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The DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison
James Madison
in 1791–93 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton , who was then Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. The new party controlled the presidency and Congress, as well as most states, from 1801 to 1825, during the First Party System . It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress, and included many politicians who had been opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves _Republicans_ after their ideology, Republicanism . They distrusted the Federalist commitment to republicanism. The party splintered in 1824 into the Jacksonian movement (which became the Democratic Party in 1828) and the short-lived National Republican Party (later succeeded by the Whig Party ).

The term "Democratic-Republican" is used especially by modern political scientists for the first "REPUBLICAN PARTY" (as opposed to the modern Republican Party founded in 1854). It is also known as the JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS. Historians typically use the title "Republican Party".

An "Anti-Administration " faction met secretly in the national capital ( Philadelphia
Philadelphia
) to oppose Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to monarchy and subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities. Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–95 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with Britain, which was then at war with France . Republicans saw France as more democratic after its revolution, while Britain represented the hated monarchy. The party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional, especially the national bank .

The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast. It demanded states\' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers . Republicans were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism , which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists. The party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election . The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away, and totally collapsed after 1815. The Republicans dominated the First Party System, despite internal divisions, until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.

The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(nominated 1796; elected 1800–01 , 1804), James Madison
James Madison
(1808, 1812), and James Monroe (1816, 1820). By 1824, the caucus system had practically collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated Congress and most state governments outside New England
New England
. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center, as the First Party System collapsed. The emergence of the Second Party System in the 1830s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant led by John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and Henry Clay
Henry Clay
formed the National Republicans in 1828; it developed into the Whig Party by 1835.

CONTENTS

* 1 Founding * 2 Presidential elections of 1792 and 1796 * 3 Strength in Congress over time * 4 Organizational strategy

* 5 Revolution of 1800

* 5.1 National debt

* 6 Monroe and Adams, 1816–1828 * 7 Republican Party name * 8 Legacy * 9 Presidents * 10 Candidates * 11 See also * 12 References

* 13 Bibliography

* 13.1 Biographies * 13.2 State studies * 13.3 Newspapers * 13.4 Primary sources

* 14 External links

FOUNDING

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison
James Madison

Congressman James Madison
James Madison
started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(then the national capital ) as the "Republican Party"; then he, Jefferson, and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country, especially New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate; some time by 1792 is certain. The new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer , argued for strict construction of the Constitution , favored the French Revolution , strongly opposed Great Britain, and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF 1792 AND 1796

The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states the congressional elections were recognized, as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it, as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were John Jay , a Federalist, and incumbent George Clinton , who was allied with Jefferson and the Republicans. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one (Kentucky) for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams
John Adams
as well as casting their votes for President Washington. (Before 1804 electors cast two votes together without differentiation as to which office was to be filled by which candidate.)

In the 1796 election , the party made its first bid for the presidency with Jefferson as its presidential candidate and Aaron Burr as its vice presidential candidate. Jefferson came in second in the electoral college (at the time, its balloting could not distinguish between president and vice president) and became vice president. He would become a consistent and strong opponent of the policies of the John Adams
John Adams
administration. Jefferson and Madison were deeply upset by the unconstitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
of 1798; they secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions , which called on state legislatures to nullify unconstitutional laws. The other states, however, did not follow suit and several rejected the notion that states could nullify federal law. The Republican critique of federalism became wrapped in the slogan of "Principles of 1798", which became the hallmark of the party. The most important of these principles were states\' rights , opposition to a strong national government, distrust of the federal courts, and opposition to the navy and the national bank. The party saw itself as a champion of republicanism and denounced the Federalists as supporters of monarchy and aristocracy.

