponnesian dialect replacement[edit] The origin of the Dorians
Dorians
is a multifaceted concept. In modern scholarship, the term has often meant the location of the population disseminating the Doric Greek
Doric Greek
dialect within a hypothetical Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
speaking population. The dialect is known from records of classical northwestern Greece, the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
and Crete
Crete
and some of the islands. The geographic and ethnic information found in the west's earliest known literary work, the Iliad, combined with the administrative records of the former Mycenaean states, prove to universal satisfaction that East Greek speakers were once dominant in the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
but suffered a setback there and were replaced at least in official circles by West Greek speakers. A historical event is associated with the overthrow, called anciently the Return of the Heracleidai and by moderns the Dorian Invasion. This theory of a return or invasion presupposes that West Greek speakers resided in northwest Greece
Greece
but overran the Peloponnesus replacing the East Greek there with their own dialect. No records other than Mycenaean ones are known to have existed in the Bronze Age so a West Greek of that time and place can be neither proved nor disproved. West Greek speakers were in western Greece
Greece
in classical times. Unlike the East Greeks, they are not associated with any evidence of displacement events. That provides circumstantial evidence that the Doric dialect disseminated among the Hellenes
Hellenes
of northwest Greece, a highly-mountainous and somewhat-isolated region. Dorian invasion[edit] The Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
is a modern historical concept attempting to account for:

at least the replacement of dialects and traditions in southern Greece in pre-classical times more generally, the distribution of the Dorians
Dorians
in Classical Greece the presence of the Dorians
Dorians
in Greece
Greece
at all

On the whole, none of the objectives has been met, but the investigations served to rule out various speculative hypotheses. Most scholars doubt that the Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
was the main cause of the collapse of the Mycenean civilization. The source of the West Greek speakers in the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
remains unattested by any solid evidence. Post-migrational distribution of the Dorians[edit]

Dorian site of Lato
Lato
on the island of Crete

Though most of the Doric invaders settled in the Peloponnese, they also settled on Rhodes
Rhodes
and Sicily, in what is now Southern Italy. In Asia Minor
Asia Minor
existed the Dorian Hexapolis (the six great Dorian cities): Halikarnassos
Halikarnassos
(Halicarnassus) and Knidos
Knidos
(Cnidus) in Asia Minor, Kos, and Lindos, Kameiros, and Ialyssos
Ialyssos
on the island of Rhodes. The six cities would later become rivals with the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. The Dorians
Dorians
also invaded Crete. The origin traditions remained strong into classical times: Thucydides
Thucydides
saw the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
in part as " Ionians
Ionians
fighting against Dorians" and reported the tradition that the Syracusans in Sicily
Sicily
were of Dorian descent.[7] Other such "Dorian" colonies, originally from Corinth, Megara, and the Dorian islands, dotted the southern coasts of Sicily
Sicily
from Syracuse to Selinus. (EB 1911). Identity[edit] Ethnonym[edit]

