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David[a] is described in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. In the biblical narrative, David
David
is a young shepherd who first gains fame as a musician and later by killing Goliath. He becomes a favorite of King Saul
Saul
and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David
David
is trying to take his throne, Saul
Saul
turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David
David
is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul. As king, David
David
arranges the death of Uriah the Hittite
Uriah the Hittite
to cover his adultery with Bathsheba. According to the same biblical text, God
God
denies David
David
the opportunity to build the temple and his son, Absalom, tries to overthrow him. David
David
flees Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during Absalom's rebellion, but after Absalom's death he returns to the city to rule Israel. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon
Solomon
as his successor. He is mentioned in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and an ancestor of a future Messiah, and many psalms are ascribed to him. Historians of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
agree that David
David
probably existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. There is no direct evidence outside of the Bible
Bible
concerning David, but the Tel Dan
Tel Dan
Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד‬, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
historians generally doubt that the united monarchy as described in the Bible
Bible
existed. David
David
is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, and is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus
Jesus
in light of the references to the Messiah
Messiah
and to David; Jesus
Jesus
is described as being descended from David. David
David
is discussed in the Quran
Quran
and figures in Islamic oral and written tradition as well. The biblical character of David
David
has inspired many interpretations in fictional literature over centuries.

Contents

1 Biblical account

1.1 Family 1.2 Narrative 1.3 Intertextuality in the Hebrew Bible

2 History and archeology 3 History of interepretation in the Abrahamic religions

3.1 Rabbinic Judaism 3.2 Christianity

3.2.1 Middle Ages

3.3 Islam

4 Art and literature

4.1 Literature 4.2 Paintings 4.3 Sculptures 4.4 Film 4.5 Music 4.6 Musical theater 4.7 Television 4.8 Playing cards

5 Image gallery 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

Biblical account Family

David
David
raises the head of Goliath
Goliath
as illustrated by Josephine Pollard (1899)

The first book of Samuel
Samuel
portrays David
David
as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse
Jesse
of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud
Talmud
identifies her as Nitzevet
Nitzevet
daughter of Adael.[2] When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail. The Book of Ruth
Book of Ruth
(possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite. David
David
is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage.[3] He is described as having eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail
Abigail
the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal; Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba. The Book of Chronicles
Book of Chronicles
lists his sons with his various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David
David
had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah.[4] By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada.[5] Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is a key character in the incident of her rape by one of her half-brothers. Narrative

Samuel
Samuel
anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE

God
God
is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice[6] and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill all of the Amalekites, but to destroy also their confiscated property.[7] Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel
Samuel
to anoint a shepherd, David, the youngest son of Jesse
Jesse
of Bethlehem, to be king instead.[8] God
God
sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul's courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David
David
enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king.[9] War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites
Israelites
to send out a champion to face him in single combat.[10] David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath.[11] Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour,[12] he kills Goliath
Goliath
with his sling.[13] Saul
Saul
inquires the name of the young hero's father.[14]