The party coalesced around Jefferson, who diligently maintained extensive correspondence with like-minded Republican leaders throughout the country. Washington frequently decried the growing sense of "party" emerging from the internal battles among Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Adams and others in his administration. As warfare in Europe increased, the two factions increasingly made foreign policy the central political issue of the day. The Republicans wanted to maintain the 1777 alliance with France, which had overthrown the monarchy and aristocracy and become a republic. Even though Britain was by far America's leading trading partner, Republicans feared that increased trade would undermine republicanism. The Republicans distrusted Hamilton's national bank and rejected his premise that a national debt was good for the country; Republicans said they were both forms of corruption. They strongly distrusted the elitism of Hamilton's circle, denouncing it as "aristocratic"; and they called for states' rights lest the Federalists centralize ever more power in the national governments.

The intense debate over the Jay Treaty in 1794–95, transformed those opposed to Hamilton's policies from a loose movement into a true political party. To fight the treaty, the Jeffersonians "established coordination in activity between leaders at the capital, and leaders, actives and popular followings in the states, counties and towns." However, they were defeated when Washington mobilized public opinion in favor of the treaty.

STRENGTH IN CONGRESS OVER TIME

Historians have used statistical techniques to estimate the party breakdown in Congress. Many Congressmen were hard to classify in the first few years, but after 1796 there was less uncertainty.

Federalist and Democratic-Republican strength in Congress by election year

ELECTION YEAR

HOUSE 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806

FEDERALIST 37 39 51 47 57 60 38 39 25 24

REPUBLICAN 28 30 54 59 49 46 65 103 116 118

Percentage Republican 43% 43% 51% 56% 46% 43% 63% 73% 82% 83%

SENATE 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806

FEDERALIST 18 16 16 21 22 22 15 9 7 6

REPUBLICAN 8 13 14 11 10 10 17 25 17 28

Percentage Republican 31% 45% 47% 34% 31% 31% 53% 74% 71% 82%

The affiliation of many Congressmen in the earliest years is an assignment by later historians; these were slowly coalescing groups with initially considerable independent thinking and voting; Cunningham noted that only about a quarter of the House of Representatives, up till 1794, voted with Madison as much as two-thirds of the time, and another quarter against him two-thirds of the time, leaving almost half as fairly independent. Albert Gallatin recalled only two caucuses on legislative policy between 1795 and 1801, one over appropriations for Jay's Treaty, the other over the Quasi-War , and in neither case did the party decide to vote unanimously.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY

The new party invented some of the campaign and organizational techniques which were later adopted by the Federalists and became standard American practice. It was especially effective in building a network of newspapers in major cities to broadcast its statements and editorialize its policies. Fisher Ames
Fisher Ames
, a leading Federalist, used the term "Jacobin " to link members of Jefferson's party to the radicals of the French Revolution . He blamed the newspapers for electing Jefferson; they were, he wrote, "an overmatch for any Government.... The Jacobins owe their triumph to the unceasing use of this engine; not so much to skill in use of it as by repetition."

As one historian explained, "It was the good fortune of the Republicans to have within their ranks a number of highly gifted political manipulators and propagandists. Some of them had the ability... to not only see and analyze the problem at hand but to present it in a succinct fashion; in short, to fabricate the apt phrase, to coin the compelling slogan and appeal to the electorate on any given issue in language it could understand." Outstanding propagandists included editor William Duane (1760–1835), and party leaders Albert Gallatin , Thomas Cooper and Jefferson himself.

Just as important was effective party organization of the sort that John J. Beckley pioneered. In 1796, he managed the Jefferson campaign in Pennsylvania, blanketing the state with agents who passed out 30,000 hand-written tickets, naming all 15 electors (printed tickets were not allowed). He told one agent, "In a few days a select republican friend from the City will call upon you with a parcel of tickets to be distributed in your County. Any assistance and advice you can furnish him with, as to suitable districts they were stunned when party leaders started a Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States
in 1816.

The first official Republican Congressional Caucus meeting took place at Marache's boarding house on May 11, 1800, in Philadelphia. The January 26, 1799 letter Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
wrote to Elbridge Gerry became the party's platform.