Uplands of Greece
Greece
- the Pindus Mountains

Dorian of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Pylos[edit] A man's name, Dōrieus, occurs in the Linear B
Linear B
tablets at Pylos, one of the regions later invaded and subjugated by the Dorians.[8] Pylos tablet Fn867 records it in the dative case as do-ri-je-we, *Dōriēwei, a third or consonant declension noun with stem ending in w. An unattested nominative plural, *Dōriēwes, would have become Dōrieis by loss of the w and contraction. The tablet records the grain rations issued to the servants of "religious dignitaries" celebrating a religious festival of Potnia, the mother goddess.[9] The nominative singular, Dōrieus, remained the same in the classical period.[10] Many Linear B
Linear B
names of servants were formed from their home territory or the places where they came into Mycenaean ownership. According to Carl Darling Buck, the -eus suffix was very productive. One of its uses was to convert a toponym to an anthroponym; for example, Megareus, "Megarian," from Megara.[11] A Dōrieus would be from Dōris, the only classical Greek state to serve as the basis for the name of the Dorians. The state is a small one in the mountains of west central Greece. However, classical Doris may not have been the same as Mycenaean Doris. Dorians
Dorians
of upland Doris[edit] A number of credible etymologies by noted scholars have been proposed. Julius Pokorny derives Δωριεύς, Dōrieus from δωρίς, dōris, "woodland" (which can also mean upland).[12] The dōri- segment is from the o-grade (either ō or o) of Proto-Indo-European *deru-, "tree", which also gives the Homeric Δούρειος Ἵππος (Doureios Hippos, "Wooden Horse").[13] This derivation has the advantage of naming the people after their wooded, mountainous country. Lancers[edit] A second popular derivation was given by the French linguist, Émile Boisacq, from the same root, but from Greek δόρυ (doru) 'spear-shaft' (which was made of wood); i.e., "the people of the spear" or "spearmen."[14] In this case the country would be named after the people, as in Saxony from the Saxons. However, R. S. P. Beekes doubted the validity of this derivation and asserted that no good etymology exists.[15] Chosen Greeks[edit] It sometimes happens that different derivations of an Indo-European word exploit similar-sounding Indo-European roots. Greek doru, "lance," is from the o-grade of Indo-European *deru, "solid," in the sense of wood. It is similar to an extended form, *dō-ro-, of *dō-, (give), as can be seen in the modern Greek imperative δώσε (dose, "give [sing.]!") appearing in Greek as δῶρον (dōron, "gift"). This is the path taken by Jonathan Hall, relying on elements taken from the myth of the Return of the Herakeidai.[16] Hall cites the tradition, based on a fragment of the poet, Tyrtaeus, that " Sparta
Sparta
is a divine gift granted by Zeus and Hera" to the Heracleidae. In another version, Tyndareus
Tyndareus
gives his kingdom to Heracles
Heracles
in gratitude for restoring him to the throne, but Heracles "asks the Spartan king to safeguard the gift until his descendants might claim it." Hall, therefore, proposes that the Dorians
Dorians
are the people of the gift. They assumed the name on taking possession of Lacedaemon. Doris was subsequently named after them. Hall makes comparisons of Spartans to Hebrews as a chosen people maintaining a covenant with God and being assigned a Holy Land. To arrive at this conclusion, Hall relies on Herodotus' version of the myth (see below) that the Hellenes
Hellenes
under Dorus did not take his name until reaching the Peloponnesus. In other versions the Heracleidae
Heracleidae
enlisted the help of their Dorian neighbors. Hall does not address the problem of the Dorians
Dorians
not calling Lacedaemon
Lacedaemon
Doris, but assigning that name to some less holy and remoter land. Similarly, he does not mention the Dorian servant at Pylos, whose sacred gift, if such it was, was still being ruled by the Achaean Atreid family at Lacedaemon. A minor, and perhaps regrettably forgotten, episode in the history of scholarship was the attempt to emphasize the etymology of Doron with the meaning of 'hand'. This in turn was connected to an interpretation of the famous lambda on Spartan shields, which was to rather stand for a hand with outstanding thumb than the initial letter of Lacedaimon.[17] Given the origin of the Spartan shield lambda legend, however, in a fragment by Eupolis, an Athenian comic poet, there has been a recent attempt to suggest that a comic confusion between the letter and the hand image may yet have been intended. Distinctions of language[edit] Main article: Doric Greek The Doric dialect was spoken in northwest Greece, the Peloponnese, Crete, southwest Asia Minor, the southernmost islands of the Aegean Sea, and the various Dorian colonies of Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
in Southern Italy and Sicily. After the classical period, it was mainly replaced by the Attic dialect upon which the Koine or "common" Greek language of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
was based. The main characteristic of Doric was the preservation of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
[aː], long ⟨α⟩, which in Attic-Ionic became [ɛː], ⟨η⟩. A famous example is the valedictory phrase uttered by Spartan mothers to their sons before sending them off to war: ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς (ḕ tàn ḕ epì tâs, literally "either with it or on it": return alive with your shield or dead upon it) would have been ἢ τὴν ἢ ἐπὶ τῆς (ḕ tḕn ḕ epì tês) in the Attic-Ionic dialect of an Athenian mother. Tsakonian, a descendant of Doric Greek, is still spoken in some parts of the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefecture of Arcadia. Other cultural distinctions[edit] Culturally, in addition to their Doric dialect of Greek, Doric colonies retained their characteristic Doric calendar that revolved round a cycle of festivals, the Hyacinthia and the Carneia being especially important.[18] The Dorian mode
Dorian mode
in music also was attributed to Doric societies and was associated by classical writers with martial qualities. The Doric order
Doric order
of architecture in the tradition inherited by Vitruvius
Vitruvius
included the Doric column, noted for its simplicity and strength. Dorian women had a distinctive dress, a tunic (plain dress) that did not need to be pinned with brooches; it was once common to all Hellenes. The Ionian women adopted a new dress with a brooch.[19] The Dorians
Dorians
seem to have offered the central mainland cultus for Helios. The scattering of cults of the sun god in Sicyon, Argos, Ermioni, Epidaurus
Epidaurus
and Laconia, and his holy livestock flocks at Taenarum, seem to suggest that the deity was considerably important in Dorian religion, compared to other parts of ancient Greece. Additionally, it may have been the Dorians
Dorians
to import his worship to Rhodes.[20] Ancient traditions[edit] In Greek historiography, the Dorians
Dorians
are mentioned by many authors. The chief classical authors to relate their origins are Herodotus, Thucydides
Thucydides
and Pausanias. The most copious authors, however, lived in Hellenistic and Roman times, long after the main events. This apparent paradox does not necessarily discredit the later writers, who were relying on earlier works that did not survive. The customs of the Spartan state and its illustrious individuals are detailed at great length in such authors as Plutarch
Plutarch
and Diodorus Siculus. Homer[edit] The Odyssey
Odyssey
has one reference to the Dorians:[21]

