Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method
in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than
the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
Normally, a deep fryer or chip pan is used for this; industrially, a
pressure fryer or vacuum fryer may be used.
Deep frying may also be
performed using oil that is heated in a pot.
Deep frying is classified
as hot-fat cooking method. Typically, deep frying foods cook
quickly: all sides of a food are cooked simultaneously as oil has a
high rate of heat conduction.
The term "deep frying" and many modern deep-fried foods were not
invented until the 19th century, but the practice has been around for
millennia. Early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began
in a few European and Arabian countries before other countries adopted
Deep frying is popular worldwide, with deep-fried foods accounting for
a large portion of global caloric consumption. Many foods are
deep-fried and cultures surrounding deep frying have developed, most
notably in the Southern United States, where many events dedicated to
deep frying food and non-edible items are held.
4 Dishes, foods, and culture
4.4 North America
4.6 South America
5 Oil deterioration
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Peixinhos da horta, the Portuguese ancestor of Japanese tempura
The English expression deep-fried is attested from the early 20th
century; "fried chicken" is from 1832.
Frying food in olive oil is attested in
Classical Greece from about
the 5th century BCE. The late Roman cookbook of
Apicius (c. 400),
appears to list the ancient Romans' first use of deep frying to
prepare Pullum Frontonianum, a chicken dish. The practice of deep
frying spread to other parts of Europe and Arabia in the following
centuries. Deep-fried foods such as funnel cakes arrived in northern
Europe by the 13th century, and deep-fried fish recipes have been
found in cookbooks in Spain and Portugal at around the same time.
Falafel arrived in the Middle East from population migrations from
Egypt as soon as the 14th century. The deep frying of food
in Japan was likely introduced by Portuguese in the 16th
Evidence of potato frying can be found as early as the late 17th
century in Europe. French fries, invented in the late 18th century,
became popular in the early 19th century western Europe. In 1860
Joseph Malin combined deep fried fish with chips (french fries) to
open the first fish and chip shop in London.
Modern deep frying in the United States began in the 19th century with
the growing popularity of cast iron, particularly around the American
South which led to the development of many modern deep-fried
dishes. Doughnuts were invented in the mid-19th century, with
foods such as onion rings, deep-fried turkey, and corn
dogs all being invented in the early 20th century. In recent
years, the growth of fast food has expanded the reach of deep-fried
foods, especially French fries.
Deep frying food is defined as a process where food is completely
submerged in hot oil at temperatures typically between 350 °F
(177 °C) and 375 °F (191 °C). One common method for
preparing food for deep frying involves adding multiple layers of
batter around the food, such as cornmeal, flour, or tempura;
breadcrumbs may also be used. After the food is submerged in oil,
the surface of it begins to dehydrate and it undergoes Maillard
reactions which break down sugars and proteins, creating the golden
brown exterior of the food. Once the surface is dehydrated, it forms a
crust which prevents further oil absorption. The heat conducts
throughout the food causing proteins to denature, starches to undergo
starch gelatinization, and dietary fiber to soften.
While most foods need batter coatings for protection, it is not as
necessary for cooked noodles and potatoes because their high starch
content enables them to hold more moisture and resist shrinking. Meats
may be cooked before deep frying to ensure that they are done inside
while keeping juiciness.
When performed properly, deep frying does not make food excessively
greasy, because the moisture in the food repels the oil. The hot oil
heats the water within the food, steaming it; oil cannot go against
the direction of this powerful flow because (due to its high
temperature) the water vapor pushes the bubbles toward the
surface. As long as the oil is hot enough and the food is not
immersed in the oil for too long, oil penetration will be confined to
the outer surface. Foods deep-fried at proper temperatures typically
absorb "no more than a couple of tablespoons per 2 1⁄2 cups
of oil" used. This oil absorption rate is around the same as
occurs with shallow frying, such as in a pan.
Smultring being deep-fried
However, if the food is cooked in the oil for too long, much of the
water will be lost and the oil will begin to penetrate the food. The
correct frying temperature depends on the thickness and type of food,
but in most cases it lies between 350–375 °F
(177–191 °C). An informal test for a temperature close
to this range involves adding a tiny amount of flour into the oil and
watching to see if it sizzles without immediately burning. A second
test involves adding one piece of food to deep fry and watching it
sink somewhat and rise back up. Sinking without resurfacing indicates
that the oil is too cold; not sinking at all indicates that the oil is
It is recommended that deep fryers be cleaned often to prevent
contamination. The process of cooking with oil can also
contaminate nearby surfaces as oil may splatter on adjacent areas. Oil
vapors can also condense on more distant surfaces such as walls and
ceilings. Supplies such as dish detergent and baking soda can
effectively clean affected surfaces.