In the Senate chamber on February 25, 1804, a "Convention of Republican members of both houses of Congress" met. Senator Stephen Bradley presided, a Committee on Presidential Electors was formed and it was resolved that Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
be nominated for President and George Clinton be nominated Vice President.

The party held a convention by the same name on January 23, 1808, again in the Senate chamber at 6:00 pm on a Saturday. Senator Stephen Bradley, who was the President _pro tempore_ of the Senate, again served as President of the convention with Representative Richard Johnson as the Secretary. A Committee on Correspondence was formed, James Madison
James Madison
was nominated for President, and George Clinton was re-nominated for Vice President.

Legislative issues were handled by the Committee of the Whole, and the elected Speaker of the House of Representatives and floor leaders, who at that time were the Chairman for the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and Chairman for the Committee on Finance of the Senate.

The state legislatures often instructed Members of Congress how to vote on specific issues. More exactly, they "instructed" the Senators (who were elected by the legislatures), and "requested" the Representatives (who were elected by the people.) On rare occasions a Senator resigned rather than follow instructions.

The opposition Federalist Party, suffering from a lack of leadership after the death of Hamilton and the retirement of John Adams
John Adams
, quickly declined; it revived briefly in opposition to the War of 1812 , but the extremism of its Hartford Convention of 1815 utterly destroyed it as a political force.

NATIONAL DEBT

Jefferson and Albert Gallatin focused on the danger that the public debt, unless it was paid off, would be a threat to republican values. They were appalled that Hamilton was increasing the national debt and using it to solidify his Federalist base. Gallatin was the Republican Party's chief expert on fiscal issues and as Treasury Secretary under Jefferson and Madison worked hard to lower taxes and lower the debt, while at the same time paying cash for the Louisiana Purchase and funding the War of 1812. Burrows says of Gallatin:

His own fears of personal dependency and his small shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils—corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. Not only was it necessary to extinguish the existing debt as rapidly as possible, he argued, but Congress would have to ensure against the accumulation of future debts by more diligently supervising government expenditures.

Fear of a large debt is a major legacy of the party. Andrew Jackson believed the national debt was a "national curse" and he took special pride in paying off the entire national debt in 1835. Politicians ever since have used the issue of a high national debt to denounce the other party for profligacy and a threat to fiscal soundness and the nation's future.

MONROE AND ADAMS, 1816–1828

In rapidly expanding western states, the Federalists had few supporters. Every state had a distinct political geography that shaped party membership. In Pennsylvania, the Republicans were weakest around Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and strongest in Scots-Irish settlements in the west. Members came from all social classes, but came predominantly from the poor, subsistence farmers, mechanics and tradesmen. After the War of 1812 , partisanship subsided across the young republic—people called it the Era of Good Feelings . James Monroe narrowly won the party's nomination for President in Congress over William Crawford in 1816 and defeated Federalist Rufus King in the general election.

In the early years of the party, the key central organization grew out of caucuses of Congressional leaders in Washington. However, the key battles to choose electors occurred in the states, not in the caucus. In many cases, legislatures still chose electors; in others, the election of electors was heavily influenced by local parties that were heavily controlled by relatively small groups of officials. Without a significant Federalist opposition, the need for party unity was greatly diminished and the party's organization faded away.

James Monroe ran under the party's banner in the 1820 election and built support by consensus. Monroe faced no serious rival and was nearly unanimously elected by the electoral college. The party's historic domination by the Virginian delegation faded as New York and Pennsylvania became more important. In the 1824 election , most of the party in Congress boycotted the caucus; only a small rump group backed William Crawford . The Crawford faction included most "Old Republicans"—those who remained committed to states' rights and the Principles of 1798 and were distrustful of the nationalizing program promoted by Henry Clay
Henry Clay
and John C. Calhoun .

