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A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a Thai may be any resident or citizen of Thailand
Thailand
of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people. Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
may be called a British person, a Briton or, informally, a Brit. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people, i.e. "Québécois(e)" for a native of Quebec. In English, demonyms are capitalized[5] and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek. Significant exceptions exist; for instance the adjectival form of Spain
Spain
is "Spanish", but the demonym is "Spaniard". English commonly uses national demonyms such as "Ethiopian" or "Guatemalan" and more local demonyms such as "Chicagoan", "Wisconsinite", or "Parisian".[6][7][8] Some places, especially smaller towns and cities, lack a commonly used and accepted demonym. For the converse of demonym, see List of places named after people. See also: List of political movements named after dates

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Suffixation

2.1 -(a)n

2.1.1 Continents 2.1.2 Countries 2.1.3 States and provinces 2.1.4 Cities

2.2 -ian

2.2.1 Countries 2.2.2 States, provinces, counties, and cities

2.3 -anian 2.4 -nian 2.5 -in(e) 2.6 -a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a

2.6.1 Countries and regions 2.6.2 Cities

2.7 -ite 2.8 -(e)r 2.9 -ish 2.10 -ene 2.11 -ensian 2.12 -ard 2.13 -ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese 2.14 -i(e) 2.15 -ic 2.16 -iot(e) 2.17 -asque 2.18 -(we)gian 2.19 -onian 2.20 -vian 2.21 -san 2.22 -ois(e), -ais(e) 2.23 From Latin or Latinization

3 Prefixation

3.1 Cities

4 Non-Standard Examples

4.1 Formal 4.2 Informal

5 Ethnic demonyms 6 Fiction 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Notes

9 External links

Etymology[edit] The word gentilic comes from the Latin gentilis ("of a clan, or gens") and the English suffix -ic.[9] The word demonym was derived from the Greek word meaning "populace" (δῆμος demos) with the suffix for "name" (-onym). National Geographic attributes the term "demonym" to Merriam-Webster editor Paul Dickson in a recent work from 1990.[10] The word did not appear for nouns, adjectives, and verbs derived from geographical names in the Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Collegiate Dictionary nor in prominent style manuals such as the Chicago
Chicago
Manual of Style. It was subsequently popularized in this sense in 1997 by Dickson in his book Labels for Locals.[11] However, in What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names (the first edition of Labels for Locals)[12] Dickson attributed the term to George H. Scheetz, in his Names' Names: A Descriptive and Prescriptive Onymicon (1988),[1] which is apparently where the term first appears. The term may have been fashioned after demonymic, which the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
defines as the name of an Athenian
Athenian
citizen according to the deme to which the citizen belongs, with its first use traced to 1893.[13][14] Suffixation[edit] Several linguistic elements are used to create demonyms in the English language. The most common is to add a suffix to the end of the location name, slightly modified in some instances. These may resemble Late Latin, Semitic, Celtic, or Germanic suffixes, such as: -(a)n[edit] Continents[edit]

Africa
Africa
→ African Asia
Asia
→ Asian Australia
Australia
→ Australian Europe
Europe
→ European North America
North America
→ North American South America
South America
→ South American

Countries[edit]

Albania
Albania
→ Albanian Algeria
Algeria
→ Algerian Andorra
Andorra
→ Andorran Angola
Angola
→ Angolan Antigua → Antiguan Argentina
Argentina
→ Argentinean Armenia
Armenia
→ Armenian Australia
Australia
→ Australian Austria
Austria
→ Austrian Barbuda
Barbuda
→ Barbudan Belize
Belize
→ Belizean Bolivia
Bolivia
→ Bolivian Bosnia
Bosnia
→ Bosnian Brunei
Brunei
→ Bruneian Bulgaria
Bulgaria
→ Bulgarian Brazil
Brazil
→ Brazilian Canada
Canada
→ Canadian Cayman Islands→ Caymanian Chile
Chile
→ Chilean Colombia
Colombia
→ Colombian Costa Rica
Costa Rica
→ Costa Rican Croatia
Croatia
→ Croatian Cuba
Cuba
→ Cuban Dominica
Dominica
→ Dominican Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
→ Dominican El Salvador
El Salvador
→ Salvadoran Eritrea
Eritrea
→ Eritrean Estonia
Estonia
→ Estonian Ethiopia
Ethiopia
→ Ethiopian Fiji
Fiji
→ Fijian Gambia, the → Gambian Georgia → Georgian Guatemala
Guatemala
→ Guatemalan Guinea
Guinea
→ Guinean Haiti
Haiti
→ Haitian Ghana
Ghana
→ Ghanaian Honduras
Honduras
→ Honduran Hungary
Hungary
→ Hungarian India
India
→ Indian Indonesia
Indonesia
→ Indonesian Iran
Iran
→ Iranian Iraq
Iraq
→ Iraqi Israel
Israel
→ Israeli Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
→ Ivorian Jamaica
Jamaica
→ Jamaican Kenya
Kenya
→ Kenyan Korea, North → North Korean Korea, South → South Korean Latvia
Latvia
→ Latvian Liberia
Liberia
→ Liberian Libya
Libya
→ Libyan Lithuania
Lithuania
→ Lithuanian Macedonia → Macedonian Malawi
Malawi
→ Malawian Malaysia
Malaysia
→ Malaysian Mali
Mali
→ Malian Man, Isle of → ManxMan Mauritania
Mauritania
→ Mauritanian Mauritius
Mauritius
→ Mauritian Mexico
Mexico
→ Mexican Micronesia → Micronesian Moldova
Moldova
→ Moldovan Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongolian (also "Mongol") Morocco
Morocco
→ Moroccan Mozambique
Mozambique
→ Mozambican Namibia
Namibia
→ Namibian Nauru
Nauru
→ Nauruan Nicaragua
Nicaragua
→ Nicaraguan Niger
Niger
→ Nigerien Nigeria
Nigeria
→ Nigerian Pakistan
Pakistan
→ Pakistani Palau
Palau
→ Palauan Palestine → Palestinian Papua New Guinea
Guinea
→ Papua New Guinean Paraguay
Paraguay
→ Paraguayan Persia
Persia
→ Persian Peru
Peru
→ Peruvian Romania
Romania
→ Romanian Russia
Russia
→ Russian Rwanda
Rwanda
→ Rwandan (also "Rwandese") Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
→ Saint Lucian Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
→ Vincentian Samoa
Samoa
→ Samoan Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
→ Saudi Arabian (also "Saudi") Serbia
Serbia
→ Serbian Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
→ Sierra Leonean Singapore
Singapore
→ Singaporean Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovakian (also "Slovak") Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovenian (also "Slovene") South Africa
Africa
→ South African Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
→ Sri Lankan St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Kitts and Nevis
→ Kittitian or Nevisian Syria
Syria
→ Syrian Lebanon
Lebanon
→ Lebanese Tanzania
Tanzania
→ Tanzanian Thailand
Thailand
→ Thai Tonga
Tonga
→ Tongan Tunisia
Tunisia
→ Tunisian Tuvalu
Tuvalu
→ Tuvaluan Uganda
Uganda
→ Ugandan United States
United States
of America → American Uruguay
Uruguay
→ Uruguayan Venezuela
Venezuela
→ Venezuelan Vietnam
Vietnam
→ Vietnamese Zambia
Zambia
→ Zambian Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
→ Zimbabwean

