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The De Candolle system is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
(1778−1841).

Contents

1 History 2 Systems

2.1 Flore française 2.2 Théorie élémentaire de la botanique 2.3 Prodromus

2.3.1 Subclassis I. THALAMIFLORÆ [Part I] 2.3.2 Subclassis II. CALYCIFLORÆ [Parts II - VII] 2.3.3 Subclassis III. COROLLIFLORÆ [Parts VIII - XIII(1)] 2.3.4 Subclassis IV. MONOCHLAMYDEÆ [Parts XIII(2) - XVI] 2.3.5 Other

3 References

3.1 Bibliography

History[edit] The first taxonomic system by de Candolle, who introduced the term taxonomy, appeared in his description of the plants of France, his Flore française (1805–1815), in 5 volumes dealing with plant species found in France. The De Candolle system is a subsequent taxonomic system.

It was originally published by de Candolle in the Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’etudier les végétaux (1813).[1] It was further developed and published in editions of the very extensive but unfinished Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (Prodromus) (1824–1873), dealing only with dicotyledons.[2]

The abbreviation Syst. in de Candolle's work and subsequent literature refers to his Regni vegetabilis systema naturale. Systems[edit] The De Candolle system recognises the following groups of vascular plants (references to Prodromus). Within the Prodromus he cross references his earlier Regni vegetabilis systema naturale. A general schema is laid out in the Regnii vegetabilis pp. 117–122, as follows:[3] Plantae Vasculares seu Cotyledoneae DC.[4]

classis I. DICOTYLEDONEÆ seu Exogenae [Part 1 p. 1]

subclassis 1. THALAMIFLORÆ [Part I] subclassis 2. CALYCIFLORÆ [Parts II - VII] subclassis 3. COROLLIFLORÆ [Parts VIII - XIII(1)] subclassis 4. MONOCHLAMYDEÆ [Parts XIII(2) - XVI]

classis II. MONOCOTYLEDONEÆ

Flore française[edit]

Vol I

Table of genera p. 57 Introduction (also published separately): Principes élémentaires de botanique p. 61ff.[5]

Vol II

Class I: Acotylédones p. 1

11 families

Family 11: Nayades

Vol III[6]

Class II: Monocotylédonés Phanérogames p. 1

Family 12: Gramineae
Gramineae
p. 1 Family 13: Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
p. 99 Family 14: Typhaceae
Typhaceae
p. 147 Family 15: Aroideae
Aroideae
p. 150 Family 16: Junceae
Junceae
p. 155 Family 17: Asparageae
Asparageae
p. 172 Family 18: Alismaceae
Alismaceae
p. 181 Family 19: Colchicaceae
Colchicaceae
p. 192 Family 20: Liliaceae
Liliaceae
p. 198[7]

Ordre I: Liliacées p. 199 Ordre II: Asphodèles p. 204 Ordre III: Narcisses p. 229

Family 21: Irideae
Irideae
p. 235 Family 22: Orchideae
Orchideae
p. 243 Family 23: Hydrocharideae
Hydrocharideae
p. 265

Class III: Dicotylédonés p. 269

Vol IV - 2 parts Vol V[8] Théorie élémentaire de la botanique[edit] List of De Candolle system families recognized in the Théorie élémentaire de la botanique (1813), on page 213:[1]

I. VÉGÉTAUX VASCULAIRES OU COTYLÉDONÉS p. 213 (113 families)

1. Exogènes ou dicotylédones p. 213 2. Endogènes ou monocotylédonés p. 219

A. Phanérogames p. 219 (21 families)

114. Cycadées p. 219 124. Amaryllidées 128. Liliacées

1. Asparagées 2. Trilliacées 3. Asphodelées 4. Bromeliées 5. Tulipacées

135. Graminées

B. Cryptogames p. 220 (4 families)

II. VÉGÉTAUX CELLULAIRES OU ACOTYLÉDONÉS p. 220 (6 families)

Prodromus[edit] The De Candolle system families were further developed in the Prodromus (1824–1873).[2] Note that this system was published well before there were internationally accepted rules for botanical nomenclature. Here, a family is indicated as "ordo". Terminations for families were not what they are now. Neither of these phenomena is a problem from a nomenclatural perspective, the present day ICBN
ICBN
provides for this. Within the dicotyledons ("classis prima DICOTYLEDONEÆ") the De Candolle system recognises (Pagination from Prodromus, 17 Parts) the list:[2] Subclassis I. THALAMIFLORÆ [Part I][edit]