Saul
Saul
threatening David, by José Leonardo

Saul
Saul
sets David
David
over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul
Saul
to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?").[15] Saul
Saul
plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David
David
sees that he is in danger there.[16] He goes next to the cave of Adullam, where his family join him.[17] From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth,[18] and then to Keilah, where he is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul
Saul
plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David
David
leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants.[19] From there he takes refuge in the mountainous Wilderness of Ziph.[20] Jonathan meets with David
David
again and confirms his loyalty to David
David
as the future king. The people of Ziph notify Saul
Saul
that David
David
is taking refuge in their territory, Saul
Saul
seeks confirmation and plans to capture David
David
in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David
David
is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi.[21] Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul
Saul
heads to Ein Gedi
Ein Gedi
in pursuit of David
David
and enters the cave where, as it happens, David
David
and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his needs". David
David
realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe and when Saul
Saul
has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul
Saul
as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul
Saul
recognises David
David
as his successor.[22] Alternatively, or (in the opinion of some commentators) subsequently,[23] Saul
Saul
and David
David
were reconciled following a similar occurrence when David
David
was able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lay asleep. In this account ( 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26), David
David
is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David
David
declines, saying he will not "stretch out [his] hand against the Lord’s anointed".[24] David
David
shows, by removing Saul's spear, that he had chance to take Saul's life but did not do so. Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David, blesses him and promises that he "will do great things and surely triumph".[25] David prays that his own protection will be like his protection of Saul. The New King James Version
New King James Version
and the New International Version
New International Version
both identify this episode as a second reconciliation between Saul
Saul
and David[26] (with no account of any intervening dispute) but theologian Albert Barnes says the incident "is of a nature unlikely to have occurred more than once". This, it seems, was their last interview; after this they saw each other no more.[27] A different tradition is recalled in 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
27:1–4, namely that Saul
Saul
ceased to pursue David
David
because David
David
took refuge a second time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath.[28] Robert Jamieson, in the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible
Bible
Commentary, suggests that Saul
Saul
and David had "become irreconcilable" despite the reconciliations described in 1 Samuel
Samuel
24 and 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26.[29] Achish permits David
David
to reside in Ziklag, close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites, but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites
Israelites
in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the Kenites. Achish believes that David
David
had become a loyal vassal, but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath and at their request Achish instructs David
David
to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines
Philistines
march against Saul.[30] David
David
returns to Ziklag.[31] Jonathan and Saul
Saul
are killed in battle,[32] and David
David
is anointed king over Judah.[33] In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth
Ish-Bosheth
is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth
Ish-Bosheth
is murdered.[34] With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron
Hebron
and David
David
is anointed king over all of Israel.[35] He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital.[36] He brings the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
to the city,[37] intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of his sons.[38] Nathan also prophesies that God
God
has made a covenant with the house of David stating, "your throne shall be established forever".[39] David
David
wins additional victories over the Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah, after which they become tributaries.[40]

David
David
staring at Bathsheba
Bathsheba
bathing

During a siege against the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David
David
remains in Jerusalem. He spies a woman, Bathsheba, bathing on a nearby rooftop and summons her; she becomes pregnant.[41][42][43] The text in the Bible
Bible
does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba
Bathsheba
consented or not for sex.[44][45][46] David
David
calls her husband, Uriah the Hittite, back from the battle to rest, hoping that he will go home to his wife and the child will be presumed to be his. Uriah does not visit his wife, however, so David
David
conspires to have him killed in the heat of battle. David
David
then marries the widowed Bathsheba.[47] In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that will fall upon him, stating "the sword shall never depart from your house."[48] When David
David
acknowledges that he has sinned,[49] Nathan advises him that his sin is forgiven and he will not die,[50] but the child will.[51] In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son Absalom
Absalom
rebels.[52] Absalom's forces are routed at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, and he is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree where, contrary to David's order, he is killed by Joab, the commander of David's army.[53] David
David
laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"[54] until Joab
Joab
persuades him to recover from "the extravagance of his grief"[55] and to fulfil his duty to his people.[56] David
David
returns to Gilgal
Gilgal
and is escorted across the River Jordan
River Jordan
and back to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.[57] When David
David
is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king.[58] Bathsheba
Bathsheba
and Nathan go to David
David
and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son Solomon
Solomon
as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down.[59] David
David
dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years,[60] and on his deathbed counsels Solomon
Solomon
to walk in the ways of God
God
and to take revenge on his enemies.[61] Intertextuality in the Hebrew Bible

David
David
Composing the Psalms, Paris Psalter
Paris Psalter
10th century[62]

The Book of Samuel
Book of Samuel
calls David
David
a skillful harp (lyre) player[63] and "the sweet psalmist of Israel."[64] Yet, while almost half of the Psalms
Psalms
are headed "A Psalm of David" (also translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life (e.g., Psalms
Psalms
3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142),[65] the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David
David
with certainty.[66] Psalm 34
Psalm 34
is attributed to David
David
on the occasion of his escape from Abimelech
Abimelech
(or King Achish) by pretending to be insane.[67] According to the parallel narrative in 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech
Abimelech
allows David
David
to depart, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"[68] History and archeology