States and provinces[edit]

Alaska
Alaska
→ Alaskan Alberta
Alberta
→ Albertan Andalusia
Andalusia
→ Andalusian Arizona
Arizona
→ Arizonan Arkansas
Arkansas
→ Arkansan Asturias
Asturias
→ Asturian Balochistan
Balochistan
→ Balochi Bavaria
Bavaria
→ Bavarian Bohemia
Bohemia
→ Bohemian Borneo
Borneo
→ Bornean British Columbia
British Columbia
→ British Columbian California
California
→ Californian Cantabria
Cantabria
→ Cantabrian Carinthia
Carinthia
→ Carinthian Colorado
Colorado
→ Coloradan Corsica
Corsica
→ Corsican Crete
Crete
→ Cretan Crimea
Crimea
→ Crimean Dalmatia
Dalmatia
→ Dalmatian Delaware
Delaware
→ Delawarean Extremadura
Extremadura
→ Extremaduran Florida
Florida
→ Floridan (more commonly "Floridian" below) Galicia → Galician Galilee
Galilee
→ Galilean Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
→ Gazan Georgia → Georgian Hawaiʻi
Hawaiʻi
→ Hawaiian[a] Hebrides
Hebrides
→ Hebridean Idaho
Idaho
→ Idahoan Illinois
Illinois
→ Illinoisan Indiana
Indiana
→ Hoosier Iowa
Iowa
→ Iowan Jakarta
Jakarta
→ Jakartan Java
Java
→ Javan (also "Javanese") Johor
Johor
→ Johorean Judea
Judea
→ Judean Kansas
Kansas
→ Kansan Karelia
Karelia
→ Karelian Kedah
Kedah
→ Kedahan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
→ Pathan Liguria
Liguria
→ Ligurian Louisiana
Louisiana
→ Louisianan (also "Louisianian") Madeira
Madeira
→ Madeiran Malacca
Malacca
→ Malaccan Majorca
Majorca
→ Majorcan Manitoba
Manitoba
→ Manitoban Maryland
Maryland
→ Marylander Masuria
Masuria
→ Masurian Michigan
Michigan
→ Michigander Minnesota
Minnesota
→ Minnesotan Menorca
Menorca
→ Menorcan Mississippi
Mississippi
→ Mississippian Missouri
Missouri
→ Missourian Moluccas → Moluccan Montana
Montana
→ Montanan Moravia
Moravia
→ Moravian Nebraska
Nebraska
→ Nebraskan Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
→ Negeri Sembilanese Nevada
Nevada
→ Nevadan New Brunswick
New Brunswick
→ New Brunswicker New Hampshire
New Hampshire
→ New Hampshirite New Jersey
New Jersey
→ New Jerseyan New Mexico
Mexico
→ New Mexican North Carolina
North Carolina
→ North Carolinian (also "Carolinian", see also South Carolina below) North Dakota
North Dakota
→ North Dakotan Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
→ Nova Scotian Ohio
Ohio
→ Ohioan Oklahoma
Oklahoma
→ Oklahoman Ontario
Ontario
→ Ontarian Oregon
Oregon
→ Oregonian Papua → Papuan Pahang
Pahang
→ Pahangese, Pahangite Patagonia
Patagonia
→ Patagonian Perlis
Perlis
→ Perlisian Perak
Perak
→ Perakian Penang
Penang
→ Penangite Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
→ Pennsylvanian Pomerania
Pomerania
→ Pomeranian Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
→ Puerto Rican Queensland
Queensland
→ Queenslander Samogitia
Samogitia
→ Samogitian Sabah
Sabah
→ Sabahan Sardinia
Sardinia
→ Sardinian Sarawak
Sarawak
→ Sarawakian Silesia
Silesia
→ Silesian Sindh
Sindh
→ Sindhi South Australia
Australia
→ South Australian South Dakota
South Dakota
→ South Dakotan Styria
Styria
→ Styrian Sumatra
Sumatra
→ Sumatran Tahiti
Tahiti
→ Tahitian Tasmania
Tasmania
→ Tasmanian Tennessee
Tennessee
→ Tennesseean Terengganu
Terengganu
→ Terengganuan, Terengganurian Texas
Texas
→ Texan Thuringia
Thuringia
→ Thuringian Transylvania
Transylvania
→ Transylvanian Umbria
Umbria
→ Umbrian Utah
Utah
→ Utahn Victoria → Victorian Virginia
Virginia
→ Virginian Wake Island
Wake Island
→ Wakean Wallachia
Wallachia
→ Wallachian Washington state → Washingtonian Western Australia
Australia
→ Western Australian (informally, Westralian) West Papua → West Papuan Westphalia → Westphalian

