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The Dome
Dome
of the Rock (Arabic: قبة الصخرة‎ Qubbat al-Sakhrah, Hebrew: כיפת הסלע‎ Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in the Old City of Jerusalem. It was initially completed in 691 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna, built on the site of the Roman temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which had in turn been built on the site of the Second Jewish Temple, destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The Dome
Dome
of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture.[2] Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces,[3] although its outside appearance has been significantly changed in the Ottoman period and again in the modern period, notably with the addition of the gold-plated roof, in 1959–61 and again in 1993. The octagonal plan of the structure may have been influenced by the Byzantine Church of the Seat of Mary (also known as Kathisma in Greek and al-Qadismu in Arabic) built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Bethlehem.[3] The site's great significance for Muslims derives from traditions connecting it to the creation of the world and to the belief that the Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey to heaven started from the rock at the center of the structure.[4][5] In Jewish tradition the rock bears great significance as the Foundation Stone, the place from which the world expanded into its present form and where God gathered the dust used to create the first human, Adam[6]; as the site on Mount Moriah
Mount Moriah
where Abraham
Abraham
attempted to sacrifice his son; and as the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, towards which Jews turn during prayer. A UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, it has been called "Jerusalem's most recognizable landmark,"[7] along with two nearby Old City structures, the Western Wall, and the "Resurrection Rotunda" in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-Islamic 1.2 Original construction 1.3 Abbasids and Fatimids 1.4 Crusaders 1.5 Ayyubids and Mamluks 1.6 Ottoman Empire (1517–1917) 1.7 Modern history

2 Accessibility 3 Religious significance 4 Architectural homages 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History Pre-Islamic Main articles: Temple Mount, Herod's Temple, and Aelia Capitolina

Reconstruction of Herod's Temple
Herod's Temple
as seen from the east (Holyland Model of Jerusalem, 1966)

The Dome
Dome
of the Rock is situated in the center of the Temple Mount, the site of the Temple of Solomon
Temple of Solomon
and the Jewish Second Temple, which had been greatly expanded under Herod the Great
Herod the Great
in the 1st century BCE. Herod's Temple
Herod's Temple
was destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans, and after the Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
in 135 CE, a Roman temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was built at the site.[9] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was ruled by the Christian Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
throughout the 4th to 6th centuries. During this time, Christian pilgrimage
Christian pilgrimage
to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
began to develop.[10] The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
was built under Constantine in the 320s, but the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was left undeveloped after a failed project of restoration of the Jewish Temple under Julian the Apostate.[11] Original construction The Dome
Dome
of the Rock is now mostly assumed to have been built by the order of Umayyad Caliph
Caliph
Abd al-Malik and his son and successor Al-Walid I. According to Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, construction started in 687. Construction cost was reportedly seven times the yearly tax income of Egypt.[12] A dedicatory inscription in Kufic script is preserved inside the dome. The date is recorded as AH 72 (691/2 CE), the year historians believe the construction of the original Dome
Dome
was completed.[13] In this inscription, the name of al-Malik was deleted and replaced by the name of Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun. This alteration of the original inscription was first noted by Melchior de Vogüé in 1864.[14] Some scholars have suggested that the dome was added to an existing building, built either by Muawiyah I (r. 661–680),[15] or indeed a Byzantine building dating to before the Muslim conquest, built under Heraclius
Heraclius
(r. 610–641).[16] Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces.[3] The two engineers in charge of the project were Raja ibn Haywah, a Muslim theologian from Beit She'an
Beit She'an
and Yazid Ibn Salam, a non-Arab who was Muslim and a native of Jerusalem.[3][17]

Cross section of the Dome
Dome
(print from 1887, after the first detailed drawings of the Dome, made by Frederick Catherwood
Frederick Catherwood
in 1833).[18]