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
wrote on the state of party politics in the early 1820s:

An opinion prevails that there is no longer any distinction, that the republicans the Republicans, if he is preferred.

Presidential electors were now all chosen by direct election, except in South Carolina, where the state legislatures chose them. White manhood suffrage was the norm throughout the West and in most of the East as well. The voters thus were much more powerful, and to win their votes required complex party organization. Under the leadership of Martin Van Buren , a firm believer in political organization, the Jacksonians built strong state and local organizations throughout the country. The Old Republicans, or "Radicals", mostly supported Jackson and joined with supporters of incumbent Vice President Calhoun in an alliance. President Adams was defeated by Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
in the election of 1828 .

REPUBLICAN PARTY NAME

Political parties were new in the United States, and people were not accustomed to having formal names for them. There was no single, official name for the party. Party members generally called themselves _Republicans_ and voted for what they called the _Republican Party_, _republican ticket_, or _republican interest_. Jefferson and Madison often used the terms "republican" and "Republican party" in their letters. The 1804 Convention of Republican members of Congress that renominated Jefferson described itself as a "regular republican caucus". The name Democratic-Republican was used by contemporaries only occasionally.

The term "republican" was in widespread usage from the 1770s to describe the type of government the break-away colonies wanted to form: a republic of three separate branches of government derived from some principles and structure from ancient republics; especially the emphasis on civic duty and the opposition to corruption, elitism, aristocracy and monarchy. The word is used in the U.S. Constitution.

LEGACY

Further information: First Party System and Second Party System

A split appeared in the then Republican party during the 1824 elections (at the end of the Monroe administration ). When the election was thrown to the House of Representatives, Henry Clay
Henry Clay
backed John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
to deny the presidency to Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
, a longtime political rival. Jackson defeated Adams in 1828, and in the next election, the first Democratic national convention took place in Baltimore, Maryland on May 21–23, 1832. It nominated Andrew Jackson for a second term, and he went on to win the presidential election.

The Adams/Clay alliance became the basis of the National Republican Party , a rival to the Jackson's Democracy and successor of the Democratic-Republican Party. This party favored a higher tariff in order to protect U.S. manufacturers, as well as public works, especially roads. Many former members of the defunct Federalist Party, including Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
, joined the party. After Clay's defeat by Jackson in the 1832 presidential election, the National Republicans were absorbed into the Whig Party , a diverse group of Jackson opponents. Taking a leaf from the Jacksonians, the Whigs tended to nominate non-ideological war heroes as their presidential candidates. The Whig party fell apart in the 1850s over the question of whether to allow the expansion of slavery into new territories.

The modern Republican Party was formed in 1854 to oppose the expansion of slavery. Many former Whig party leaders (such as Abraham Lincoln – modern Republican Party supporters still sometimes refer to themselves as "the party of Lincoln") and former Free Soil Party leaders joined the newly formed anti-slavery party. The party sought to combine Jefferson's ideals of liberty and equality with Clay's program of using an active government to modernize the economy.

PRESIDENTS

Four United States Presidents were elected following a process that selected them as a national nominee of the Democratic-Republican party:

* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–1809) * James Madison
James Madison
(1809–1817) * James Monroe (1817–1825) * John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–1829)

CANDIDATES

ELECTION YEAR RESULT NOMINEES

PRESIDENT VICE PRESIDENT

1792 lost None George Clinton

1796 lost(a) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr

1800 won(b)

1804 won George Clinton

1808 won James Madison
James Madison

1812 won Elbridge Gerry

1816 won James Monroe Daniel Tompkins

1820 won

1824 N/A(c) None None

* (a) _Jefferson did not win the presidency, and Burr did not win the vice presidency. However, under the pre-12th Amendment election rules, Jefferson won the vice presidency due to dissension among Federalist electors._ * (b) _Jefferson and Burr received the same number of electoral votes. Jefferson was subsequently chosen as president by the House of Representatives._ * (c) _ William H. Crawford and Albert Gallatin were nominated for president and vice-president by a group of 66 Congressmen that called itself the "Democratic members of Congress". Gallatin later withdrew from the contest. Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
, John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
, and Henry Clay ran as Republicans, although they were not nominated by any national body. While Jackson won a plurality in the electoral college and popular vote, he did not win the constitutionally required majority of electoral votes to be elected president. The contest was thrown to the House of Representatives, where Adams won with Clay's support. The electoral college chose John C. Calhoun for vice president._