Wyoming
Wyoming
→ Wyomingite Yukon
Yukon
→ Yukonian

Cities[edit]

Alexandria
Alexandria
→ Alexandrians Annapolis
Annapolis
→ Annapolitans Atlanta
Atlanta
→ Atlantans Baltimore
Baltimore
→ Baltimoreans Brockton → Brocktonians Bogotá
Bogotá
→ Bogotans Canberra
Canberra
→ Canberrans Cape Town
Cape Town
- Capetonians Charlotte
Charlotte
→ Charlotteans Chicago
Chicago
→ Chicagoans Cincinnati
Cincinnati
→ Cincinnatians El Paso → El Pasoans, El Paseños Glasgow
Glasgow
→ Glaswegians Hanoi
Hanoi
→ Hanoians Indianapolis
Indianapolis
→ Indianapolitans Inverness
Inverness
→ Invernesians Jakarta
Jakarta
→ Jakartans Karachi
Karachi
→ Karachites Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
→ Kalamazooans Kiev
Kiev
→ Kievans Kolkata
Kolkata
→ Calcuttans Las Vegas
Las Vegas
→ Las Vegans Lancaster → Lancastrians Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Liverpudlians London
London
→ Londoners Manchester
Manchester
→ Mancunians Miami
Miami
→ Miamians Milwaukee
Milwaukee
→ Milwaukeeans Minneapolis
Minneapolis
→ Minneapolitans Mumbai
Mumbai
→ Mumbaikaars (Endonym by Vernacular Locals); Mumbaites (by sophisticates) Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City → Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Cityans Ottawa
Ottawa
→ Ottawans Philadelphia
Philadelphia
→ Philadelphians Phoenix → Phoenicians Paris
Paris
→ Parisians Pisa
Pisa
→ Pisans Regina → Reginans Riga
Riga
→ Rigans Rome
Rome
→ Romans Sacramento
Sacramento
→ Sacramentans San Antonio
San Antonio
→ San Antonians San Diego
San Diego
→ San Diegans San Francisco
San Francisco
→ San Franciscans San Jose → San Joseans Sarasota
Sarasota
→ Sarasotans Sioux City
Sioux City
→ Sioux Cityans Springville → Springvillians Sofia
Sofia
→ Sofians St. Louis
St. Louis
→ St. Louisans Thebes → Thebans Toledo, Ohio
Ohio
→ Toledoans Toronto
Toronto
→ Torontonians Tucson → Tucsonans Tulsa → Tulsans Valencia
Valencia
→ Valencians Vilnius
Vilnius
→ Vilnians Washington, DC → Washingtonian Yuma → Yumians

-ian[edit] Countries[edit]

Argentina
Argentina
→ Argentinian (also "Argentine", also "Argentinean") Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azerbaijanian (also "Azarbaijani") Bahamas
Bahamas
→ Bahamian Barbados
Barbados
→ Barbadian (also "Bajan") Belarus
Belarus
→ Belarusian Belgium
Belgium
→ Belgian Bermuda
Bermuda
→ Bermudian Brazil
Brazil
→ Brazilian Bulgaria
Bulgaria
→ Bulgarian Cameroon
Cameroon
→ Cameroonian Canada
Canada
→ Canadian (or "Canadien" [feminine "Canadienne"] in French) Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
→ Caymanian Chad
Chad
→ Chadian Comoros
Comoros
→ Comorian Croatia
Croatia
→ Croatian Ecuador
Ecuador
→ Ecuadorian Egypt
Egypt
→ Egyptian Ghana
Ghana
→ Ghanaian Grenada
Grenada
→ Grenadian Hungary
Hungary
→ Hungarian India
India
→ Indian Iran
Iran
→ Iranian Italy
Italy
→ Italian Jordan
Jordan
→ Jordanian Laos
Laos
→ Laotian Maldives
Maldives
→ Maldivian Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongolian (ethnic demonym "Mongol") Palestine → Palestinian Saint Vincent → Vincentian Serbia
Serbia
→ Serbian (ethnic demonym "Serb") Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovakian (ethnic demonym "Slovak") Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovenian (ethnic demonym "Slovene") Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
→ Trinidadian or Tobagonian (also "Trinbagonian") Ukraine
Ukraine
→ Ukrainian

States, provinces, counties, and cities[edit]