ordo I. RANUNCULACEÆ (Page 1) ordo II. DILLENIACEÆ (Page 67) ordo III. MAGNOLIACEÆ (Page 77) ordo IV. ANONACEÆ [sic] (Page 83) ordo V. MENISPERMACEÆ (Page 95) ordo VI. BERBERIDEÆ ordo VII. PODOPHYLLACEÆ ordo VIII. NYMPHÆACEÆ ordo VIIIbis. SARRACENIACEÆ ordo IX. PAPAVERACEÆ ordo X. FUMARIACEÆ ordo XIbis. RESEDACEÆ ordo XI. CRUCIFERÆ ordo XII. CAPPARIDEÆ ordo XIII. FLACOURTIANEÆ ordo XIV. BIXINEÆ ordo XIVbis. LACISTEMACEÆ ordo XV. CISTINEÆ ordo XVI. VIOLARIEÆ ordo XVII. DROSERACEÆ ordo XVIII. POLYGALACEÆ ordo XIX. TREMANDREÆ ordo XX. PITTOSPOREÆ ordo XXI. FRANKENIACEÆ ordo XXII. CARYOPHYLLEÆ ordo XXIII. LINEÆ ordo XXIV. MALVACEÆ ordo XXV. BOMBACEÆ [sic] ordo XXVI. BYTTNERIACEÆ ordo XXVII. TILIACEÆ ordo XXVIII. ELÆOCARPEÆ ordo XXIX. CHLENACEÆ ordo XXIXbis. ANCISTROCLADEÆ ordo XXIXter. DIPTEROCARPEÆ ordo XXIXter.[sic] LOPHIRACEÆ ordo XXX. TERNSTROEMIACEÆ ordo XXXI. CAMELLIEÆ ordo XXXII. OLACINEÆ ordo XXXIII. AURANTIACEÆ ordo XXXIV. HYPERICINEÆ ordo XXXV. GUTTIFERÆ ordo XXXVI. MARCGRAVIACEÆ ordo XXXVII. HIPPOCRATEACEÆ ordo XXXVIII. ERYTHROXYLEÆ ordo XXXIX. MALPIGHIACEÆ ordo XL. ACERINEÆ ordo XLI. HIPPOCASTANEÆ ordo XLII. RHIZOBOLEÆ ordo XLIII. SAPINDACEÆ ordo XLIV. MELIACEÆ ordo XLV. AMPELIDEÆ ordo XLVI. GERANIACEÆ ordo XLVII. TROPÆOLEÆ ordo XLVIII. BALSAMINEÆ ordo XLIX. OXALIDEÆ ordo L. ZYGOPHYLLEÆ ordo LI. RUTACEÆ ordo LII. SIMARUBEÆ [sic] ordo LIII. OCHNACEÆ ordo LIV. CORIARIEÆ (Page 739)

(Index to Part I p. 741) Subclassis II. CALYCIFLORÆ [Parts II - VII][edit]

ordo LV. CELASTRINEÆ [Part II],(Page 2) ordo LVI. RHAMNEÆ ordo LVII. BRUNIACEÆ ordo LVIII. SAMYDEÆ ordo LIX. HOMALINEÆ ordo LX. CHAILLETIACEÆ ordo LXI. AQUILARINEÆ ordo LXII. TEREBINTHACEÆ ordo LXIII. LEGUMINOSÆ ordo LXIV. ROSACEÆ (Page 525) ordo LXV. CALYCANTHEÆ [Part III], (Page 1) ordo LXVbis. MONIMIACEÆ ordo LXVI. GRANATEÆ ordo LXVII. MEMECYLEÆ ordo LXVIII. COMBRETACEÆ ordo LXIX. VOCHYSIEÆ ordo LXX RHIZOPHOREÆ ordo LXXI. ONAGRARIEÆ ordo LXXII. HALORAGEÆ ordo LXXIII. CERATOPHYLLEÆ ordo LXXIV. LYTHRARIEÆ ordo LXXIVbis. CRYPTERONIACEÆ ordo LXXV. TAMARISCINEÆ ordo LXXVI. MELASTOMACEÆ ordo LXXVII. ALANGIEÆ ordo LXXVIII. PHILADELPEÆ ordo LXXIX. MYRTACEÆ ordo LXXX. CUCURBITACEÆ ordo LXXXI. PASSIFLOREÆ ordo LXXXII. LOASEÆ ordo LXXXIII. TURNERACEÆ ordo LXXXIV. FOUQUIERACEÆ ordo LXXXV. PORTULACEÆ ordo LXXXVI. PARONYCHIEÆ ordo LXXXVII. CRASSULACEÆ ordo LXXXVIII. FICOIDEÆ (Page 415) ordo LXXXIX. CACTEÆ ordo XC. GROSSULARIEÆ ordo XCI. SAXIFRAGACEÆ [Part IV], (Page 1) ordo XCII. UMBELLIFERÆ ordo XCIII. ARALIACEÆ ordo XCIV. HAMAMELIDEÆ ordo XCV. CORNEÆ ordo XCVbis. HELWINGIACEÆ ordo XCVI. LORANTHACEÆ ordo XCVII. CAPRIFOLIACEÆ ordo XCVIII. RUBIACEÆ ordo XCIX. VALERIANEÆ ordo C. DIPSACEÆ (Page 643) ordo CI. CALYCEREÆ [Part V], (Page 1) ordo CII. COMPOSITÆ (Page 4); [Part VI], (Page 1); [Part VII], (Page 1) ordo CIII. STYLIDIEÆ [Part VII] ordo CIV. LOBELIACEÆ ordo CV. CAMPANULACEÆ ordo CVI. CYPHIACEÆ ordo CVII. GOODENOVIEÆ ordo CVIII. ROUSSÆACEÆ ordo CIX. GESNERIACEÆ ordo CX. SPHENOCLEACEÆ ordo CXI. COLUMELLIACEÆ ordo CXII. NAPOLEONEÆ ordo CXIII. VACCINIEÆ ordo CXIV. ERICACEÆ (Page 580) (Four tribes)