"There is a land called Crete, in the midst of the wine-dark sea, a fair, rich land, begirt with water, and therein are many men, past counting, and ninety cities. They have not all the same speech, but their tongues are mixed. There dwell Achaeans, there great-hearted native Cretans, there Cydonians, and Dorians
Dorians
of waving plumes, and goodly Pelasgians."

The reference is not compatible with a Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
that brought Dorians
Dorians
to Crete
Crete
only after the fall of the Mycenaean states. In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his relatives visit those states. Two solutions are possible, either the Odyssey
Odyssey
is anachronistic or Dorians
Dorians
were on Crete
Crete
in Mycenaean times. The uncertain nature of the Dorian invasion defers a definitive answer until more is known about it. Tyrtaeus[edit] Tyrtaeus, a lame Athenian warrior-poet, became advisor of the Lacedaemonians in their mid-7th-century war to suppress a rebellion of the Messenians. The latter were a remnant of the Achaeans conquered "two generations before," which suggests a rise to supremacy at the end of the Dark Age rather than during and after the fall of Mycenae. The Messenian population was reduced to serfdom.[22] Only a few fragments of Tyrtaeus' five books of martial verse survive. His is the earliest mention of the three Dorian tribes: Pamphyli, Hylleis, Dymanes. He also says:

"For Cronus' Son Himself, Zeus the husband of fair-crowned Hera, hath given this city to the children of Heracles, with whom we came into the wide isle of Pelops
Pelops
from windy Erineus."

Erineus was a village of Doris. He helped to establish the Spartan constitution, giving the kings and elders, among other powers, the power to dismiss the assembly. He established a rigorous military training program for the young including songs and poems he wrote himself, such as the "Embateria or Songs of the Battle-Charge which are also called Enoplia or Songs-under-Arms." These were chants used to establish the timing of standard drills under arms. He stressed patriotism:

"For 'tis a fair thing for a good man to fall and die fighting in the van for his native land, ... let us fight with a will for this land, and die for our children and never spare our lives."

Herodotus[edit]

Fifth century BC hoplite, or "heavy-armed soldier", possibly the Spartan king Leonidas, a Dorian, who died holding the pass at the Battle of Thermopylae.