Adelaide
Adelaide
→ Adelaidian Alabama
Alabama
→ Alabamian Athens
Athens
→ Athenian Ballarat
Ballarat
→ Ballaratian Birmingham, Alabama
Alabama
→ Birminghamian Blackburn
Blackburn
→ Blackburnian Blackpool
Blackpool
→ Blackpudlian Bangkok
Bangkok
→ Bangkokian Boston
Boston
→ Bostonian Brisbane
Brisbane
→ Brisbanian (also "Brisbanite") Bristol
Bristol
→ Bristolian Burgundy
Burgundy
→ Burgundian Calgary
Calgary
→ Calgarian Canary Islands
Canary Islands
→ Canarian Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury, New Zealand
→ Cantabrian Cardiff
Cardiff
→ Cardiffian Castile → Castilian Chelmsford
Chelmsford
→ Chelmsfordian Chittagong
Chittagong
→ Chittagonian Christchurch
Christchurch
→ Christchurchian (also "Christchurcher") Corinth
Corinth
→ Corinthian Coventry
Coventry
→ Coventrian Cumbria
Cumbria
→ Cumbrian Darwin → Darwinian Dayton
Dayton
→ Daytonian Devon
Devon
→ Devonian Duluth
Duluth
→ Duluthian Edmonton
Edmonton
→ Edmontonian Florida
Florida
→ Floridian Fort Worth → Fort Worthian Fredericton
Fredericton
→ Frederictonian Gibraltar
Gibraltar
→ Gibraltarian Greenville → Greenvillian Hamilton → Hamiltonian Harrow → Harrovian Hartlepool
Hartlepool
→ Hartlepudlian Hereford
Hereford
→ Herefordian Hesse
Hesse
→ Hessian Hobart
Hobart
→ Hobartian Houston
Houston
→ Houstonian Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
→ Scillonian Iowa
Iowa
City → Iowa
Iowa
Citian Jessup → Jessupian Kansas
Kansas
City → Kansas
Kansas
Citian Kentucky
Kentucky
→ Kentuckian Kingston → Kingstonian Lancashire
Lancashire
→ Lancastrian Lancaster → Lancastrian Lethbridge
Lethbridge
→ Lethbridgian Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Liverpudlian (also, though insulting and a negative term "Scouser") Louisiana
Louisiana
→ Louisianian (also "Louisianan") Louisville → Louisvillian Madrid
Madrid
→ Madrilenian Maharashtra
Maharashtra
→ Maharashtrian McKinney → McKinnian Melbourne
Melbourne
→ Melburnian Memphis
Memphis
→ Memphian Michigan
Michigan
→ Michiganian or Michigander Nelson → Nelsonian New Guinea
Guinea
→ New Guinian New Orleans
New Orleans
→ New Orleanian North Carolina
North Carolina
→ North Carolinian Northern Territory
Northern Territory
→ Territorian Oregon
Oregon
→ Oregonian Paris
Paris
→ Parisian Peterborough
Peterborough
→ Peterborian Phoenix → Phoenician Plymouth
Plymouth
→ Plymothian Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt
→ Harcourtian Preston, Lancashire
Lancashire
→Prestonian Prince George's County → Prince Georgian Rivers State
Rivers State
→ Riverian Rockwall, Texas
Texas
→ Rockwallian Rockwall County, Texas
Texas
→ Rockwallian Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
→ Saskatchewanian Saskatoon → Saskatonian Savannah → Savannahian[16] Sicily
Sicily
→ Sicilian Solihull
Solihull
→ Silhillian South Carolina
South Carolina
→ South Carolinian Stockport
Stockport
→ Stopfordian Swindon
Swindon
→ Swindonian Tel Aviv, Israel
Israel
→ Tel Avivian Thrace
Thrace
→ Thracian Towcester
Towcester
→ Towcestrian Washington → Washingtonian Wellington
Wellington
→ Wellingtonian Wilmington → Wilmingtonian

-anian[edit]

Guam
Guam
→ Guamanian

-nian[edit]

Bendigo
Bendigo
→ Bendigonian Buffalo → Buffalonian Manchester
Manchester
(UK) → Mancunian Panama
Panama
→ Panamanian Sligo
Sligo
→ Sligonian Tampa → Tampanian Tobago
Tobago
→ Tobagonian Toronto
Toronto
→ Torontonian Torquay
Torquay
→ Torquinian Trinidad & Tobago
Tobago
→ Trinbagonian

-in(e)[edit]

Argentina
Argentina
→ Argentine (and less commonly as "Argentinian" or "Argentinean") Byzantium
Byzantium
→ Byzantine Florence
Florence
→ Florentine (also Latin "Florentia") The Levant
Levant
→ Levantine Montenegro
Montenegro
→ Montenegrin Palatinate → Palatine Philippines
Philippines
→ Filipino (feminine: Filipina, see below) Philistia
Philistia
→ Philistine

-a(ñ/n)o/a, -e(ñ/n)o/a, or -i(ñ/n)o/a[edit] as adaptations from the standard Spanish suffix -e(ñ/n)o (sometimes using a final -a instead of -o for a female, following the Spanish suffix standard -e(ñ/n)a) Countries and regions[edit]

Cebu
Cebu
→ Cebuanos El Salvador
El Salvador
→ Salvadoreños (also "Salvadoran") Philippines
Philippines
→ Filipinos (in general), Filipino (singular male), Filipinas (if exclusively female), Filipina (singular female)

Cities[edit]

Albuquerque
Albuquerque
→ Albuquerqueans (also "Burqueño") Cavite
Cavite
→ Caviteños Davao City
Davao City
→ Davaoeños Los Angeles
Los Angeles
→ Angelenos Madrid
Madrid
→ Madrileños Manila
Manila
→ Manileños (also "Manilans") São Paulo
São Paulo
→ Paulistanos Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
→ Zamboangueño people

-ite[edit]

Akron → Akronites Ann Arbor → Ann Arborites Austin → Austinites Bergen County, New Jersey
New Jersey
→ Bergenites Boulder → Boulderites Brisbane
Brisbane
→ Brisbanites (also "Brisbanian") Bronx
Bronx
→ Bronxites Brooklyn
Brooklyn
→ Brooklynites [17] Carson City, Nevada
Nevada
→ Carsonites Chennai
Chennai
→ Chennaiites Dallas
Dallas
→ Dallasites Decatur → Decaturites Delhi
Delhi
→ Delhites Denton, Texas
Texas
→ Dentonites Denver
Denver
→ Denverites Dhaka
Dhaka
→ Dhakaites (also "Dhakai" or "Dhakaiya") Dubai
Dubai
→ Dubaiites Dunedin
Dunedin
→ Dunedinites Durban
Durban
→ Durbanites Erie, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
→ Erieites Gaya → Gayaites Irmo, South Carolina
South Carolina
→ Irmites Israel
Israel
→ Israelites (also "Israeli", depending on the usage; see below) Istanbul
Istanbul
→ Istanbulites Jerusalem
Jerusalem
→ Jerusalemites Karachi
Karachi
→ Karachiites Kerala
Kerala
→ Keralites (also Malayali
Malayali
or Malayalee) Manhattan
Manhattan
→ Manhattanites Moscow
Moscow
→ Muscovites (also Latin "Muscovia") Montpelier, Vermont
Montpelier, Vermont
→ Montpelierites Mumbai
Mumbai
→ Mumbaiites New Hampshire
New Hampshire
→ New Hampshirites Oban
Oban
→ Obanites Odessa
Odessa
→ Odessites Patna
Patna
→ Patnaites Perth
Perth
→ Perthites (also "Perthian" and "Perthling") Putney
Putney
→ Putneyites Queens
Queens
→ Queensites [18] Reading → Readingites Reno, Nevada
Nevada
→ Renalians Ruskin, Florida
Florida
→ Ruskinites Saint Paul, Minnesota
Minnesota
→ Saint Paulites Seattle
Seattle
→ Seattleites Seoul
Seoul
→ Seoulites Shiloh → Shilonites (as in: "Ahijah the Shilonite") Springfield (The Simpsons)
Springfield (The Simpsons)
→ Springfieldians Spokane
Spokane
→ Spokanites Sydney
Sydney
→ Sydneyites (also "Sydneysider") Telangana→ Telanganites Tokyo
Tokyo
→ Tokyoites Vancouver
Vancouver
→ Vancouverites Vizag
Vizag
→ Vizagites Wenham, Massachusetts
Wenham, Massachusetts
→ Wenhamites Westchester County, New York
Westchester County, New York
→ Westchesterites Whittier, California
California
→ Whittierites Winston-Salem
Winston-Salem
→ Winston-Salemites Wisconsin
Wisconsin
→ Wisconsinites Wyoming
Wyoming
→ Wyomingites