Shelomo Dov Goitein
Shelomo Dov Goitein
of the Hebrew University
Hebrew University
has argued that the Dome of the Rock was intended to compete with the many fine buildings of worship of other religions: "The very form of a rotunda, given to the Qubbat as-Sakhra, although it was foreign to Islam, was destined to rival the many Christian domes."[19] K.A.C. Creswell in his book The Origin of the Plan of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock notes that those who built the shrine used the measurements of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The diameter of the dome of the shrine is 20.20 m (66.3 ft) and its height 20.48 m (67.2 ft), while the diameter of the dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
is 20.90 m (68.6 ft) and its height 21.05 m (69.1 ft). The structure was basically octagonal. It comprised a wooden dome, approximately 20 m (66 ft) in diameter, which was mounted on an elevated drum consisting of a circle of 16 piers and columns.[20] Surrounding this circle was an octagonal arcade of 24 piers and columns. Abbasids and Fatimids The building was severely damaged by earthquakes in 808 and again in 846.[21] The dome collapsed in an earthquake in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The mosaics on the drum were repaired in 1027–28.[22] Crusaders Main article: Templum Domini

Depiction of the Templum Domini
Templum Domini
on the reverse side of the seal of the Knights Templar

For centuries Christian pilgrims were able to come and experience the Temple Mount, but escalating violence against pilgrims to Jerusalem (Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre, was an example) instigated the Crusades.[23] The Crusaders captured Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1099 and the Dome
Dome
of the Rock was given to the Augustinians, who turned it into a church, while the Al-Aqsa Mosque became a royal palace. The Knights Templar, active from c. 1119, identified the Dome
Dome
of the Rock as the site of the Temple of Solomon and set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
adjacent to the Dome
Dome
for much of the 12th century. The Templum Domini, as they called the Dome
Dome
of the Rock, featured on the official seals of the Order's Grand Masters (such as Everard des Barres
Everard des Barres
and Renaud de Vichiers), and soon became the architectural model for round Templar churches across Europe. Ayyubids and Mamluks Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was recaptured by Saladin
Saladin
on 2 October 1187, and the Dome
Dome
of the Rock was reconsecrated as a Muslim shrine. The cross on top of the dome was replaced by a crescent,[citation needed] and a wooden screen was placed around the rock below.[citation needed] Saladin's nephew al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Isa carried out other restorations within the building, and added the porch to the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[citation needed] The Dome
Dome
of the Rock was the focus of extensive royal patronage by the sultans during the Mamluk period, which lasted from 1250 until 1510.[citation needed] Ottoman Empire (1517–1917) During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
(1520–1566) the exterior of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock was covered with tiles. This work took seven years.[citation needed] The interior of the dome is lavishly decorated with mosaic, faience and marble, much of which was added several centuries after its completion. It also contains Qur'anic inscriptions. Surah
Surah
Ya Sin (the "Heart of the Quran") is inscribed across the top of the tile work and was commissioned in the 16th century by Suleiman the Magnificent. Al-Isra, the Surah
Surah
17 which tells the story of the Isra or Night Journey, is inscribed above this. Adjacent to the Dome
Dome
of the Rock, the Ottomans built the free-standing Dome
Dome
of the Prophet in 1620. Large-scale renovation was undertaken during the reign of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
in 1817. In a major restoration project undertaken in 1874–75 during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz, all the tiles on the west and southwest walls of the octagonal part of the building were removed and replaced by copies that had been made in Turkey.[24][25]

View from the north, Francis Bedford (1862)

West front in 1862. By this date many of the 16th century tiles were missing.