The Tel Dan
Tel Dan
Stele

The Tel Dan
Tel Dan
Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase ביתדוד‬, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David".[69] Other scholars, such as Anson Rainey
Anson Rainey
have challenged this reading,[70][71] but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
which traced its ancestry to a founder named David.[69] The Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele
from Moab, dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David
David
in two places, although this is less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan
Tel Dan
inscription.[72] Apart from these, all that is known of David
David
comes from the biblical literature. The Books of Samuel
Books of Samuel
were substantially composed during the time of King Josiah
Josiah
at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
(6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE, although further editing was done even after then—the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel
Samuel
in 1 Samuel
Samuel
9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period".[73] The authors and editors of Samuel
Samuel
drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" ( 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
16:14–2 Samuel
Samuel
5:10), and the "succession narrative" (2 Samuel
Samuel
9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2).[74] The Book of Chronicles, which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel
Samuel
as its source.[75] The authors and editors of Samuel
Samuel
and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David
David
that is concrete and undisputed.[76] The archaeological evidence indicates that in the 10th century BCE, the time of David, Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was no more than a small village; over the following century it slowly evolved from a highland chiefdom to a kingdom, but always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north.[77] The biblical evidence likewise indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him negid, for example, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than melek, meaning "king"; the biblical David
David
sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around Hebron.[78] Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. The late John Bright, in his History of Israel (1981), takes Samuel
Samuel
at face value. Donald B. Redford, however, sees all reconstructions from biblical sources for the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
period as examples of "academic wishful thinking".[79] Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative: "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel
Samuel
and I Kings."[80] Amihai Mazar
Amihai Mazar
however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Dan, Tel Rehov, Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
can be described as a "state in development".[81] Some studies of David
David
have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David
David
as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath;[82] Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel
Samuel
those chapters which describe David
David
as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and makes it his capital.[83] Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
at Rhodes College
Rhodes College
and author of King David: A Biography, states the belief that David
David
actually came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons.[66] Critical Bible
Bible
scholarship holds that the biblical account of David's rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.[84] Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and Neil Asher Silberman reject the idea that David ruled over a united monarchy, suggesting instead that he ruled only as a chieftain over the southern kingdom of Judah, much smaller than the northern kingdom of Israel at that time.[85] They posit that Israel and Judah were still polytheistic in the time of David
David
and Solomon, and that much later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs.[86] They note a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel.[87][88][89] Jacob
Jacob
L. Wright, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
at Emory University, has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods.[90] History of interepretation in the Abrahamic religions Rabbinic Judaism David
David
is an important figure in Rabbinic Judaism. Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David
David
was raised as the son of his father Jesse
Jesse
and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. David's adultery with Bathsheba
Bathsheba
was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud
Talmud
states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King.[91] However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David
David
expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God
God
ultimately forgave David
David
and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
but would not remove their sins from Scripture.[92] According to midrashim, Adam
Adam
gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David.[93] Also, according to the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, David
David
was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot
Shavuot
(Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven. Christianity

King David
David
the Prophet

King David
David
in Prayer, by Pieter de Grebber
Pieter de Grebber
(c. 1640)

Holy Monarch, Prophet, Reformer, Spiritual Poet and Musician, Vicegerent of God, Psalm-Receiver

Born Bethlehem

Died Jerusalem

Venerated in Judaism Christianity Islam

Feast December 29 – Roman Catholicism

Attributes Psalms, Harp, Head of Goliath

See also: Genealogy of Jesus The concept of the Messiah
Messiah
is important in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah
Messiah
had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus
Jesus
"by means of the titles and functions assigned to David
David
in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God
God
and man".[94] The early Church believed that "the life of David
David
[foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem
Bethlehem
is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David
David
points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath
Goliath
are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah."[95] In the Middle Ages, " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him".[96] The linking of David
David
to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus. Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December.[97] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet
Prophet
and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast
Great Feast
of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord. Middle Ages