-(e)r[edit]

Amsterdam
Amsterdam
→ Amsterdammers Auckland
Auckland
→ Aucklanders Beijing
Beijing
→ Beijingers Belgrade
Belgrade
→ Belgraders Berlin
Berlin
→ Berliners Bucharest
Bucharest
→ Bucharesters Budapest
Budapest
→ Budapesters Cleveland
Cleveland
→ Clevelanders Cook Islands
Cook Islands
→ Cook Islanders Copenhagen
Copenhagen
→ Copenhageners Detroit
Detroit
→ Detroiters Dublin
Dublin
→ Dubliners Dresden
Dresden
→ Dresdeners Fife
Fife
→ Fifers Frankfurt
Frankfurt
→ Frankfurters Greenland
Greenland
→ Greenlanders (also "Greenlandic") Hamburg
Hamburg
→ Hamburgers Hannover
Hannover
→ Hannoveraners Hong Kong
Hong Kong
→ Hongkonger/Hong Kongers (also "Hong Kongese"/"Hongkongese") Iceland
Iceland
Icelanders
Icelanders
(also "Icelandic") Kosovo
Kosovo
→ Kosovars Leeds
Leeds
→ Loiners Leipzig
Leipzig
→ Leipzigers Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
→ Liechtensteiners Little Rock, AR
Little Rock, AR
→ Little Rockers London
London
→ Londoners Lorraine → Lorrainers Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourgers Maine
Maine
→ Mainers Maryland
Maryland
→ Marylanders Michigan
Michigan
→ Michiganders Montreal
Montreal
→ Montrealers Netherlands
Netherlands
→ Netherlanders (also "Dutchman" and "Hollander") New England
New England
→ New Englanders New York → New Yorkers New Zealand
New Zealand
→ New Zealanders Newfoundland
Newfoundland
→ Newfoundlanders Oakland
Oakland
→ Oaklanders Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
→ Pittsburghers Prague
Prague
→ Praguers Puntland
Puntland
→ Puntlanders Quebec
Quebec
→ Quebeckers or Quebecers (though see below; irregular forms) Queensland
Queensland
→ Queenslanders Rhineland
Rhineland
→ Rhinelanders Rhode Island
Rhode Island
→ Rhode Islanders Rotterdam
Rotterdam
→ Rotterdammers Saigon
Saigon
→ Saigoners Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
→ Solomon Islanders Stockholm
Stockholm
→ Stockholmers Stuttgart
Stuttgart
→ Stuttgarters Tallinn
Tallinn
→ Tallinners Vermont
Vermont
→ Vermonters Winnipeg
Winnipeg
→ Winnipeggers Yellowknife
Yellowknife
→ Yellowknifers Yukon
Yukon
→ Yukoners Zurich
Zurich
→ Zurichers

Often used for European locations and Canadian locations -ish[edit] (Usually suffixed to a truncated form of the toponym, or place-name.) "-ish" is usually proper only as an adjective. See note below list.

Åland
Åland
→ Ålandish people Britain, Great Britain
Great Britain
and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
→ British people (demonym "Briton") Cornwall
Cornwall
→ Cornish people (demonym "Cornishman, Cornishwoman") Denmark
Denmark
→ Danish people (demonym "Dane") England
England
→ English people (demonym "Englishman, Englishwoman") Finland
Finland
→ Finnish people (demonym "Finn" or "Finnic") Flanders
Flanders
→ Flemish people (demonym "Fleming") Ireland
Ireland
→ Irish people (demonym "Irishman, Irishwoman") Kurdistan
Kurdistan
→ Kurdish people (demonym "Kurd") Kent
Kent
→ Kentish people Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourgish people (demonym "Luxembourger") Northern Ireland
Ireland
→ Northern Irish people Poland
Poland
→ Polish people (demonym "Pole") Scotland
Scotland
→ Scottish people (demonym "Scot" or "Scotsman, Scotswoman") Spain
Spain
→ Spanish people (demonym "Spaniard") Sweden
Sweden
→ Swedish people (demonym "Swede") Turkey
Turkey
→ Turkish people (demonym "Turk")

-ene[edit]

Cairo
Cairo
→ Cairene Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
→ Cyrene Damascus
Damascus
→ Damascene Nazareth
Nazareth
→ Nazarene Palmyra
Palmyra
→ Palmyrene Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovene (also "Slovenian")

Often used for Middle Eastern locations and European locations. -ensian[edit]

Kingston-upon-Hull (UK) → Hullensian Leeds
Leeds
(UK) → Leodensian

-ard[edit]

Spain
Spain
→ Spaniard (also "Spanish") Savoy
Savoy
→ Savoyard Montagne → Montagnard

-ese, -lese, -vese, or -nese[edit]