Interior showing mosaic decoration (1914)

Tiled façade (2013)

Interior showing rock (1915)

Modern history

1920s photograph

Haj Amin al-Husseini, appointed Grand Mufti by the British during the 1917 mandate of Palestine, along with Yaqub al-Ghusayn, implemented the restoration of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
in Jerusalem. The Dome
Dome
of the Rock was badly shaken during the 11 July 1927 Jericho earthquake, damaging many of the repairs that had taken place over previous years. In 1955, an extensive program of renovation was begun by the government of Jordan, with funds supplied by Arab governments and Turkey. The work included replacement of large numbers of tiles dating back to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, which had become dislodged by heavy rain. In 1965, as part of this restoration, the dome was covered with a durable aluminium bronze alloy made in Italy that replaced the lead exterior. Before 1959, the dome was covered in blackened lead. In the course of substantial restoration carried out from 1959 to 1962, the lead was replaced by aluminum-bronze plates covered with gold leaf. A few hours after the Israeli flag
Israeli flag
was hoisted over the Dome
Dome
of the Rock in 1967 during the Six-Day War, Israelis lowered it on the orders of Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
and invested the Muslim waqf (religious trust) with the authority to manage the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
/ Haram al-Sharif, in order to "keep the peace".[26]

The reverse of a 1000-rials banknote from 1982.

In 1993, the golden dome covering was refurbished following a donation of USD 8.2 million by King Hussein of Jordan
Jordan
who sold one of his houses in London to fund the 80 kilograms of gold required.[citation needed] The Dome
Dome
of the Rock is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 1000 rials banknote.[27] Accessibility

Sign at visitors entrance to Temple Mount

The Dome
Dome
is maintained by the Ministry of Awqaf
Awqaf
in Amman, Jordan.[28] Until the mid-twentieth century, non-Muslims were not permitted in the area. Since 1967, non-Muslims have been permitted limited access; however non-Muslims are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount, bring prayer books, or wear religious apparel. The Israeli police help enforce this.[29] Israel
Israel
restricted access for a short time during 2012 of Palestinian residents of the West Bank to the Temple Mount. West Bank Palestinian men had to be over 35 to be eligible for a permit.[30] Palestinian residents of Jerusalem, who hold Israeli residency cards, and Palestinians with Israeli citizenship are permitted unrestricted access. Some Orthodox rabbis encourage Jews to visit the site, while most forbid entry to the compound lest there be a violation of Jewish law. Even rabbis who encourage entrance to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
prohibit entrance to the actual Dome
Dome
of the Rock.[31] Religious significance

The Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
depicted as the Dome
Dome
of the Rock on the printer's mark of Marco Antonio Giustiniani, Venice 1545–52

According to some Islamic scholars, the rock is the spot[32] from which the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
ascended to Heaven accompanied by the angel Gabriel. Further, Muhammad
Muhammad
was taken here by Gabriel
Gabriel
to pray with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.[33] Other Islamic scholars believe that the Prophet ascended to Heaven from the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[34][35] Muslims believe the location of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock to be the site mentioned in Sura 17 of the Qur'an, which tells the story of the Isra and Mi'raj, the miraculous Night Journey of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
from Mecca to "the farthest mosque", where he leads prayers and rises to heaven to receive instructions from Allah. The Night Journey is mentioned in the Qur'an
Qur'an
in a very brief form and is further elaborated by the hadiths. Caliph
Caliph
Umar ibn Al-Khattab
Umar ibn Al-Khattab
(579–644) was advised by Ka'ab al-Ahbar, a Jewish rabbi who converted to Islam,[36] that "the farthest mosque" is identical with the site of the former Jewish Temples in Jerusalem.[citation needed]

The Foundation Stone
Foundation Stone
viewed from the dome. Photograph was taken between 1900 and 1920, before the removal of the surrounding iron grill.

The Foundation Stone
Foundation Stone
and its surroundings is the holiest site in Judaism. Though Muslims now pray towards the Kaaba
Kaaba
at Mecca, they once[year needed] faced the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
as the Jews do. Muhammad changed the direction of prayer for Muslims after a revelation from Allah. Jews traditionally regarded[year needed] the location of the stone as the holiest spot on Earth, the site of the Holy of Holies during the Temple Period. According to Jewish tradition, the stone is the site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac. On the walls of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock is an inscription in a mosaic frieze that includes an explicit rejection of the divinity of Christ, from Quran (19:33–35):

33. "So peace is upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!" 34. Such is Jesus, son of Mary. It is a statement of truth, about which they doubt. 35. It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should take himself a child. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and it is.