Coat of arms attributed to King David
David
by mediaeval heralds[98] (identical to the arms of Ireland)

In European Christian culture
Christian culture
of the Middle Ages, David
David
was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David
David
in the Nine Worthies
Nine Worthies
was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors. David
David
was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David
David
was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers.[99] The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty
Solomonic dynasty
of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him.[100] Likewise, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne
Charlemagne
himself occasionally used the name of David
David
as his pseudonym.[99] Islam Main article: David
David
in Islam David
David
( Arabic
Arabic
داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God
God
to guide the Israelites. David
David
is mentioned several times in the Quran, often with his son Solomon. The actual Arabic
Arabic
equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd. In the Qur'an: David
David
killed Goliath
Goliath
(2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David
David
killed Goliath, God
God
granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (38:20). David
David
was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (38:26) and God
God
further gave David
David
sound judgment (21:78; 37:21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms, regarded as books of divine wisdom (4:163; 17:55). The birds and mountains united with David
David
in uttering praise to God
God
(21:79; 34:10; 38:18), while God
God
made iron soft for David
David
(34:10), God
God
also instructed David
David
in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (21:80); an indication of the first use of Wrought iron, this knowledge gave David
David
a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David
David
gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (21:78) and David
David
judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David
David
did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative.[101] Muslim
Muslim
tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting.[102] Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets
Stories of the Prophets
elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms
Psalms
as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.[103] Art and literature Literature

David
David
mourning the death of Absalom, by Gustave Doré

Literary works about David
David
include:

1681–82 Dryden's long poem Absalom
Absalom
and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom
Absalom
against King David
David
as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion
Monmouth Rebellion
(1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis. 1893 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
may have used the story of David
David
and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
as a foundation for the Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. Holmes mentions "the small affair of Uriah and Bathsheba" at the end of the story.[104] 1928 Elmer Davis's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the biblical story of David, casting David
David
as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath
Goliath
but David
David
claimed the credit; and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead. 1936 William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom!
Absalom, Absalom!
refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon. 1946 Gladys Schmitt's novel David
David
the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character. 1966 Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career. 1970 Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon. 1972 Stefan Heym
Stefan Heym
wrote The King David
David
Report in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time. 1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann's biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan
David and Jonathan
are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it. 1980 Malachi
Malachi
Martin's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David
David
relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon. 1984 Joseph Heller
Joseph Heller
wrote a novel based on David
David
called God
God
Knows, published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David
David
as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible. 1993 Madeleine L'Engle's novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God
God
through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga. 1995 Allan Massie wrote King David, a novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan as sexual.[105] 2015 Geraldine Brooks wrote a novel about King David, The Secret Chord , told from the point of view of the prophet Nathan.[106][107]

Paintings

1599 Caravaggio
Caravaggio
David
David
and Goliath c. 1619 Caravaggio, David
David
and Goliath

Sculptures

David
David
by Michelangelo

1440? Donatello
Donatello
David 1501–04 Michelangelo, David

Film David
David
has been depicted several times in films; these are some of the best-known:

1951 In David
David
and Bathsheba, directed by Henry King, Gregory Peck played David. 1959 In Solomon
Solomon
and Sheba, directed by King Vidor, Finlay Currie played an aged King David. 1961 In A Story of David, directed by Bob McNaught, Jeff Chandler played David. 1985 In King David, directed by Bruce Beresford, Richard Gere
Richard Gere
played King David. This film was poorly received by critics and failed at the box office. 1996 In Dave and the Giant Pickle 2016 In Of Kings and Prophets

Music

The traditional birthday song Las Mañanitas mentions King David
David
as the original singer in its lyrics. 1738 George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul
Saul
features David
David
as one of its main characters.[108] 1921 Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David
David
with a libretto by René Morax, instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire. 1983 Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
refers to David
David
in his song "Jokerman" ("Michelangelo indeed could've carved out your features").[109] 1984 Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" has references to David
David
("there was a secret chord that David
David
played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba
Bathsheba
("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses. 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David
David
("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs"). 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting's the album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba
Bathsheba
from David's perspective.[110] 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat
Little Feat
album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath
Goliath
and contains a lament to Absalom
Absalom
as a bridge.[111]

Musical theater

1997 King David, sometimes described as a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim Rice
Tim Rice
and music by Alan Menken.