Abruzzo
Abruzzo
→ Abruzzese Aragon
Aragon
→ Aragonese Aceh
Aceh
→ Acehnese Assam
Assam
→ Assamese Bali
Bali
→ Balinese Bengal/ Bangladesh
Bangladesh
→ Bengalese (also "Bengali" or "Bangladeshi" see below) Benin
Benin
→ Beninese (also "Beninois") Bern
Bern
→ Bernese Bhutan
Bhutan
→ Bhutanese Bologna
Bologna
→ Bolognese Calabria
Calabria
→ Calabrese China
China
→ Chinese Congo → Congolese Da Lat
Da Lat
→ Dalatese East Timor
East Timor
→ East Timorese Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
→ Faroese Gabon
Gabon
→ Gabonese (also Gabonais/e) Genoa
Genoa
→ Genovese Guangdong
Guangdong
("Canton") → Cantonese Guyana
Guyana
→ Guyanese Hainan
Hainan
→ Hainanese Hong Kong
Hong Kong
→ Hongkongese Hunan
Hunan
→ Hunanese Japan
Japan
→ Japanese Java
Java
→ Javanese (also "Javan") Lebanon
Lebanon
→ Lebanese Macao
Macao
→ Macanese Malta
Malta
→ Maltese Manila
Manila
→ Manilese Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
→ Marshallese Milan
Milan
→ Milanese Myanmar/Burma
Myanmar/Burma
→ Burmese (though see below; irregular forms) Nepal
Nepal
→ Nepalese (also "Nepali") Piedmont
Piedmont
→ Piedmontese Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
→ Pittsburghese (as used routinely by residents of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
referring only to the accent/dialect) Portugal
Portugal
→ Portuguese Rwanda
Rwanda
→ Rwandese (also "Rwandan") San Marino
San Marino
→ Sammarinese Sark
Sark
→ Sarkese Senegal
Senegal
→ Senegalese Shanghai
Shanghai
→ Shanghaiese Siam
Siam
→ Siamese Sikkim
Sikkim
→ Sikkimese (South) Sudan
Sudan
→ (South) Sudanese Suriname
Suriname
→ Surinamese Taiwan
Taiwan
→ Taiwanese Togo
Togo
→ Togolese Turin
Turin
→ Torinese Tyrol → Tyrolese Vienna
Vienna
→ Viennese Vietnam
Vietnam
→ Vietnamese

"-ese" is usually considered proper only as an adjective, or to refer to the entirety.[citation needed] Thus, "a Chinese person" is used rather than "a Chinese". Often used for East Asian and Francophone locations, from the similar-sounding French suffix -ais(e), which is originally from the Latin adjectival ending -ensis, designating origin from a place: thus Hispaniensis (Spanish), Danensis (Danish), etc. -i(e)[edit]

Allahabad
Allahabad
→ Allahabadiin Azawad
Azawad
→ Azawadi Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azeri (more commonly "Azerbaijani", and sometimes "Azerbaijanian") Azra → Azragi Balochistan
Balochistan
→ Balochistani (also "Baloch", "Baluch", or "Baluchi") Bahrain
Bahrain
→ Bahraini Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladeshi
Bangladeshi
(also "Bengali" or "Bengalese") Barisal
Barisal
→ Barisali (also "Borishali") Bengal
Bengal
→ Bengali Bharat → Bharati Bihar
Bihar
→ Bihari Birmingham
Birmingham
(UK) → Brummie Dagestan
Dagestan
→ Dagestani Dhaka
Dhaka
→ Dhakai (also "Dhakaiya", or "Dhakaite") Faridabad
Faridabad
→ Faridabadi Glasgow
Glasgow
→ Weegie Gujarat
Gujarat
→ Gujarati Hayastan
Hayastan
→ Hayastani (also "Armenian") Hazara → Hazaragi (also "Azragi") Hyderabad → Hyderabadi Iraq
Iraq
→ Iraqi Israel
Israel
→ Israeli (in the modern State of Israel) Kerala
Kerala
Malayali
Malayali
(also "Malayalee", or "Keralite") Kashmir
Kashmir
→ Kashmiri Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
→ Kazakhstani (also "Kazakh") Kurdistan
Kurdistan
→ Kurdistani (also "Kurdish", "Kurd") Kuwait
Kuwait
→ Kuwaiti Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
→ Kyrgyzstani (also "Kyrgyz") Lahore
Lahore
→ Lahori Nepal
Nepal
→ Nepali (also "Nepalese") Oman
Oman
→ Omani Pakistan
Pakistan
→ Pakistani Punjab → Punjabi Qatar
Qatar
→ Qatari Rajasthan
Rajasthan
→ Rajasthani Rangpur → Rangpuri Sindh
Sindh
→ Sindhi Somalia
Somalia
→ Somali Sylhet
Sylhet
→ Sylheti (also "Siloti") Tajikistan
Tajikistan
→ Tajikistani (also "Tajik") Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
→ Tel Avivi (also "Tel Avivim" (plural)) Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
→ Turkmenistani (also "Turkmen") United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
→ Emirati Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
→ Uzbekistani (also "Uzbek") Yemen
Yemen
→ Yemeni Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkie (also "Yorkshireman", or "Tyke")

Mostly for Middle Eastern and South Asian locales and in Latinate names for the various people that ancient Romans encountered (e.g. Allemanni, Helvetii) -ic[edit]

Finn → Finnic (also "Finnish") Antarctica
Antarctica
→ Antarctic Greenland
Greenland
→ Greenlandic (also "Greenlander") Iceland
Iceland
→ Icelandic (also "Icelander") Iran
Iran
→ Iranic (also "Iranian") Slav → Slavic

-iot(e)[edit]

Chios
Chios
→ Chiot Corfu
Corfu
→ Corfiot Cyprus
Cyprus
→ Cypriot ("Cyprian" before 1960 independence of Cyprus) Phanar
Phanar
→ Phanariote

Used especially for Greek locations. -asque[edit]

Monaco
Monaco
→ Monégasque (native citizen of Monaco) Menton
Menton
→ Mentonasque Basque Country → Basque

Often used for French locations. -(we)gian[edit]

Galloway
Galloway
→ Galwegian Galway
Galway
→ Galwegian Glasgow
Glasgow
→ Glaswegian Norway
Norway
→ Norwegian