Herodotus
Herodotus
was from Halicarnassus, a Dorian colony on the southwest coast of Asia Minor; following the literary tradition of the times he wrote in Ionic Greek, being one of the last authors to do so. He described the Persian Wars, giving a thumbnail account of the histories of the antagonists, Greeks
Greeks
and Persians.

Peloponnesus. Sparta
Sparta
was in the valley of the lowermost bay.

Herodotus
Herodotus
gives a general account of the events termed "the Dorian Invasion," presenting them as transfers of population. Their original home was in Thessaly, central Greece.[23] He goes on to expand in mythological terms, giving some of the geographic details of the myth:[24]

1.56.2-3 He found by inquiry that the chief peoples were the Lacedaemonians among those of Doric, and the Athenians among those of Ionic stock. These races, Ionian and Dorian, were the foremost in ancient time, the first a Pelasgian and the second a Hellenic people. The Pelasgian race has never yet left its home; the Hellenic has wandered often and far. For in the days of king Deucalion it inhabited the land of Phthia, then the country called Histiaean, under Ossa and Olympus, in the time of Dorus son of Hellen; driven from this Histiaean country by the Cadmeans, it settled about Pindus in the territory called Macedonian; from there again it migrated to Dryopia, and at last came from Dryopia into the Peloponnese, where it took the name of Dorian. 1.57.1-3 What language the Pelasgians
Pelasgians
spoke I cannot say definitely. But if one may judge by those that still remain of the Pelasgians
Pelasgians
who live above the Tyrrheni1 in the city of Creston—who were once neighbors of the people now called Dorians, and at that time inhabited the country which now is called Thessalian and of the Pelasgians
Pelasgians
who inhabited Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont, who came to live among the Athenians, and by other towns too which were once Pelasgian and afterwards took a different name: if, as I said, one may judge by these, the Pelasgians
Pelasgians
spoke a language which was not Greek. If, then, all the Pelasgian stock spoke so, then the Attic nation, being of Pelasgian blood, must have changed its language too at the time when it became part of the Hellenes. For the people of Creston and Placia have a language of their own in common, which is not the language of their neighbors; and it is plain that they still preserve the manner of speech which they brought with them in their migration into the places where they live. 1.58 But the Hellenic stock, it seems clear to me, has always had the same language since its beginning; yet being, when separated from the Pelasgians, few in number, they have grown from a small beginning to comprise a multitude of nations, chiefly because the Pelasgians
Pelasgians
and many other foreign peoples united themselves with them. Before that, I think, the Pelasgic stock nowhere increased much in number while it was of foreign speech.

Thus, according to Herodotus, the Dorians
Dorians
did not name themselves after Dorus until they had reached Peloponnesus. Herodotus
Herodotus
does not explain the contradictions of the myth; for example, how Doris, located outside the Peloponnesus, acquired its name. However, his goal, as he relates in the beginning of the first book, is only to report what he had heard from his sources without judgement. In the myth, the Achaeans displaced from the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
gathered at Athens under a leader Ion and became identified as "Ionians".[25] Herodotus' list of Dorian states is as follows. From northeastern Greece
Greece
were Phthia, Histiaea and Macedon. In central Greece
Greece
were Doris (the former Dryopia) and in the south Peloponnesus, specifically the states of Lacedaemon, Corinth, Sicyon, Epidaurus
Epidaurus
and Troezen. Hermione was not Dorian but had joined the Dorians.[26] Overseas were the islands of Rhodes, Cos, Nisyrus and the Anatolian cities of Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis
Phaselis
and Calydna.[27] Dorians
Dorians
also colonised Crete including founding of such towns as Lato, Dreros and Olous.[28] The Cynurians were originally Ionians
Ionians
but had become Dorian under the influence of their Argive masters.[29] Thucydides[edit] Thucydides
Thucydides
professes little of Greece
Greece
before the Trojan War
Trojan War
except to say that it was full of barbarians and that there was no distinction between barbarians and Greeks. The Hellenes
Hellenes
came from Phthiotis.[30] The whole country indulged in and suffered from piracy and was not settled. After the Trojan War, "Hellas was still engaged in removing and settling."[31] Some 60 years after the Trojan War
Trojan War
the Boeotians were driven out of Arne by the Thessalians into Boeotia
Boeotia
and 20 years later "the Dorians and the Heraclids became masters of the Peloponnese."[31] So the lines were drawn between the Dorians
Dorians
and the Aeolians (here Boeotians) with the Ionians
Ionians
(former Peloponnesians). Other than these few brief observations Thucydides
Thucydides
names but few Dorians. He does make it clear that some Dorian states aligned or were forced to align with the Athenians while some Ionians
Ionians
went with the Lacedaemonians and that the motives for alignment were not always ethnic but were diverse. Among the Dorians
Dorians
was Lacedaemon,[32] Corcyra, Corinth
Corinth
and Epidamnus,[33] Leucadia, Ambracia,[34] Potidaea,[35] Rhodes, Cythera, Argos, Carystus,[36] Syracuse, Gela, Acragas (later Agrigentum), Acrae, Casmenae.[37] He does explain with considerable dismay what happened to incite ethnic war after the unity between the Greek states during the Battle of Thermopylae. The Congress of Corinth, formed prior to it, "split into two sections." Athens headed one and Lacedaemon
Lacedaemon
the other:[38]