SEE ALSO

* History of the United States Democratic Party * List of political parties in the United States

REFERENCES

* ^ "Anti-Federalist vs. Federalist". Diffen. * ^ "Democratic-Republican Party". _The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History_. Retrieved December 7, 2014. * ^ Susan Dunn (2004). _Jefferson\'s Second Revolution: The Election of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 279. ISBN 0618131647 . * ^ Paul Kleppner, et. al. _The Evolution of American Electoral Systems_ (1981), ch 3

* ^ James Madison
James Madison
to Thomas Jefferson, March 2, 1794 "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican Party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose." Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to President Washington, May 23, 1792 "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number. They are fewer even when joined by the two, three, or half dozen anti-federalists...." * ^ William Nesbit Chambers, _Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809_ (1963) pp 81–91. * ^ Saul Cornell, _The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788–1828_ (1999) * ^ Elkins and McKitrick, _The Age of Federalism_ p 288. * ^ James Roger Sharp, _American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis_ (1993) * ^ Lance Banning, _The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology_ (1980) * ^ Chambers, _Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809_ (1963) p 80. * ^ Source: Kenneth C. Martis, _The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789–1989_ (1989). The numbers are estimates. * ^ Cunningham (1957), 82. * ^ Jeffrey L. Pasley. _"The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic_ (2003) * ^ Cunningham (1957), 167. * ^ Tinkcom, 271. * ^ Noble E. Cunningham, Jr., "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager", _William and Mary Quarterly_, 13 (Jan. 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR * ^ Cunningham (1963), 129. * ^ Citation: Edwin G. Burrows. "Gallatin, Albert" in _American National Biography Online_ (2000) Accessed Dec 03 2013 * ^ Robert V. Remini (2008). _Andrew Jackson_. Macmillan. p. 180. ISBN 9780230614703 . * ^ Stuart Nagel (1994). _Encyclopedia of Policy Studies_ (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. pp. 503–04. ISBN 9780824791421 . * ^ Klein, 44. * ^ " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to William Johnson, October 27, 1822". Retrieved October 2, 2006. See also: " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to William Johnson, June 12, 1823". Transcript. " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to Edward Livingston, April 4, 1824". Transcript. " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to William Short, January 8, 1825". " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to William B. Giles, December 26, 1825". Transcript. * ^ Adams, John Quincy (1875). Charles Francis Adams, ed. _Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary..., Volume 7_. J.B. Lippincott & Company. pp. 207–08. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