-onian[edit]

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
→ Aberdonian Bath → Bathonian Connacht
Connacht
→ Connachtonian Cork → Corkonian [19] Dundee
Dundee
→ Dundonian Halifax → Haligonian Newport → Newportonian Oxford
Oxford
→ Oxonian Toronto
Toronto
→ Torontonian Truro
Truro
→ Truronian

Often used for British and Irish locations. -vian[edit]

Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
→ Barrovian[20] Harrow → Harrovian Oamaru
Oamaru
→ Oamaruvian Oslo
Oslo
→ Oslovian Peru
Peru
→ Peruvian Warsaw
Warsaw
→ Warsovian Waterloo → Waterluvian[21] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
→ Wythenshavian

-san[edit]

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
→ Burkinabè (also Burkina Fasan)

-ois(e), -ais(e)[edit]

Benin
Benin
→ Beninois(e) (also Beninese) Gabon
Gabon
→ Gabonais(e) (also Gabonese) Seychelles
Seychelles
→ Seychellois(e) Quebec
Quebec
→ Quebecois(e) (also Quebecker, most common within Canada)

While derived from French, these are also official demonyms in English. From Latin or Latinization[edit]

Alsace
Alsace
→ Alsatian (Alsatia) Ashbourne → Ashburnian (Essiburn) Cambridge
Cambridge
→ Cantabrigian Colchester
Colchester
→ Colcestrian Courland
Courland
→ Couronian (Curonia) Exeter
Exeter
→ Exonian Germany
Germany
→ German (Germani) Guernsey
Guernsey
→ Sarnian (Sarnia) Halifax → Haligonian Hispanic America
Hispanic America
Hispanic
Hispanic
(Hispania) Leeds
Leeds
Leodensian
Leodensian
(Ledesia) Lviv
Lviv
→ Leopolitan (Leopolis) Manchester
Manchester
→ Mancunian (Mancunia) Melbourne
Melbourne
Melburnian (Melburnia) Minneapolis
Minneapolis
→ Minneapolitan Naples
Naples
→ Neapolitan (Neapolis) Newcastle → Novocastrian (Novum Castrum) Orkney Islands
Orkney Islands
Orcadian (Orcadia) Oswestry
Oswestry
→ Oswestrian (Oswestria) Shropshire
Shropshire
→ Salopian (Salopia) Tripoli
Tripoli
→ Tripolitan (Tripolis) Venice
Venice
→ Venetian Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
→ Wulfrunian

Prefixation[edit] It is much rarer to find Demonyms created with a prefix. Mostly they are from Africa
Africa
and the Pacific, and are not generally known or used outside the country concerned. In much of East Africa, a person of a particular ethnic group will be denoted by a prefix. For example, a person of the Luba people
Luba people
would be a Muluba, the plural form Baluba, and the language, Kiluba or Tshiluba. Similar patterns with minor variations in the prefixes exist throughout on a tribal level. And Fijians who are indigenous Fijians are known as Kaiviti (Viti being the Fijian name for Fiji). On a country level:

Botswana
Botswana
→ Motswana (singlular), Batswana (plural) Burundi
Burundi
→ Umurundi (singular), Abarundi (plural) Lesotho
Lesotho
→ Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)

In the Pacific, at least two countries use prefixation:

Kiribati
Kiribati
→ i-Kiribati Vanuatu
Vanuatu
→ Ni-Vanuatu

Cities[edit]

Shillong
Shillong
→ nong Shillong

Non-Standard Examples[edit] Demonyms may also not conform to the underlying naming of a particular place, but instead arise out of historical or cultural particularities that become associated with its denizens. These demonyms are usually more informal and colloquial. In the United States
United States
such informal demonyms frequently become associated with mascots of the intercollegiate sports teams of the state university system. In other countries the origins are often disputed. Formal[edit]

Albuquerque
Albuquerque
→ Burquenos Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
→ Porteños Indiana
Indiana
→ Hoosier Los Angeles
Los Angeles
→ Angelenos[22] Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
→ Cariocas Massachusetts
Massachusetts
→ Bay Staters[23][24] Valparaíso
Valparaíso
→ Porteños

Informal[edit]

Arizona
Arizona
→ Sand Cutter[25] Birmingham, England
England
→ Brummie Canada
Canada
→ Canuck Connecticut
Connecticut
→ Nutmegger Jersey
Jersey
Jèrriais
Jèrriais
(adjectival), Jerseyman (demonym) Kansas
Kansas
→ Jayhawker Liverpool
Liverpool
→ Scouser or Liverpudlian London, England
England
→ Cockney (Specifically: One hailing from East London, England) Newcastle upon Tyne, England
England
→ Geordie Newfoundland, Canada
Canada
→ Newfie New Zealand
New Zealand
→ Kiwi North Carolina
North Carolina
→ Tar Heel Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
→ Yinzer Scotland
Scotland
→ Jock[26] Sunderland → Mackem Sydney
Sydney
→ Sydneysider Ohio
Ohio
→ Buckeye Oklahoma
Oklahoma
→ Okie, Sooner Oldham
Oldham
→ Yonner

Ethnic demonyms[edit]