According to Goitein, the inscriptions decorating the interior clearly display a spirit of polemic against Christianity, whilst stressing at the same time the Qur'anic doctrine that Jesus
Jesus
was a true prophet. The formula la sharika lahu ("God has no companion") is repeated five times; the verses from Sura Maryam 19:35–37, which strongly reaffirm Jesus' prophethood to God, are quoted together with the prayer: Allahumma salli ala rasulika wa'abdika 'Isa bin Maryam – "O Lord, send your blessings to your Prophet and Servant Jesus
Jesus
son of Mary." He believes that this shows that rivalry with Christendom, together with the spirit of Muslim mission to the Christians, was at work at the time of construction.[19] The Temple Institute
The Temple Institute
wishes to relocate the Dome
Dome
to another site and replace it with a Third Temple.[37] Many Israelis are ambivalent about the Movement's wishes.[weasel words] Some religious Jews, following rabbinic teaching, believe that the Temple should only be rebuilt in the messianic era, and that it would be presumptuous of people to force God's hand. However, some Evangelical Christians consider rebuilding of the Temple to be a prerequisite to Armageddon and the Second Coming.[38] Jeremy Gimpel, a US-born candidate for Habayit Hayehudi
Habayit Hayehudi
in the 2013 Israeli elections, caused a controversy when he was recorded telling a Fellowship Church
Fellowship Church
evangelical group in Florida in 2011 to imagine the incredible experience that would follow were the Dome
Dome
to be destroyed. All Christians would be immediately transported to Israel, he opined.[39] Architectural homages The Dome
Dome
of the Rock has inspired the architecture of a number of buildings. These include the octagonal Church of St. Giacomo in Italy, the Mausoleum of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in Istanbul, the octagonal Moorish Revival
Moorish Revival
style Rumbach Street Synagogue
Rumbach Street Synagogue
in Budapest, and the New Synagogue in Berlin, Germany. It was long believed by Christians that the Dome
Dome
of the Rock echoed the architecture of the Temple in Jerusalem, as can be seen in Raphael's The Marriage of the Virgin and in Perugino's Marriage of the Virgin.[40]

Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
and Dome
Dome
of the Rock, from the Mount of Olives

See also

Islam
Islam
portal Christianity portal Judaism portal

Ablaq History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes List of the oldest mosques in the world New Jerusalem Well of Souls