Deep fryer and chip pan
Deep frying is done with a deep fryer, a pan such as a wok or chip
pan, a Dutch oven, or a cast-iron pot. Additional tools include fry
baskets, which are used to contain foods in a deep fryer and to strain
foods when removed from the oil, and cooking thermometers, used to
gauge oil temperature. Tongs, slotted spoons, wooden spoons, and
sieves may be used to remove or separate foods from the hot
Japanese deep frying tools include long metal chopsticks; the
agemono-nabe deep frying pot, which is heavy for retaining heat and
deep for holding oil; the ami-shakushi net ladle used for scooping out
batter debris; and the abura-kiri oil drying rack pan.
Deep frying tools
A deep fryer with slotted spoon, for removing foods from the hot oil
Slotted and perforated wooden spoons
A strainer used in the preparation of empanadas
An ami shakushi is a Japanese ladle or scoop that may be used to
remove small drops of batter during the frying of tempura.
Dishes, foods, and culture
Main article: List of deep fried foods
List of fried dough foods
List of fried dough foods and List of Thai dishes
§ Deep-fried dishes
Deep-fried foods are common in many countries, and have also been
described as "a staple of almost all street cuisines on all
continents". There are hundreds of dishes that are associated with
deep frying as most foods can be deep-fried. Examples of food that can
be deep-fried include meat, poultry, fish and vegetables. Fish and
chips, for instance, combines deep-fried fish and deep-fried potatoes.
French fries, doughnuts, onion rings, and hushpuppies are common
deep-fried foods. Other common deep-fried foods include Chinese
You Bing deep-fried pancakes, Southeast Asian Jin deui, and
Japanese tempura. Less common deep-fried foods include maple
leaves, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, pizza, and
In the United States, the Chicago Tribune notes that "you can deep fry
almost anything". The American South has been noted as a modern
center of innovation in the area of deep-fried food. According to the
owner of a deep frying restaurant in the South, "If something is
edible, you can bet that someone south of the
Mason-Dixon line has
tried to cook it in oil".
French fries being cooked in a row of deep fryers
Deep-frying chicken in a pan
A deep-fried turkey
Breaded, deep-fried calamari
Deep fried pork intestines
In Northern Africa, deep-fried dishes are a part of the cuisine. A
common food in this region is the deep-fried fritter, also referred to
as "sponges". In areas of Southern Africa, street foods include
deep-fried potato and cassava chips. Deep-fried foods in the
country of South Africa include fish and chips, vetkoek and
koeksisters, among others.
Deep-fried insects for human consumption sold at food stall in
Japanese tempura is a popular deep-fried food that generally
consists of battered and fried seafood and vegetables. Japanese
deep-fried dishes, or Agemono, include other styles besides tempura,
such as Karaage, Korokke, Kushikatsu, and Tonkatsu. In areas of
south-east Asia such as Thailand, insects are commonly deep-fried for
human consumption. Western-style fast food items such as donuts,
deep-fried chicken, and deep-fried potatoes are also becoming popular
Deep-fried fish, tofu, and chả giò are commonly eaten in Vietnamese
Deep frying is also used to make several kinds of
bánh, including bánh rán (fried rice ball), bánh cam (sesame
ball), bánh tiêu (hollow doughnut), bánh rế (sweet potato
pancake), bánh chuối chiên (banana fritter), Hồ Tây–style
bánh tôm (shrimp fritter), and bánh gối (pillow cake).
Deep-fried sticks of dough, known as youtiao in Chinese, are eaten in
many East and Southeast Asian cuisines.
In Hong Kong, deep-fried intestine of pigs is a popular food. In South
Asia, popular deep fried snacks are samosa and pakora.
Fish and chips
Many countries in Europe use pure or hydrogenated rapeseed oil for
deep-frying. The deep-fried Mars bar originated in Scotland,
with The Carron Fish Bar in Stonehaven claiming to have invented it in
the early 1990s.
Fish and chips
Fish and chips is a very popular deep-fried dish
in England since it originated in London in the 19th century and
became popular among the working class. Its popularity continues with
229 million portions of fish and chips being sold annually in
There is an annual trade fair devoted to deep-fried foods called the
International Symposium on Deep-
Frying which features discussions
on deep fat frying as well as exhibitions by companies involved with
Belgian tradition requires
French fries to be deep-fried in filtered
fat of cattle, locally called blanc de boeuf or ossewit.
In the United States, soybean oil is often used for deep-frying.
Beignets, originally a French dish, are a popular deep-fried pastry in
the U.S. city of New Orleans. Deep-fried food has been a core part of
the culture of the American South with many restaurants solely serving
deep-fried foods. The owner of one such restaurant has said that the
deep-fried food, "in the South it's a way of life".
Fast food is
one of the most common ways to consume deep-fried food in North
Novelty deep-fried foods are popular today in American fairs,
especially those in the American South. Hundreds of items are
served at these fairs. Some of them include deep-fried beer, butter,
and bubblegum. Additionally, deep frying can be used as a form of
artwork by frying non-edible objects, such as electronics. Artists
such as Henry Hargreaves have deep-fried replicas of electronic items
such as iPads, Game Boys, and laptops.