Television

1997 David, a TV-film with Nathaniel Parker
Nathaniel Parker
as King David
David
and Leonard Nimoy as the Prophet
Prophet
Samuel.[112] 1997 Max von Sydow
Max von Sydow
portrayed an older King David
David
in the TV-film Solomon, a sequel to David.[113] 2009 Christopher Egan
Christopher Egan
played David
David
on Kings, a re-imagining loosely based on the biblical story.[114] 2013 Langley Kirkwood portrayed King David
David
in the miniseries The Bible.

Playing cards For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of Spades
King of Spades
was often known as "David".[115][116] Image gallery

Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor, 1866.

Miniature from the Paris Psalter: David
David
in the robes of a Byzantine emperor.

Matteo Rosselli
Matteo Rosselli
The triumphant David.

Rembrandt, c. 1650: Saul
Saul
and David.

Arnold Zadikow, 1930: The Young David
David
displayed in the entrance of Berlin's Jewish Museum from 1933 until its loss during the Second World War.

King David, stained glass windows from the Romanesque Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century.

See also

Saints portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal Latter Day Saints portal

David
David
in Islam Large Stone Structure David's Tomb David's Mighty Warriors Midrash Shmuel (aggadah) Kings of Israel and Judah Davidic line David
David
and Jonathan

References Notes

^ (/ˈdeɪvɪd/; Hebrew: דָּוִד‬‬, Modern David, Tiberian Dawēḏ (Dawîḏ); Ancient Greek: Δαυίδ, translit. Davíd; Latin: Davidus, David; Ge'ez: ዳዊት, Dawit; Old Armenian: Դաւիթ, Dawitʿ; Church Slavonic: Давíдъ, Davidŭ; possibly meaning "beloved one"[1])