Notes

^ Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9.  ^ Slavik, Diane (2001). Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7.  ^ a b c d Avner, Rina (2010). "The Dome
Dome
of the Rock in light of the development of concentric martyria in Jerusalem" (PDF). Muqarnas. Volume 27: An Annual on the Visual Cultures of the Islamic World. Leiden: Brill. pp. 31–50 [43–44]. ISBN 978-900418511-1. JSTOR 25769691.  ^ M. Anwarul Islam
Islam
and Zaid F. Al-hamad (2007). "The Dome
Dome
of the Rock: Origin of its octagonal plan". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 139 (2): 109–128.  ^ Nasser Rabbat (1989). "The meaning of the Umayyad Dome
Dome
of the Rock". Muqarnas. 6: 12–21.  ^ Carol Delaney, Abraham
Abraham
on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth, Princeton University Press 2000 p.120. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (29 January 2001). "Arafat's Gift". The New Yorker. Retrieved 11 July 2015.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage".  ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aelia Capitolina". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 256. Lester L. Grabbe (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. A&C Black. p. 29. ^ Davidson, Linda Kay and David Martin Gitlitz Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA 2002, p. 274. ^ "Julian thought to rebuild at an extravagant expense the proud Temple once at Jerusalem, and committed this task to Alypius of Antioch. Alypius set vigorously to work, and was seconded by the governor of the province, when fearful balls of fire, breaking out near the foundations, continued their attacks, till the workmen, after repeated scorchings, could approach no more: and he gave up the attempt." Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, 23.1.2–3. ^ Jacob Lassner: Muslims on the sanctity of Jerusalem: preliminary thoughts on the search for a conceptual framework. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. Band 31 (2006), p. 176. ^ Necipoğlu 2008, p. 22. ^ Vogüé 1864, p. 85. ^ Oleg Grabar: The Meaning of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock. ^ Busse, Heribert (1991). "Zur Geschichte und Deutung der frühislamischen Ḥarambauten in Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (in German). 107: 144–154. JSTOR 27931418.  ^ Richard Ettinghausen; Oleg Grabar; Marilyn Jenkins (2001). Islamic Art and Architecture 650–1250. Yale University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-300-08869-4.  ^ "Drawings of Islamic Buildings: Dome
Dome
of the Rock, Jerusalem". Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Until 1833 the Dome
Dome
of the Rock had not been measured or drawn; according to Victor von Hagen, 'no architect had ever sketched its architecture, no antiquarian had traced its interior design...' On 13 November in that year, however, Frederick Catherwood
Frederick Catherwood
dressed up as an Egyptian officer and accompanied by an Egyptian servant 'of great courage and assurance', entered the buildings of the mosque with his drawing materials... 'During six weeks, I continued to investigate every part of the mosque and its precincts.' Thus, Catherwood made the first complete survey of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock, and paved the way for many other artists in subsequent years, such as William Harvey, Ernest Richmond and Carl Friedrich Heinrich Werner.  ^ a b Goitein, Shelomo Dov (1950). "The historical background of the erection of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 70 (2): 104–108. JSTOR 595539.  ^ " Dome
Dome
of the Rock". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Amiran, D.H.K.; Arieh, E.; Turcotte, T. (1994). "Earthquakes in Israel
Israel
and adjacent areas: macroseismic observations since 100 B.C.E.". Israel
Israel
Exploration Journal. 44 (3/4): 260–305 [267]. JSTOR 27926357.  ^ Necipoğlu 2008, p. 31. ^ Stark, Rodney. God's Battalions; a Case for the Crusades. Harper Collins, NY, 2009, pp. 84–85. ^ Clermont-Ganneau 1899, p. 179. ^ St. Laurent, Beatrice; Riedlmayer, András (1993). "Restorations of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Dome
Dome
of the Rock and their political significance, 1537–1928" (PDF). In Necipoğlu, Gülru. Muqarnas. Volume 10: Essays in Honor of Oleg Grabar. Leiden: Brill. pp. 76–84. JSTOR 1523174.  ^ "Letter from Jerusalem: A Fight Over Sacred Turf by Sandra Scham". Archaeology.org. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 1000 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009. ^ Business Optimization Consultants B.O.C. "Hashemite Restorations of the Islamic Holy Places in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– kinghussein.gov.jo – Retrieved 21 January 2008". Kinghussein.gov.jo. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Jerusalem's Holy Places and the Peace Process Marshall J. Breger and Thomas A. Idinopulos, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1998. ^ Browning, Noah (15 August 2012). "Palestinians flock to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israeli restrictions eased – Yahoo! News". News.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2012.  ^ Zivotofsky. "Tzarich Iyun: The Har HaBayit – OU Torah". OU Torah. Retrieved 2015-11-16.  ^ Braswell, G. Islam
Islam
– Its Prophets, People, Politics and Power. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers. 1996. p. 14 ^ Ali, A. The Holy Qur'an
Qur'an
– Translation and Commentary. Bronx, NY: Islamic Propagation Centre International. 1946. pp. 1625–31 ^ "Me'raj – The Night Ascension". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 31 October 2012.  ^ "Meraj Article". Duas.org. Retrieved 31 October 2012.  ^ Yakub of Syria (Ka'b al-Ahbar) Last Jewish Attempt at Islamic Leadership Committee for Historical Research in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, © 2004–2012, accessed July 2013.[dead link] "He continued to follow Rabbinic tradition such that later Islamic historians questioned whether he ever 'converted' to Islam." ^ raisa (2014-07-30). "'Third Temple' crowdfunding plan aims to relocate Jerusalem's Dome
Dome
of the Rock" (Text). The Stream - Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2017-11-25.  ^ Stephen Spector, Evangelicals and Israel:The Story of American Christian Zionism, Oxford University Press, 2008 p. 202. ^ Andrew Esensten U.S.-born Knesset candidate, Jeremy Gimpel, and his Dome
Dome
of the Rock 'joke', Haaretz
Haaretz
20 January 2013. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob; Peter Murray; James C. Palmes (1986). The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. University of Chicago Press. p. 81. 