Deep-fried food contests are frequently held at fairs such as the
Texas State Fair, where they hold an annual contest for the most
creative deep-fried food. Notable past winners have included fried
Coke and deep-fried butter, both invented by Abel Gonzales. Since
2013, an American reality competition show called deep-fried Masters,
produced by Discovery Networks, holds deep frying competitions at
several state fairs across the country.
Milk bars in Australia may purvey several types of deep-fried foods,
along with other food types.
The buñuelo, a fried dough ball popular in Central America and
Greece, is a popular deep-fried snack and street food in South
America. Picarone, a Peruvian dessert originated in the colonial
period, are deep-fried cakes made with pumpkin and sweet potatoes,
popular in Peru and Chile, especially during harvest festivals.
Overheating or over-using the frying oil leads to formation of
rancid-tasting products of oxidation, polymerization, and other
deleterious, unintended or even toxic compounds such as acrylamide
(from starchy foods). Recent research suggests fat deterioration may
be worse when fat or oil is fried with food than when fat or oil is
tested on its own in a laboratory. Deep-frying under vacuum helps
to significantly reduce acrylamide formation, but this process is
not widely used in the food industry due to the high investment cost
Some useful tests and indicators of excessive oil deterioration are
Sensory – darkening, smoke, foaming, thickening, rancid taste
and unpleasant smell when heating. This is the most unreliable way to
decide when to change oil because those are very individual factors
and can depend on different causes.
Testing strips – decide when to change oil depending on FFA
(free fatty acids) only
Oiltester – measurement tool to exactly define the point of
change oil by TPM/TPC (Total polar material/compounds)
Laboratory – acidity, anisidine value, viscosity, total polar
compounds, polymeric triglycerides.
Instruments that indicate total polar compounds, currently the best
single gauge of how deep-fried an object is, are available with
sufficient accuracy for restaurant and industry use.
When deep frying, fires can be very severe, with chip pan fires being
the leading cause of house fires in the United Kingdom.
Cooking oil is flammable, and fires may be caused by it igniting
at too high a temperature. Further, attempts to extinguish an
oil fire with water cause an extremely dangerous condition, a
boilover, as they cause the water to flash into steam due to the
high heat of the oil, in turn sending the burning oil in all
directions and thus aggravating the fire. This is the leading cause of
house fires in the United Kingdom. Instead, oil fires must be
extinguished with a non-water fire extinguisher or by smothering.
Other means of extinguishing an oil fire include application of dry
powder (e.g., baking soda, salt) or fire fighting foam. Most
commercial deep fryers are equipped with automatic fire suppression
systems using foam.
Spilled hot cooking oil can also cause severe third degree
burns, In the worst-case scenario, severe burns can be fatal.
The higher temperatures and tendency of oil to stick to the skin
make spilled hot cooking oil far more dangerous than spilled hot
water. Children can accidentally place their hands on top of the
stove, playing with the materials while being cooked, or accidentally
pull the pot down, which can cause significant injury. The utmost
care should be used when deep frying when children are present, to
protect their safety at all times.
A bin for spent cooking oil in Austin, Texas, managed by a recycling
Deep frying produces large amounts of waste oil, which must be
disposed of properly. Waste oil can overflow sewage systems, bind to
the walls of sewage pipes, and interfere with sewage treatment.
Waste oil from deep frying is increasingly being recycled and refined
Potatoes that are stored in artificially
humidified warehouses contain more water, which makes the time
required to deep fry them into chips longer. This increases the carbon
dioxide footprint of commercially producing chips because more energy
is required for frying over a longer time. According to one
source, an average home appliance deep fryer draws 2,000 watts.
The process of deep frying food is generally detrimental to its
nutritional value. The oils that foods absorb in their batter
typically contain large amounts of fats, especially saturated fats and
trans fats. Consumption of large amounts of saturated and trans fats
has been linked to a higher risk for some cancers including prostate
cancer. Eating deep-fried foods has also been linked to higher
cholesterol levels, obesity, heart attacks, and diabetes.
Deep-fried foods cooked at certain temperatures can also contain
acrylamide, a possible carcinogen. Additionally, fat degradation
processes (lipid peroxidation) during deep frying results in the loss
of nutritional value in deep-fried foods. Reused deep fried
cooking oil may in addition cause blood pressure elevation and
Some studies have found that deep frying in olive and sunflower oils
has been found to be less of a detriment to health and in some cases
have positive effects on insulin levels. Oil can be reused a few
times after original use after straining out solids. However,
excessive use of the same oil can cause it to break down and release
compounds into the food that may be carcinogenic, affect liver health,
or influence the body's ability to absorb vitamins. Some European
countries have set public health standards for the safety of frying
List of deep fried foods
List of fried dough foods
Recovery time (culinary)
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