* ^ For examples of original quotes and documents from various states, see Cunningham, Noble E., _Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801_ (1957), pp. 48, 63–66, 97, 99, 103, 110, 111, 112, 144, 151, 153, 156, 157, 161, 163, 188, 196, 201, 204, 213, 218 and 234. See also "Address of the Republican committee of the County of Gloucester, New-Jersey", Gloucester County, December 15, 1800 Jefferson used the term "republican party" in a letter to Washington in May 1792 to refer to those in Congress who were his allies and who supported the existing republican constitution. " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to George Washington, May 23, 1792". Retrieved October 4, 2006. At a conference with Washington a year later, Jefferson referred to "what is called the republican party here". Bergh, ed. _Writings of Thomas Jefferson_ (1907) 1:385, 8:345 * ^ " James Madison
James Madison
to Thomas Jefferson, March 2, 1794". Retrieved October 14, 2006. "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose." See also: Smith, 832. " James Madison
James Madison
to William Hayward, March 21, 1809. Address to the Republicans of Talbot Co. Maryland". Retrieved October 27, 2006. " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to John Melish, January 13, 1813". Retrieved October 27, 2006. "The party called republican is steadily for the support of the present constitution" " James Madison
James Madison
to Baltimore Republican Committee, April 22, 1815". Retrieved October 27, 2006. " James Madison
James Madison
to William Eustis, May 22, 1823". Retrieved October 27, 2006. Transcript. "The people are now able every where to compare the principles and policy of those who have borne the name of Republicans or Democrats with the career of the adverse party and to see and feel that the former are as much in harmony with the Spirit of the Nation as the latter was at variance with both." * ^ See _The Aurora General Advertiser_ (Philadelphia), April. 30, 1795, p. 3; _New Hampshire Gazette_ (Portsmouth), October 15, 1796, p. 3; _Claypoole's American Daily Advertiser_ (Philadelphia), October 10, 1797, p. 3; _Columbian Centinel_ (Boston), September 15, 1798, p. 2; _Alexandria (VA) Times_, October 8, 1798, p. 2; _Daily Advertiser_ (New York), September 22, 1800, p. 2 _The Oracle of Dauphin_ (Harrisburg), October 6, 1800, p. 3; _Federal Gazette_ (Baltimore), October 23, 1800, p. 3; _The Spectator_ (New York), October 25, 1800, p. 3; _Poulson's American Daily Advertiser_ (Philadelphia), November 19, 1800, p. 3; _Windham (CT) Herald_, November 20, 1800, p. 2; _City Gazette_ (Charleston), November 22, 1800, p. 2; _The American Mercury_ (Hartford), November 27, 1800, p. 3; and _ Constitutional Telegraphe _ (Boston), November 29, 1800, p. 3. After 1802, some local organizations slowly began merging "Democratic" into their own name and became known as the "Democratic Republicans". Examples include 1802, 1803, 1804, 1804, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809. * ^ Banning, 79–90. * ^ "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government" (_Constitution of the United States_, Art. 4. Sect. 4.) * ^ "_The Origin of the Republican Party_, A.F. Gilman, Ripon College, 1914". Content.wisconsinhistory.org. Retrieved January 17, 2012. * ^ Gould, 14. * ^ "Anti-Caucus/Caucus". Washington Republican. February 6, 1824.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Adams, Henry , _History of the United States during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson_ (1889; Library of America ed. 1987) * Adams, Henry , _History of the United States during the Administrations of James Madison_ (1891; Library of America ed. 1986) * Banning, Lance. _The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology_ (1980) * Beard, Charles A. _Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy_ (1915) * Brown, Stuart Gerry. _The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison_ 1954. * Chambers, Wiliam Nisbet. _Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809_ (1963) * Cornell, Saul. _The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788–1828_ (1999) (ISBN 0-8078-2503-4 ) * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. _Jeffersonian Republicans: The formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801_ (1957) * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. _The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809_ (1963) * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. _The Process of Government Under Jefferson_ (1978 * Dawson, Matthew Q. _Partisanship and the Birth of America's Second Party, 1796–1800: Stop the Wheels of Government._ Greenwood, 2000. * Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. _The Age of Federalism_ (1995), detailed political history of 1790s * Ferling, John. _Adams Vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800_ (2004)(ISBN 0-19-516771-6 ) * Gammon, Samuel Rhea. _The Presidential Campaign of 1832_ (1922) * Gould, Lewis. _Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans_ (2003) (ISBN 0-375-50741-8 ) concerns the party founded in 1854 * Onuf, Peter S., ed. _Jeffersonian Legacies._ (1993) (ISBN 0-8139-1462-0 ) * Pasley, Jeffrey L. et al. eds. _Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic_ (2004) * Ray, Kristofer. "The Republicans Are the Nation? Thomas Jefferson, William Duane, and the Evolution of the Republican Coalition, 1809–1815." _American Nineteenth Century History_ 14.3 (2013): 283–304. * Risjord, Norman K.; _The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson_ (1965) on the Randolph faction. * Sharp, James Roger. _American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis_ (1993) detailed narrative of 1790s * Smelser, Marshall. _The Democratic Republic 1801–1815_ (1968), survey of political history * Van Buren, Martin. Van Buren, Abraham, Van Buren, John, ed. _Inquiry Into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States_ (1867) (ISBN 1-4181-2924-0 ) * Wiltse, Charles Maurice. _The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy_ (1935) * Wilentz, Sean. _The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln_ (2005), detailed narrative history, 1800–1860 * Wills, Garry. _Henry Adams and the Making of America_ (2005), a close reading of Henry Adams (1889–91)