References

Creswell, K.A.C. (1924). The Origin of the Plan of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock (2 Volumes). London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. OCLC 5862604.  Peterson, Andrew (1994). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06084-2 Braswell, G. (1996). Islam
Islam
– Its Prophets, People, Politics and Power. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers. Clermont-Ganneau, Charles (1899). "Chapter VIII The Kubbet es Sakhra". Archaeological Researches in Palestine During the Years 1873–1874. Volume 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 179–227.  Necipoğlu, Gülru (2008). "The Dome
Dome
of the Rock as palimpsest: 'Abd al-Malik's grand narrative and Sultan Süleyman's glosses" (PDF). In Necipoğlu, Gülru; Bailey, Julia. Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World. Volume 25. Leiden: Brill. pp. 17–105. ISBN 978-900417327-9.  Ali, A. (1946). The Holy Qur’an – Translation and Commentary. Bronx, NY: Islamic Propagation Centre International. Islam, M. Anwarul; Al-Hamad, Zaid (2007). "The Dome
Dome
of the Rock: origin of its octagonal plan". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 139 (2): 109–128. doi:10.1179/003103207x194145.  Christoph Luxenberg: Neudeutung der arabischen Inschrift im Felsendom zu Jerusalem. In: Karl-Heinz Ohlig / Gerd-R. Puin (Hg.): Die dunklen Anfänge. Neue Forschungen zur Entstehung und frühen Geschichte des Islam, Berlin (Verlag Hans Schiler) 2005, S. 124–147. English version: "A New Interpretation of the Arabic Inscription in Jerusalem's Dome
Dome
of the Rock". In: Karl-Heinz Ohlig / Gerd-R. Puin (eds.): The Hidden Origins of Islam: New Research into Its Early History, Amherst, N.Y. (Prometheus Books) 2010 Vogüé, Melchior de (1864). Le Temple de Jérusalem : monographie du Haram-ech-Chérif, suivie d'un essai sur la topographie de la Ville-sainte (in French). Paris: Noblet & Baudry. 

Further reading

Grabar, Oleg (2006). The Dome
Dome
of the Rock. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02313-0.  Flood, Finbarr B. (2000). "The Ottoman windows in the Dome
Dome
of the Rock and the Aqsa Mosque" (PDF). In Auld, Sylvia; Hillenbrand, Robert. Ottoman Jerusalem: The Living City: 1517–1917. Volume 1. London: Altajir World of Islam
Islam
Trust. pp. 431–463. ISBN 978-1-901435-03-0.  Kessler, Christel (1964). "Above the ceiling of the outer ambulatory in the Dome
Dome
of the Rock in Jerusalem". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (3/4): 83–94. JSTOR 25202759.  Kessler, Christel (1970). "'Abd Al-Malik's inscription in the Dome
Dome
of the Rock: a reconsideration". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1): 2–14. JSTOR 25203167.  Richmond, Ernest Tatham (1924). The Dome
Dome
of the Rock in Jerusalem: A Description of its Structure and Decoration. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  St. Laurent, Beatrice (1998). "The Dome
Dome
of the Rock and the politics of restoration". Bridgewater Review. 17 (2): 14–20. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dome
Dome
of the Rock.