Citations

^ G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren (1977). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8028-2327-4.  ^ Talmud
Talmud
Tractate Bava Batra 91a ^ Lemaire, Andre. in Ancient Israel, (Hershel Shanks, ed.), Biblical Archaeology Society; Revised edition (1999), ISBN 978-1880317549 ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1–3 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
5:14–16 ^ 1 Sam 13:8–14 ^ 1 Sam 15:1–28 ^ 1 Sam 16:1–13 ^ 1 Sam 16:14–23 ^ 1 Sam 17:1–11 ^ 1 Sam 17:17–37 ^ 1 Sam 17:38–39 ^ 1 Sam 17:49–50 ^ 1 Sam 17:55–56 ^ 1 Sam 18:5–9 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
21:10–11 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
22:1 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
22:5 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
23:1–13 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
23:14 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
23:27–29 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
24:1–22 ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F., Cambridge Bible
Bible
for Schools and Colleges on 1 Samuel, Note VII, accessed 31 May 2017 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26:11 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26:25, NIV text ^ " Bible
Bible
Gateway passage: 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26 - New King James Version". Bible Gateway.  ^ Barnes' Notes on 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
26, accessed 27 May 2017 ^ cf. 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
21:10–15 ^ Jamieson, R., Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
on 1 Samuel 27, accessed 31 May 2017 ^ 1 Sam 29:1–11 ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
30:1 ^ 1 Sam 31:1–13 ^ 2 Sam 2:1–4 ^ 2 Sam 2:8–11 ^ 2 Sam 5:1–3 ^ 2 Sam 5:6–7 ^ 2 Sam 6:1–12 ^ 2 Sam 7:1–13 ^ 2 Sam 7:16 ^ 2 Sam 8:1–14 ^ Lawrence O. Richards (2002). Bible
Bible
Reader's Companion. David
David
C Cook. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-0-7814-3879-7.  ^ Carlos Wilton (June 2004). Lectionary Preaching Workbook: For All Users of the Revised Common, the Roman Catholic, and the Episcopal Lectionaries. Series VIII. CSS Publishing. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-7880-2371-2.  ^ David
David
J. Zucker (10 December 2013). The Bible's Prophets: An Introduction for Christians and Jews. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-1-63087-102-4.  ^ Antony F. Campbell (2005). 2 Samuel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2813-2.  ^ Sara M. Koenig (8 November 2011). Isn't This Bathsheba?: A Study in Characterization. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-60899-427-4.  ^ Antony F. Campbell (2004). Joshua
Joshua
to Chronicles: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-664-25751-4.  ^ 2 Sam 11:14–17 ^ Some commentators believe this meant during David's lifetime. Others say it included his posterity. 2 Sam 12:8-12:10 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
12:13 ^ Adultery was a capital crime under Mosaic law: Leviticus 20:10 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
12:14: NIV translation ^ 2 Sam 15:1–12 ^ 2 Sam 18:1–15 ^ 2 Sam 18:33 ^ Cambridge Bible
Bible
for Schools and Colleges on 2 Samuel
Samuel
19, accessed 12 August 2017 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
19:1–8 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
19:15–17 ^ 1 Kings 1:1–5 ^ 1 Kings 1:11–31 ^ 2 Sam 5:4 ^ 1 Kings 2:1–9 ^ N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (5 March 1997). "The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843-1261". Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 86. Retrieved 5 March 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
16:15–18 ^ Other translations say, "the hero of Israel's songs," "the favorite singer of Israel," "the contented psalm writer of Israel," and "Israel's beloved singer of songs." 2 Samuel
Samuel
23:1. ^ Commentary on II Samuel
Samuel
22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-06808-5 ^ a b Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee Archived 2012-06-21 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament, Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan:Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-40200-X ^ 1 Samuel
1 Samuel
21:15 ^ a b Pioske 2015, p. 180. ^ Pioske, Daniel (2015-02-11). "4: David's Jerusalem: The Early 10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community". David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and History. Routledge Studies in Religion. 45. Routledge (published 2015). p. 180. ISBN 9781317548911. Retrieved 2016-09-17. [...] the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an eponymous David
David
or the kingdom of Judah.  ^ Rainey, Anson F., The 'House of David' and the House of the Deconstructionists. Biblical Archaeology Review 20/6 (November/December 1994): p. 47 ^ Pioske 2015, p. 210, fn.18. ^ Auld 2003, p. 219. ^ Knight 1991, p. 853. ^ McKenzie 2004, p. 32. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 232–233. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2007, pp. 26–27. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 220–221. ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 pp. 301–307. ^ Thompson TL. "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine".  ^ Mazar A. Archaeology and the biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-11.  ^ Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001. Review of Baruch Halpern's "David's Secret Demons". ^ Finkelstein and Silberman, " David
David
and Solomon", 2006. See review "Archaeology" magazine. ^ Baden, Joel (2014-07-29). The Historical David: The Real Life of an Invented Hero. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 9780062188373.  ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002) [2001]. "8. In the Shadow of Empire (842–720 BCE)". The Bible
Bible
Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts (First Touchstone Edition 2002 ed.). New York: Touchstone. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0-684-86913-1. Archaeologically and historically, the redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy based in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and suggests that David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
were, in political terms, little more than hill country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly local level, restricted to the hill country.  ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. pp. 23; 241–247. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6.  ^ Israel Finkelstein; Neil Asher Silberman (6 March 2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6. we still have no hard archaeological evidence—despite the unparalleled biblical description of its grandeur—that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was anything more than a modest highland village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam.  ^ "Table Two" (Finklestein and Silberman, 2002: 131). ^ Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous." (Finkelstein and Silberman 2002: 181). ^ "David, King of Judah (Not Israel)". bibleinterp.com. July 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ "David". jewishencyclopedia.com.  ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin. p. 107a.  ^ Zohar Bereishis 91b ^ "David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online ^ John Corbett (1911) King David
David
The Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia
(New York: Robert Appleton Company) ^ McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 101.  ^ Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. ^ Lindsay of the Mount, Sir David
David
(1542). Lindsay of the Mount Roll.  ^ a b Garipzanov, Ildar H. The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c. 751–877). Brill. pp. 128, 225. ISBN 9004166696.  ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr. (1997). Imagining History at the Crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. p. 528.  ^ A–Z of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, Wheeler, David ^ "Dawud." Encyclopedia of Islam ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of David ^ DK (1 October 2015). "The Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained". Dorling Kindersley Limited. Retrieved 12 February 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ O'Kane, Martin (1999). "The Biblical King David
David
and His Artistic and Literary Afterlives". In Exum, Jo Cheryl. Beyond the Biblical Horizon: The Bible
Bible
and the Arts. p. 86. ISBN 9004112901. Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ Gilbert, Matthew (3 October 2015). "'The Secret Chord' by Geraldine Brooks". Boston Globe. Retrieved 4 October 2015.  ^ Hoffman, Alice (28 September 2015). "Geraldine Brooks reimagines King David's life in 'The Secret Chord'". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 March 2018.  ^ "G. F. Handel's Compositions". The Handel Institute. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.  ^ Rogovoy, Seth
Seth
(24 November 2009). "Bob Dylan: Prophet, Mystic, Poet". Simon and Schuster. p. 237. Retrieved 14 February 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ "Mad About You". Sting.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.  ^ "Lyrics Database". Little Feat
Little Feat
website. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ Roberts, Jerry (5 June 2009). "Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors". Scarecrow Press. p. 368. Retrieved 14 February 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Richards, Jeffrey (1 September 2008). "Hollywood's Ancient Worlds". A&C Black. p. 168. Retrieved 14 February 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ "David, My David". Retrieved 14 February 2018.  ^ "snopes.com: Four Kings in Deck of Cards". snopes.com.  ^ "Courts on playing cards", by David
David
Madore, with illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards

Bibliography

Auld, Graeme (2003). "1 & 2 Samuel". In James D. G. Dunn and John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.  Bergen, David
David
T. (1996). 1, 2 Samuel. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 9780805401073.  Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "Introduction to the Historical Books". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.  Coogan, Michael David
David
(2007). "Cultural Contexts: The Ancient Near East and Israel". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.  Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2007). David
David
and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743243636.  Gordon, Robert (1986). I & II Samuel, A Commentary. Paternoster Press. ISBN 9780310230229.  Halpern, Baruch (2000). "David". In Freedman, David
David
Noel; Allen C., Myers. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.  Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4. Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible
Bible
writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK. Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm (1964). I & II Samuel, A Commentary (trans. from German 1960 2nd ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664223182.  Tsumura, David
David
Toshio (2007). The First Book of Samuel. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802823595.  Breytenbach, Andries (2000). "Who Is Behind The Samuel
Samuel
Narrative?". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets. Brill. ISBN 9004118713.  Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in its Context Oxford University Press Dick, Michael B (2004). "The History of "David's Rise to Power" and the Neo-Babylonian Succession Apologies". In Bernard Frank Batto and Kathryn L. Roberts. David
David
and Zion: biblical studies in honor of J.J.M. Roberts. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060927.  Eynikel, Erik (2000). "The Relation Between the Eli Narrative and the Ark Narratives". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets. Brill. ISBN 9004118713.  Halpern, Baruch (2001). David's Secret Demons: Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802827975.  Jones, Gwilym H (2001). "1 and 2 Samuel". In John Barton and John Muddiman. The Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.  Klein, R.W. (2003). "Samuel, Books of". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The international standard Bible
Bible
encyclopedia. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844.  Knight, Douglas A (1995). "Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomists". In James Luther Mays, David
David
L. Petersen and Kent Harold Richards. Old Testament Interpretation. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567292896.  Knight, Douglas A (1991). "Sources". In Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737.  McKenzie, Steven L. (2004). Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I & II Chronicles. Abingdon Press.  Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0.  Pioski, Daniel (2015). David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and History. Routledge.  Pfoh, Emanuel (2016). The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives. Routledge.  Rosner, Steven (2012). A Guide to the Psalms
Psalms
of David. Outskirts Press.  Schleffer, Eben (2000). "Saving Saul
Saul
from the Deuteronomist". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets. Brill.  Soggin, Alberto (1987). Introduction to the Old Testament. Westminster John Knox Press.  Spieckerman, Hermann (2001). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Leo G. Perdue. The Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible. Blackwell.  Van Seters, John (1997). In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History. Eisenbrauns.  Walton, John H (2009). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Andrew E. Hill, John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Zondervan. 