BIOGRAPHIES

* Cunningham, Noble E. _In Pursuit of Reason The Life of Thomas Jefferson_ (ISBN 0-345-35380-3 ) (1987) * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager", _William and Mary Quarterly,_ 13 (Jan. 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR * Miller, John C. _Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox_ (1959), full-scale biography * Peterson; Merrill D. _ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and the New Nation: A Biography_ (1975), full-scale biography * Remini, Robert. _Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union_ (1991), a standard biography * Rutland, Robert A., ed. _ James Madison
James Madison
and the American Nation, 1751–1836: An Encyclopedia._ (1994) * Schachner, Nathan. _Aaron Burr: A Biography_ (1961), full-scale biography * Wiltse, Charles Maurice. _John C. Calhoun, Nationalist, 1782–1828_ (1944)

STATE STUDIES

* Beeman, Richard R. _The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788–1801_ (1972), on Virginia politics * Formisano, Ronald P. _The Transformation of Political Culture. Massachusetts Parties, 1790s–1840s_ (1984) (ISBN 0-19-503509-7 ) * Gilpatrick, Delbert Harold. _Jeffersonian Democracy in North Carolina, 1789–1816_ (1931) * Goodman, Paul. _The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts_ (1964) * Klein, Philip Shriver. _Pennsylvania Politics, 1817–1832: A Game without Rules_ 1940. * Prince, Carl E. _New Jersey's Jeffersonian Republicans: The Genesis of an Early Party Machine, 1789–1817_ (1967) * Risjord; Norman K. _Chesapeake Politics, 1781–1800_ (1978) on Virginia and Maryland * Tinkcom, Harry M. _The Republicans and Federalists in Pennsylvania, 1790–1801_ (1950) * Young, Alfred F. _The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763–1797_ (1967)

NEWSPAPERS

* Humphrey, Carol Sue _The Press of the Young Republic, 1783–1833_ (1996) * Knudson, Jerry W. _Jefferson And the Press: Crucible of Liberty_ (2006) how 4 Republican and 4 Federalist papers covered election of 1800; Thomas Paine; Louisiana Purchase; Hamilton-Burr duel; impeachment of Chase; and the embargo * Jeffrey L. Pasley. _"The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic_ (2003) (ISBN 0-8139-2177-5 ) * Stewart, Donald H. _The Opposition Press of the Federalist Era_ (1968), highly detailed study of Republican newspapers * National Intell (ISBN 0-8369-5021-6 ). Adams, son of the Federalist president, switched and became a Republican in 1808 * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. _The Making of the American Party System 1789 to 1809_ (1965) excerpts from primary sources * Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. _Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents 1789–1829_ (1978), 3 vol; reprints the political newsletters sent out by congressmen * Kirk, Russell ed. _John Randolph of Roanoke: A study in American politics, with selected speeches and letters_, 4th ed., Liberty Fund, 1997, 588 pp. ISBN 0-86597-150-1 ; Randolph was a leader of the "Old Republican" faction * Smith, James Morton, ed. _The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison, 1776–1826_ Volume 2 (1994)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825

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