Abkhazia
Abkhazia
→ Abkhazs Afghanistan
Afghanistan
→ Afghans Arab World
Arab World
→ Arabs Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
→ Azerbaijanis, Azeris Bengal
Bengal
→ Bengali Bosnia
Bosnia
→ Bosniaks Canada
Canada
→ Canadians Chechnya
Chechnya
→ Chechens Cornwall
Cornwall
→ Cornishman, Cornishwoman Croatia
Croatia
→ Croats Czech Republic
Czech Republic
→ Czechs Denmark
Denmark
→ Danes England
England
→ Englishman, Englishwoman Finland
Finland
→ Finn Flanders
Flanders
→ Flemings France
France
→ Frenchman, Frenchwoman Indonesia
Indonesia
→ Indonesians Ingushetia
Ingushetia
→ Ingushians Iran
Iran
→ Iranian, Persian Ireland
Ireland
→ Irishman, Irishwoman Jersey
Jersey
→ Jerseyman, Jerseywoman Kalmykia
Kalmykia
→ Kalmyks Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
→ Kazakhs Kosovo
Kosovo
→ Kosovars Kerry → Kerrymans KwaZulu
KwaZulu
→ Zulus Kurdistan
Kurdistan
→ Kurds Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
→ Kyrgyzs Lapland → Lapps (note: considered offensive in Norway
Norway
and Sweden. "Same" is preferred in Swedish, derived from the land being called Sapmi in the native language) Luxembourg
Luxembourg
→ Luxembourgers Madagascar
Madagascar
→ Malagasys, Madagascans Mongolia
Mongolia
→ Mongols Montenegro
Montenegro
→ Montenegrins Netherlands
Netherlands
→ Dutch people New South Wales
New South Wales
→ New South Welshman Philippines
Philippines
- Filipinos Poland
Poland
→ Poles Scotland
Scotland
→ Scots, Scotsman, Scotswoman Serbia
Serbia
→ Serbs Slovakia
Slovakia
→ Slovaks Slovenia
Slovenia
→ Slovenes Somalia
Somalia
→ Somalis Spain
Spain
→ Spaniards Swaziland
Swaziland
→ Swazis Sweden
Sweden
→ Swedes Tajikistan
Tajikistan
→ Tajiks Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
→ Tamils Tatarstan
Tatarstan
→Tatars Thailand
Thailand
→ Thais Turkey
Turkey
→ Turks Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
→ Turkmens Ulster
Ulster
→ Ulsterman United States
United States
of America → Americans Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
→ Uzbeks Wales
Wales
→ Welsh people Yorkshire
Yorkshire
→ Yorkshireman, Yorkshirewoman

Fiction[edit] Literature and science fiction have created a wealth of gentilics that are not directly associated with a cultural group. These will typically be formed using the standard models above. Examples include Martian
Martian
for hypothetical people of Mars
Mars
(credited to scientist Percival Lowell) or Gondorian for the people of Tolkien's fictional land of Gondor. Other science fiction examples include Jovian for those of Jupiter
Jupiter
or its moons, and Venusian for those of Venus. Fictional aliens refer to the inhabitants of Earth as Earthling (from the diminutive -ling, ultimately from Old English
Old English
-ing meaning "descendant"), as well as "Terran", "Terrene", "Tellurian", "Earther", "Earthican", "Terrestrial", and "Solarian" (from Sol, the sun). Fantasy literature which involves other worlds or other lands also has a rich supply of gentilics. Examples include Lilliputians and Brobdingnagians, from the islands of Lilliput and Brobdingnag
Brobdingnag
in the satire Gulliver's Travels. In a few cases, where a linguistic background has been created, non-standard gentilics are formed (or the eponyms back-formed). Examples include Tolkien's Rohirrim
Rohirrim
(from Rohan) and the Star Trek world's Klingon
Klingon
people (with various version of homeworld name). See also[edit]

Geography portal

List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions

List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions

List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada List of adjectivals and demonyms for Cuba List of adjectivals and demonyms for India List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines List of adjectivals and demonyms for the United States

List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

List of adjectivals and demonyms for Greco-Roman antiquity

List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions

List of regional nicknames Macedonia naming dispute Nationality

-onym, especially ethnonym and Exonym and endonym References[edit]

^ a b George H. Scheetz (1988). Names' Names: A Descriptive and Pervasive Onymicon. Schütz Verlag.  ^ "gentile, adj. and n.". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to any nation but the Jews; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Davidson, Thomas, ed. (1901) Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. London: W. & R. Chambers; p. 382 ^ "gentile -- adj. of or belonging to a gens or clan; belonging to the Gentiles; (gram.) denoting a race or country"--Macdonald, A. M., ed. (1972) Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary; new ed. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers; p. 544 ^ "Gramática Inglesa. Adjetivos Gentilicios". mansioningles.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". google.com.  ^ "Dictionary". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 25 July 2015.  ^ "Gentilés, Demonyms: What's in a Name?". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society (U.S.). 177: 170. February 1990.  ^ William Safire
William Safire
(1997-12-14). "On Language; Gifts of Gab for 1998". New York Times.  ^ What Do You Call a Person From...? A Dictionary of Resident Names by Paul Dickson (Facts on File, February 1990). ISBN 978-0-8160-1983-0. ^ " Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary". Oxford
Oxford
University Press.  ^ "Aristotle's Constitution of Athens, edited by J.E. Sandy, at the Internet Archive". p. 116.  ^ Press, AIP, Associated (2007). Stylebook and briefing on media law (42nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465004898.  ^ "Savannahian". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ "Investing in Future, Quiet Manhattan
Manhattan
Apartments Next to Construction Sites" https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/12/realestate/manhattan-apartments-next-to-construction-sites.html ^ "Copquin explains "Queensites" for New York Times
New York Times
- Yale Press Log". Yale Press Log.  ^ "Corkonian". merriam-webster.com.  ^ "North West Evening Mail". nwemail.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31.  ^ "City of Waterloo on Twitter".  ^ "Angeleno". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ "Massachusetts: General Laws, Section 35". malegislature.gov.  ^ Prior to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Legislature designating "Bay Stater" as the state's official demonym, other terms used included Massachusett, borrowed from the native Massachusett
Massachusett
tribe, Massachusite, championed by the early English Brahmins, Massachusettsian, by analogy with other state demonyms, and Masshole, originally derogatory. ^ "The State of Arizona
Arizona
- An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State". netstate.com.  ^ "Is it a slur to call someone a Jock?". BBC. 

Notes[edit]

^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians. Hawaii resident is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.[15]

External links[edit]

Look up demonym or gentilic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

www.geography-site.co.uk Alphabetical list of world demonyms. www.everything2.com Demonyms of the World. CIA World Factbook – NATIONALITY www.peoplefrom.co.uk Demonyms of the United Kingdom.

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