"For a short time the league held together, till the Lacedaemonians and Athenians quarreled, and made war upon each other with their allies, a duel into which all the Hellenes
Hellenes
sooner or later were drawn."

He adds: "the real cause I consider to be ... the growth of the power of Athens and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon...." Plato[edit] In the Platonic work Laws is mentioned that the Achaeans who fought in the Trojan War, on their return from Troy were driven out from their homes and cities by the young residents, so they migrated under a leader named Dorieus and hence they were renamed "Dorians".[39]

Now during this period of ten years, while the siege lasted, the affairs of each of the besiegers at home suffered much owing to the seditious conduct of the young men. For when the soldiers returned to their own cities and homes, these young people did not receive them fittingly and justly, but in such a way that there ensued a vast number of cases of death, slaughter, and exile. So they, being again driven out, migrated by sea; and because Dorieus was the man who then banded together the exiles, they got the new name of “Dorians,” instead of “Achaeans.” But as to all the events that follow this, you Lacedaemonians relate them all fully in your traditions.

Pausanias[edit] The Description of Greece
Greece
by Pausanias relates that the Achaeans were driven from their lands by Dorians
Dorians
coming from Oeta, a mountainous region bordering on Thessaly.[40] They were led by Hyllus, a son of Heracles,[41] but were defeated by the Achaeans. Under other leadership they managed to be victorious over the Achaeans and remain in the Peloponnesus, a mythic theme called "the return of the Heracleidae."[42] They had built ships at Naupactus
Naupactus
in which to cross the Gulf of Corinth.[43] This invasion is viewed by the tradition of Pausanias as a return of the Dorians
Dorians
to the Peloponnesus, apparently meaning a return of families ruling in Aetolia
Aetolia
and northern Greece
Greece
to a land in which they had once had a share. The return is described in detail: there were "disturbances" throughout the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
except in Arcadia, and new Dorian settlers.[44] Pausanias goes on to describe the conquest and resettlement of Laconia, Messenia, Argos
Argos
and elsewhere, and the emigration from there to Crete
Crete
and the coast of Asia Minor. Diodorus Siculus[edit] Diodorus is a rich source of traditional information concerning the mythology and history of the Dorians, especially the Library of History. He does not make any such distinction but the fantastic nature of the earliest material marks it as mythical or legendary. The myths do attempt to justify some Dorian operations, suggesting that they were in part political. Heracles
Heracles
was a Perseid, a member of the ruling family of Greece. His mother Alcmene
Alcmene
had both Perseids and Pelopids in her ancestry. A princess of the realm, she received Zeus thinking he was Amphitryon. Zeus intended his son to rule Greece
Greece
but according to the rules of succession Eurystheus, born slightly earlier, preempted the right. Attempts to kill Heracles
Heracles
as a child failed. On adulthood he was forced into the service of Eurystheus, who commanded him to perform 12 labors.[45] Heracles
Heracles
became a warrior without a home, wandering from place to place assisting the local rulers with various problems. He took a retinue of Arcadians with him acquiring also over time a family of grown sons, the Heraclidae. He continued this mode of life even after completing the 12 labors. The legend has it that he became involved with Achaean Sparta
Sparta
when the family of king Tyndareus
Tyndareus
was unseated and driven into exile by Hippocoön and his family, who in the process happened to kill the son of a friend of Heracles. The latter and his retinue assaulted Sparta, taking it back from Hippocoön. He recalled Tyndareus, set him up as a guardian regent, and instructed him to turn the kingdom over to any descendants of his that should claim it. Heracles
Heracles
went on with the way of life to which he had become accustomed, which was by today's standards that of a mercenary, as he was being paid for his assistance. Subsequently, he founded a colony in Aetolia, then in Trachis. After displacing the Dryopes, he went to the assistance of the Dorians, who lived in a land called Hestiaeotis under king Aegimius and were campaigning against the numerically superior Lapithae. The Dorians
Dorians
promised him 1/3 of Doris (which they did not yet possess). He asked Aegimius to keep his share of the land "in trust" until it should be claimed by a descendant. He went on to further adventures but was poisoned by his jealous wife, Deianeira. He immolated himself in full armor dressed for combat and "passed from among men into the company of the gods."[46] Strabo[edit] Strabo,[47] who depends of course on the books available to him, goes on to elaborate:

Of these peoples, according to Staphylus, the Dorians
Dorians
occupy the part toward the east, the Cydonians the western part, the Eteo-Cretans the southern; and to these last belongs the town Praisos, where is the temple of the Dictaean Zeus; whereas the other peoples, since they were more powerful, dwelt in the plains. Now it is reasonable to suppose that the Eteo-Cretans and the Cydonians were autochthonous, and that the others were foreigners ...[48]

Beside this sole reference to Dorians
Dorians
in Crete, the mention of the Iliad
Iliad
of the Heraclid Tlepolemus, a warrior on the side of Achaeans and colonist of three important Dorian cities in Rhodes
Rhodes
has been also regarded as a later interpolation[49] See also[edit]

Language

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
dialects Doric Greek

Mythology

Dorus, the eponymous founder Dymas Heracleidae

History

Dorian invasion Greek Dark Ages Sea Peoples

List of Dorian states

Acragas Ambracia Argos Calydna Cameiros Cnidus Corinth Corcyra Crete
Crete
various cities Cos Cythera Doris (Asia Minor) Doris (Greece) Epidaurus Gela Halicarnassus Histiaea Ialyssos Leucadia Lindos Macedon Megara Nisyros Phaselis Phthia Potidaea Rhodes Sparta Sicyon Syracuse Troezen

Notes[edit]