"Qubba al-Sakhra, Jerusalem". Archnet Digital Archive.  Dome
Dome
of the Rock Sacred sites The Dome
Dome
of the Rock in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Masterpieces of Islamic Architecture Ochs, Christoph (2010). " Dome
Dome
of the Rock". Bibledex in Israel. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.  Allen, Terry (2014). "The Marble
Marble
Revetment of the Piers of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock". Occidental, CA: Solipsist Press. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 

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2017 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
shooting

See also

Status quo of Holy Land sites Hashemite custodianship of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy sites Islamic Museum Islamization Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and Eretz Yisrael Faithful Movement Entry restrictions Templum Domini Temple Denial Well of Souls

Category

v t e

Islamic structures on the Temple Mount

Under the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf and the Sunni Islamic
Sunni Islamic
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

Mosque

al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Qibli Chapel Marwani Prayer Hall

Domes

Dome
Dome
of the Ascension Dome
Dome
of the Chain Dome
Dome
of al-Khalili Dome
Dome
of the Prophet Dome
Dome
of the Rock Dome
Dome
of Yusuf

Fountains

Fountain of Qasim Pasha Fountain of Qayt Bay Pool of Raranj

Other structures

Islamic Museum Al-Mawazin

Minarets

Minaret
Minaret
of Israel Bab al-Silsila Minaret Ghawanima Minaret al-Fakhariyya Minaret

See also

Islamization of the Temple Mount Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf Hashemite custodianship of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy sites

v t e

Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and its walls

World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO

Judaism (Sephardic/ Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis)

General

Southern Wall Western Wall Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel Little Western Wall

Orthodox

Hurva Synagogue Ohel Yitzchak Synagogue Ramban Synagogue Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue

Other

Ari Synagogue Four Sephardic
Sephardic
Synagogues Ohr ha-Chaim Synagogue Tzuf Dvash Synagogue

Areas

Christian Quarter

Muristan

Muslim Quarter

Armenian Quarter

Jewish Quarter

Temple Mount

Gates 1. Jaffa 2. Zion 3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6. Herod 7. Damascus 8. New (Double, Single, Tanners') Al-Mawazin Surrounding roads:

Hativat Yerushalayim HaTsanhanim Jaffa Road Jericho Ma'ale HaShalom Ofel Sultan Suleiman

Christianity

"Status quo"

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Deir Es-Sultan

Via Dolorosa See also: New Church of the Theotokos

Catholic (Custody of the Holy Land)

Latin (Patriarch)

Chapel of Simon of Cyrene Monastery of the Flagellation

Church of the Condemnation Church of the Flagellation

Church of the Holy Family Church of Saint James Intercisus Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus Church of Saint Mary of the Germans Church of Saint Mary of the Latins Convent of the Sisters of Zion

Church of Ecce Homo

Monastery of Saint Saviour Church of Saint Anne Templum Domini

Melkite Catholic (Patriarch)

Cathedral of the Annunciation

Armenian Catholic

Church of Our Lady of the Spasm

Eastern Orthodox

Greek Orthodox (Patriarch)

Church of Saint John the Baptist

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Orthodox (Patriarch)

Cathedral of Saint James Church of the Holy Archangels Church of Saint Toros

Syriac Orthodox

Monastery of Saint Mark

Protestant

Anglican

Christ Church

Lutheran

Church of the Redeemer

Islam (Sunni Islamic Grand Mufti)

Noble Sanctuary (Waqf)

Al-Aqsa Mosque Dome
Dome
of the Ascension Dome
Dome
of the Chain Dome
Dome
of al-Khalili Dome
Dome
of the Prophet Dome
Dome
of the Rock Dome
Dome
of Yusuf Marwani Mosque

Other

Al-Buraq Mosque Al-Yaqoubi Mosque Al-Khanqah al-Salahiyya Mosque Mosque of Omar

Remnants or rebuilt buildings in italic (governing authority in small) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal Israel
Israel
portal Palestine portal Judaism portal Christianity portal Islam
Islam
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134358

.