Arbuteae (Page 580) Andromedae (Page 588) Ericeae (Page 612) Rhodoreae (Page 712) (Two subtribes)

Rhododendreae (712) (Nine genera)

Rhododendron (719) (Six sections)

Buramia (720) Hymenanthes (721) Eurhododendron (721) Pogonanthum (725) Chamaecistus (725) Tsutsusi (726)

Kalmia (728)

Ledeae (729)

ordo CXV. EPACRIDEÆ (Page 734) ordo CXVI. PYROLACEÆ ordo CXVII. FRANCOACEÆ ordo CXVIII. MONOTROPEÆ (Page 779)

Subclassis III. COROLLIFLORÆ [Parts VIII - XIII(1)][edit]

ordo CXIX. LENTIBULARIEÆ (Page 1) ordo CXX. PRIMULACEÆ ordo CXXI. MYRSINEACEÆ ordo CXXII. ÆGICERACEÆ ordo CXXIII. THEOPHRASTACEÆ ordo CXXIV. SAPOTACEÆ ordo CXXV. EBENACEÆ ordo CXXVI. STYRACACEÆ ordo CXXVII. OLEACEÆ ordo CXXVIIbis. SALVADORACEÆ ordo CXXVIII. JASMINEÆ ordo CXXIX. APOCYNACEÆ ordo CXXX. ASCLEPIADEÆ (Page 460) ordo CXXX[a?] LEONIACEÆ ordo CXXXI. LOGANIACEÆ [Part IX], (Page 1) ordo CXXXII. GENTIANACEÆ ordo CXXXIII. BIGNONIACEÆ ordo CXXXIV. SESAMEÆ ordo CXXXV. CYRTANDRACEÆ ordo CXXXVI. HYDROPHYLLACEÆ ordo CXXXVII. POLEMONIACEÆ ordo CXXXVII. [sic] CONVOLVULACEÆ ordo CXXXVIII. ERICYBEÆ ordo CXXXIX. BORRAGINEÆ [sic] (Page 466); [Part X], (Page 1) ordo CXL. HYDROLEACEÆ ordo CXLII. SCROPHULARIACEÆ (Page 186) ordo CXLII(I).[sic] SOLANACEÆ [Part XIII (1)], (Pages 1 – 692) out of sequence ordo CXLIV. OROBRANCHACEÆ [Part XI], (Page 1) ordo CXLV. ACANTHACEÆ ordo CXLVI. PHRYMACEÆ ordo CXLVII VERBENACEÆ ordo CXLVIII MYOPORACEÆ (Page 701) ordo CXLIX SELAGINACEÆ [Part XII], (Page 1) ordo CL. LABIATÆ ordo CLI. STILBACEÆ ordo CLII. GLOBULARIACEÆ ordo CLIII. BRUNONIACEÆ ordo CLIV. PLUMBAGINEÆ (Page 617) ordo CLV.[?] PLANTAGINACEÆ [Part XIII], (Page 693)