^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51. ^ Apollodorus, Library, I, 7.3 ^ Homer, Odyssey, Book XIX line 177. ^ Will, Édouard (1956). Doriens et Ioniens: essai sur la valeur du critère ethnique appliqué à l'étude de l'histoire et de la civilisation grecques (in French). Paris: Belles Lettres.  ^ Alty, John (1982). " Dorians
Dorians
and Ionians". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 102: 1–14. doi:10.2307/631122.  ^ Tigerstedt, E.N. (1965–1978). The Legend of Sparta
Sparta
in Classical Antiquity. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. pp. 28–36.  ^ 7.57 ^ Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek (2nd ed.). Cambridge: University Press. p. 541.  ^ Carlier, Pierre (1995). "Qa-si-re-u et Qa-si-re-wi-ja" (PDF). Aegeum (in French). Liège: Université de Liège (12): 359.  ^ Liddell & Scott 1940, Δωρι-εύς ^ Buck, Carl Darling (1933). Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 316.  ^ Pokorny, Julius. "deru-, dōru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; drewə: drū-". Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch (in German). Leiden University. pp. 214–217. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Δωριεύς 'Dorer' (von Δωρίς 'Waldland')  ^ Πάπυρος - Λεξικό τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς Γλώσσας (Papyros - Dictionary of the Greek Language), 2007, v. 3. pp. 37–8 ^ Boisacq, Émile (1916). "δὀρυ". Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Grecque: Étudiée dans ses Rapports avec les autres Langues Indo-Européennes (in French). Paris: Librairie Klincksieck.  ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 363. ^ Hall, Jonathan (2002). Hellenicity: between ethnicity and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago. pp. 85–89.  ^ Murray, Gilbert (1934) [1907]. The Rise of Greek Epic. Oxford: OUP. pp. 39 n.2.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, s.v. "Dorians". Archived 4 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ 5.87, online at Perseus. ^ Larson, Jennifer. A Land Full of Gods: Nature Deities in Greek Religion. In Ogden, Daniel. A Companion to Greek Religion. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 56–70. ^ Book 19, Line 177. ^ Edmonds, J.M. (ed.). "The Elegiac Poems of Tyrtaeus". Elegy and Iambus. I. Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.  ^ Histories, 1.57.1. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 1.56.2-1.58.1 ^ Histories, 7.94, 8.44. ^ Histories 8.43. ^ Histories 2.178, 7.99. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (10 January 2008). " Lato
Lato
Hillfort". The Modern Antiquarian. Julian Cope.  ^ Histories, 8.73 ^ Peloponnesian War, 1.3. ^ a b Peloponnesian War, 1.12. ^ Peloponnesian War, 2.54. ^ Peloponnesian War, 1.24. ^ Peloponnesian War, 7.58. ^ Peloponnesian War
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1.124. ^ Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
7.57. ^ Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
6.4. ^ Peloponnesian War, 1.18. ^ Plato, Laws, 3.682 ^ Description of Greece, 5.1.2. ^ Description of Greece, 4.30.1; 8.5.1 ^ Description of Greece, 3.1.6, 5.3.5ff, 7.1.6, 7.3.9, 8.5.6 ^ Description of Greece, 10.38.10. ^ Description of Greece, 2.13.1. ^ Library, 4.9-10. ^ Library, 4.33-38. ^ Strabo. Geographica. Book 10, Section 6. ^ The Jones translation in the Loeb, which has Greek and English on opposing pages. ^ Homer: An Introduction to the Iliad
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Odyssey
By Richard Claverhous Jebb Page 43 ISBN 0-554-75060-0 (2008)

Bibliography[edit]

Drews, Robert (1993). The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe CA. 1200 B.C. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04811-8.  Five editions between 1993 and 1995. Hall, Jonathan M. (2000). Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78999-0.  Hall, Jonathan M. (2006). "Dorians: Ancient Ethnic Group". In Wilson, Nigel. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. New York: Routledge
Routledge
Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 240–242. ISBN 0-415-97334-1.  Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). Jones, Henry Stuart, ed. A Greek-English Lexicon (in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and English). Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Müller, Karl Otfried, Die Dorier (1824) was translated by Henry Tufnel and Sir George Cornewall Lewis
George Cornewall Lewis
and published as The History and Antiquities of the Doric Race, (London: John Murray), 1830, in two vols. Pomeroy, Sarah B.; Stanley M. Burstein; Walter Donlan; Jennifer Tolbert Roberts (1999). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509742-4. 

External links[edit]

Hinge, George (2003), "Scythian and Spartan Analogies in Herodotos' Representation: Rites of Initiation and Kinship Groups", in Bilde, P.G.; Højte, J.M.; Stolba, V.F., The Cauldron of Ariantas (PDF), Aarhus, pp. 55–74 . Killen, John T. (2000). "Religion at Pylos: The evidence of the Fn Tablets" (PDF). Aegeum. Liège: Université de Liège (21): 435–443.  Rutter, Jeremy B. (2000). "Lesson 25: The Linear B
Linear B
Tablets and Mycenaean Social, Political, and Economic Organization". Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean. Trustees of Dartmouth College. 

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