Further reading

Alexander, David; Alexander, Pat, eds. (1983). Eerdmans' Handbook to the Bible
Bible
([New, rev.]. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-3486-8.  Bright, John (1981). A History of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-21381-2.  Bruce, F. F. (1963). Israel and the Nations. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.  Julia Fridman, "The Naked Truth about King David, the 8th Son," Haaretz, February 20, 2014, http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/.premium-1.575418 Harrison, R.K. (1969). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.  Kidner, Derek (1973). The Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-868-8.  Noll, K. L. (1997). The Faces of David. Sheffield: Sheffield Acad. Press. ISBN 1-85075-659-7.  Thompson, J.A. (1986). Handbook of Life in Bible
Bible
Times. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-949-8.  Green, Adam
Adam
(2007). King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah. Cambridge, UK: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830741. 

External links Media related to David
David
at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to David
David
at Wikiquote

Complete Bible
Bible
Genealogy David's family tree David
David
engravings from the De Verda collection King David
David
at the Christian Iconography web site The History of David, by William Caxton

Articles related to David

David
David
of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah House of David Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah

Regnal titles

New title Rebellion from Israel under Ish-bosheth

King of Judah 1010 BC–1003 BC Succeeded by Solomon

Preceded by Ish-bosheth King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah 1003 BC–970 BC

v t e

Rulers of Israel and Judah

Davidic line Kings of Israel and Judah

Kings of Judah

Hasmonean and Herodian rulers

Tribes of Israel

The Twelve Spies Abimelech

United monarchy

Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon

Israel (northern kingdom)

Jeroboam
Jeroboam
I Nadab Baasha Elah Zimri Tibni Omri Ahab Ahaziah Jehoram Jehu Jehoahaz Jehoash Jeroboam
Jeroboam
II Zechariah Shallum Menahem Pekahiah Pekah Hoshea

Judah (southern kingdom)

Rehoboam Abijam Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah Jehoash Amaziah Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah Zedekiah

Hasmonean dynasty

Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias

Herodian dynasty

Herod the Great Archelaus Antipas Philip the Tetrarch Salome I Agrippa Herod of Chalcis Agrippa II

Bar Kokhba revolt

Simon bar Kokhba

See also

List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel

Italics indicate a disputed reign or non-royal title

v t e

Adam
Adam
to David
David
according to the Bible

Creation to Flood

Adam Seth Enos Kenan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Shem

Cain line

Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Methusael Lamech Tubal-cain

Patriarchs after Flood

Arpachshad Cainan Shelah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah Abraham Isaac Jacob

Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
to Kingdom

Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David

Names in italics only appear in the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
version

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

Solomon

Family and reputed relations

David Queen of Sheba Pharaoh's daughter Naamah Rehoboam Menelik I

Occurrences

Solomon's Temple Judgment of Solomon Solomon's Pools Solomon's shamir Solomon
Solomon
in Islam

Reputed works

Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs Book of Wisdom Odes of Solomon Key of Solomon Lesser Key of Solomon Magical Treatise of Solomon Psalms
Psalms
of Solomon Testament of Solomon Prayer of Solomon

Related articles

Solomonic column Seal of Solomon Solomon's knot United Monarchy Davidic line

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88771445 LCCN: n79055293 ISNI: 0000 0001 0137 3309 GND: 118523929 SUDOC: 028616669 BNF:

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