Subclassis IV. MONOCHLAMYDEÆ [Parts XIII(2) - XVI][edit]

ordo CLVI. PHYTOLACCACEÆ (Page 2) ordo CLVII. SALSOLACEÆ ordo CLVIII. BASELLACEÆ ordo CLIX. AMARANTACEÆ [sic] ordo CLX. NYCTAGINACEÆ (Page 425) ordo CLXI. POLYGONACEÆ [Part XIV], (Pages 1 – 186) ordo CLXII. LAURACEÆ [Part XIV], (Page 186); [Part XV(1)], (Pages 1 – 260) out of sequence ordo CLXIII. MYRISTICACEÆ (Page 187) ordo CLXIV. PROTEACEÆ (Page 209) ordo CLXV. PENÆACEÆ ordo CLXVI. GEISSOLOMACEÆ (Page 491) ordo CLXVII. THYMELÆACEÆ ordo CLXVIII. ELÆAGNACEÆ ordo CLXIX. GRUBBIACEÆ ordo CLXX. SANTALACEÆ (Page 619) ordo CLXXI. HERNANDIACEÆ [Part XV(1)], (Page 1) ordo CLXXII. BEGONIACEÆ ordo CLXXIII. DATISCACEÆ ordo CLXXIV. PAPAYACEÆ ordo CLXXV. ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ ordo CLXXVbis. NEPENTHACEÆ ordo CLXXVI. STACKHOUSIACEÆ (Page 419) [sic] ordo CLXXVIII. EUPHORBIACEÆ [Part XV(2)], (Page 1) ordo CLXXIX. DAPHNIPHYLLACEÆ [Part XVI(1)], (Page 1) ordo CLXXX. BUXACEÆ ordo CLXXXbis. BATIDACEÆ ordo CLXXXI. EMPETRACEÆ ordo CLXXXII. CANNABINEÆ ordo CLXXXIII. ULMACEÆ ordo CLXXXIIIbis. MORACEÆ ordo CLXXXIV. ARTOCARPEÆ ordo CLXXXV. URTICACEÆ ordo CLXXXVI. PIPERACEÆ [sic] ordo CLXXXVIII. CHLORANTHACEÆ ordo CLXXXIX. GARRYACEÆ (Page 486) ordo CXC. CUPULIFERÆ [Part XVI(2)], (Page 1) ordo CXCI. CORYLACEÆ (Page 124) ordo CXCII. JUGLANDEÆ (Page 134) ordo CXCIII. MYRICACEÆ (Page 147) ordo CXCIV. PLATANACEÆ ordo CXCV. BETULACEÆ (Page 161) ordo CXCVI. SALICINEÆ (Page 190) ordo CXCVII CASUARINEÆ (Page 332)

Other[edit] Somewhat inconsistently the Prodromus also treats:

GYMNOSPERMÆ [Part XVI(2)], (Page 345)

ordo CXCVIII. GNETACEÆ (Page 347) ordo CXCIX. CONIFERÆ (Page 361) ordo CC. CYCADACEÆ (Pages 522 - 547)

incertæ sedis

ordo (dubiæ affin.) LENNOACEÆ ordo (affin. dubiæ) PODOSTEMACEÆ ordo num.? CYTINACEÆ ordo incertae sedis BALANOPHORACEÆ

(Overall Index Part XVII Page 323) References[edit]

^ a b de Candolle 1819. ^ a b c de Candolle 1824–1873. ^ de Candolle 1818–1821, pp. 117–122. ^ de Candolle 1824–1873, p. 1. ^ de Lamarck
Lamarck
& de Candolle 1805. ^ de Lamarck
Lamarck
& de Candolle 1815a. ^ de Lamarck
Lamarck
& de Candolle 1815a, Liliaceae
Liliaceae
p. 198 ^ de Lamarck
Lamarck
& de Candolle 1815b.

Bibliography[edit]

Buek, H.W. (1840–1874). Genera, species et synonyma Candolleana: alphabetico ordine disposita, seu Index generalis et specialis ad A.P. Decandolle, Prodromum systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. Berlin: Sumptibus librariae Nauckianae.  de Candolle, Augustin Pyramus (1818–1821). Regni vegetabilis systema naturale, sive Ordines, genera et species plantarum secundum methodi naturalis normas digestarum et descriptarum 2 vols. Paris: Treuttel et Würtz.  de Candolle, AP (1819) [1813]. Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’etudier les végétaux (2nd ed.).  de Candolle, AP (1824–1873). Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta.  (also available online at Gallica) de Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste; de Candolle, Augustin Pyramus (1815a). Flore française ou descriptions succinctes de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en France disposées selon une nouvelle méthode d'analyse ; et précédées par un exposé des principes élémentaires de la botanique (vol. III) (3 ed.). Paris: Desray. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 

de Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste; de Candolle, Augustin Pyramus (1805). Principes élémentaires de botanique et de physique végétale (extract) (3 ed.). Paris: Desray. 

de Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste; de Candolle, Augustin Pyramus (1815b). Flore française ou descriptions succinctes de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en France disposées selon une nouvelle méthode d'analyse ; et précédées par un exposé des principes élémentaires de la botanique (vol. V) (3 ed.). Paris: Desray. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.