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Daniel Kahikina Akaka (/əˈkɑːkə/;[2] September 11, 1924 – April 6, 2018) was an American educator and politician who was a United States Senator from Hawaii
Hawaii
from 1990 to 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, Akaka was the first U.S. Senator of Native Hawaiian ancestry.[3] Born in Honolulu, he served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
during World War II. He attended the University of Hawaii, where he received his bachelor's and master's degrees. Originally a high school teacher, Akaka went on to serve as a principal for six years. In 1969, the Department of Education hired him as a chief program planner. In the 1970s, he served in various governmental positions. Akaka was first elected to the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1976 to represent Hawaii's Second Congressional District, and he served for 13 years. In 1990, he was appointed to the U.S. Senate to succeed the deceased Spark Matsunaga, subsequently winning the special election to complete Matsunaga's term. Akaka would later be re-elected to three full terms. In March 2011, he announced that he would not run for re-election in 2012.[4] After fellow senator Daniel Inouye
Daniel Inouye
died on December 17, 2012, Akaka became the state's senior senator, and remained so briefly until he left office on January 3, 2013. He was succeeded by fellow Democrat Mazie Hirono.

Contents

1 Early life, education, and teaching career 2 Early political career 3 U.S. Senate

3.1 Elections 3.2 Tenure 3.3 Committee assignments 3.4 Caucus memberships

4 Death 5 Electoral history 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Early life, education, and teaching career[edit]

Senator Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
and his wife, Millie Akaka[citation needed]

Daniel Kahikina Akaka (Chinese: 李碩; pinyin: Lǐ Shuò[citation needed]) was born in Honolulu, the son of Annie (née Kahoa) and Kahikina Akaka. His paternal grandfather was born in Swatow, Canton, China
China
during the late Qing Dynasty, and his other grandparents were of Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
descent.[5][6] His brother was Rev. Abraham Akaka.[7] Akaka graduated from Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools
in 1942. During World War II he served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, including service on Saipan
Saipan
and Tinian. He served from 1945 to 1947.[1] He worked as a welder and a mechanic and in 1948 was a first mate on the schooner Morning Star.[8] Entering college (funded by the G.I. Bill), he earned a bachelor of education in 1952 from the University of Hawaii. He later received a master of education from the same school in 1966. He worked as a high school teacher in Honolulu
Honolulu
from 1953 until 1960, when he was then hired as a vice principal. His son Alan Akaka was born in 1956.[9] In 1963, he became head principal.[8] Early political career[edit]

Akaka in 1977, during his first term in Congress

In 1969, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare hired Akaka as a chief program planner. Akaka then continued working in government, holding positions as director of the Hawaii
Hawaii
Office of Economic Opportunity, human resources assistant for state Governor George Ariyoshi, and director of the Progressive Neighborhoods Program.[10][11] Akaka was first elected to the United States
United States
House of Representatives in 1976 to represent Hawaii's 2nd congressional district, comprising all of the state outside the inner ring of Honolulu.[12] He was reelected seven times, all by wide margins.[citation needed] U.S. Senate[edit]

Akaka at Senate youth program

Elections[edit] Akaka was appointed by Governor John Waihee
John Waihee
to the U.S. Senate in April 1990 to serve temporarily after the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga.[13] In November of the same year, he was elected to complete the remaining four years of Matsunaga's unexpired term, defeating Congresswoman Pat Saiki
Pat Saiki
with 53 percent of the vote. He was re-elected in 1994 for a full six-year term with over 70% of the popular vote. He was reelected almost as easily in 2000.[14] For the 2006 election, he overcame a strong primary challenge from Congressman Ed Case,[15] then won a third full term with 61 percent of the vote, defeating Cynthia Thielen.[16] Tenure[edit] During his tenure, Akaka served as the Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs and the United States
United States
Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs.[16] From 2000 until his retirement from the Senate in 2013, Akaka sponsored legislation, known as the Akaka Bill, to afford sovereignty to native Hawaiians. In 2005, Akaka acknowledged in an interview with NPR that the Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
could eventually result in outright independence.[17] The Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
has been supported as a means of restoring Hawaiian self-determination lost with the 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii,[18] and would include giving up the ability to sue for sovereignty in federal courts in exchange for recognition by the federal government (but would not block sovereignty claims made under international law.)[19] The bill has been criticized as discriminating on the basis on ethnic origin in that only Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
would be permitted to participate in the governing entity that the bill would establish.[20] In April 2006, he was selected by Time as one of America's Five Worst Senators. The article criticized him for mainly authoring minor legislation, calling him "master of the minor resolution and the bill that dies in committee".[21] Akaka voted against authorization of the use of military force against Iraq.[22] In February 2009, a bill was authored in the Philippine House of Representatives by Rep. Antonio Diaz seeking to confer honorary Filipino citizenship on Akaka, Senators Daniel Inouye
Daniel Inouye
and Ted Stevens and Representative Bob Filner, for their role in securing the passage of benefits for Filipino World War II
World War II
veterans.[23] On March 2, 2011, Akaka announced he would not be running for re-election in the 2012 U.S. Senate elections.[4] He attended his final session in the Senate on December 12, 2012. He closed his speech with a traditional Hawaiian farewell, "a hui hou" (until we meet again).[24] Committee assignments[edit]

Akaka and Senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2005

Committee on Armed Services

Subcommittee on Personnel Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support Subcommittee on SeaPower

Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

Subcommittee on Housing, Transportation, and Community Development Subcommittee on Financial Institutions Subcommittee on Securities, Insurance, and Investment

Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information and International Security Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce and the District of Columbia (Chairman) Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration

Committee on Indian Affairs (Chairman) Committee on Veterans' Affairs Congressional Task Force on Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
Issues (Chairman)

Caucus memberships[edit]

Akaka and President George W. Bush in 2006

Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Congressional Biotechnology Caucus Congressional Postal Caucus (Vice Chair) International Conservation Caucus Senate Anti-Meth Caucus Senate Army Caucus (Co-Chair) Senate Sweetener Caucus (Co-Chair) Senate Oceans Caucus

Death[edit] Akaka died of organ failure in the early hours of April 6, 2018, at the age of 93.[25] Former president Barack Obama
Barack Obama
remembered Akaka as "a tireless advocate for working people, veterans, native Hawaiian rights, and the people of Hawaii... He embodied the aloha spirit with compassion and care."[26] Electoral history[edit]

United States Senate
United States Senate
special election, 1990: Hawaii

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Daniel Akaka 188,901 53.72

Republican Pat Saiki 155,978 44.35

Libertarian Ken Schoolland 6,788 1.93

Majority 32,923 9.36

Turnout 351,666

United States Senate
United States Senate
election, 1994: Hawaii[27]

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
(inc.) 256,189 71.8%

Republican Maria Hustace 86,320 24.2%

Libertarian Richard Rowland 14,393 4.0%

Majority

Turnout

Democratic hold Swing

United States Senate
United States Senate
election, 2000: Hawaii[28]

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
(inc.) 251,215 77.7%

Republican John Carroll 84,701 24.5%

Natural Law Lauri A. Clegg 4,220 1.2%

Libertarian Lloyd Jeffrey Mallan 3,127 0.9%

Constitution David Porter 2,360 0.7%

United States Senate
United States Senate
Democratic primary election, 2006: Hawaii

Majority

Candidate Votes[29] Percentage

Daniel Akaka 129,158 54.2%

Ed Case 107,163 45.0%

United States Senate
United States Senate
election, 2006: Hawaii

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
(inc.) 210,330 61.4 -11.5

Republican Cynthia Thielen 126,097 36.8 +12.3

Libertarian Lloyd Mallan 6,415 1.9 +1.0

Majority 84,233 24.6

Turnout 342,842

Democratic hold Swing

See also[edit]

List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress

References[edit]

^ a b c "Once a Soldier... Always a Soldier" (PDF). Legislative Agenda. Association of the United States
United States
Army. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.  ^ AP pronunciation guide ^ About Senator Akaka Daniel Kahikina Akaka, U.S. Senator of Hawaii Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b DePledge, Derrick (March 3, 2011). "'The right time'". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Genealogy from ancestry.com ^ "NewsLibrary.com - newspaper archive, clipping service - newspapers and other news sources". Nl.newsbank.com. October 5, 2004. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ JOHN T. MCQUISTONSEPT. 17, 1997 (September 17, 1997). "Abraham Akaka, 80, Hawaii
Hawaii
Clergyman, Dies - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ a b "Akaka in Congress since 1976 The Honolulu
Honolulu
Advertiser Hawaii's Newspaper". The Honolulu
Honolulu
Advertiser. January 20, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Ruymar, Lorene (1996). The Hawaiian Steel Guitar and its Great Hawaiian Musicians. Anaheim Hills, California: Centerstream Publishing. p. 82. ISBN 1-57424-021-8.  ^ Brown, Emma. "Daniel K. Akaka, Hawaii
Hawaii
senator with 'spirit of aloha,' dies at 93". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ The Associated Press. "Daniel Akaka, longtime Hawaii
Hawaii
senator, dead at 93". Mercurynews.com. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Killough, Ashley (September 1, 2015). "Former Hawaii
Hawaii
Sen. Daniel Akaka dies at 93 - CNNPolitics". Cnn.com. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1990/04/30/us/hawaii-congressman-named-to-matsunaga-s-senate-seat.html ^ "John Carroll: Faith shaped a winding journey The Honolulu Advertiser Hawaii's Newspaper". The Honolulu
Honolulu
Advertiser. September 9, 2002. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ "Hawaii's Akaka defeats Case for Senate - politics". NBC News. September 24, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ a b "Daniel Akaka, Long-Serving Hawaii
Hawaii
Senator, Dead at 93". Rollcall.com. April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Kaste, Martin (August 16, 2005). " Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
Seek Self Rule". NPR.org. NPR. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Reyes, B.J. (January 22, 2008). "Obama would sign Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
as president". Honolulu
Honolulu
Star-Bulletin. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Carlson, Ragnar (August 19, 2009). "Nationhood". Honolulu
Honolulu
Weekly. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Camire, Dennis (June 9, 2006). "After bill fails, Akaka vows to try again". Honolulu
Honolulu
Advertiser. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ Calabresi, Massimo; Bacon, Perry Jr. (April 24, 2006). "Daniel Akaka: Master of the Minor". Time Magazine. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ Salaverria, Leila (February 24, 2009). "4 US solons as honorary Filipinos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2009.  ^ "Sen. Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
says 'a hui hou' to Congress". KHON-TV. December 12, 2012.  Unknown parameter dead url= ignored (help); Unknown parameter webarchive url= ignored (help) ^ HNN Staff (April 6, 2018). "Former US Sen. Akaka, the 'ambassador of aloha,' dies at 93 - Hawaii
Hawaii
News Now - KGMB and KHNL". Hawaii
Hawaii
News Now. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ HNN Staff (April 6, 2018). "Obama: Akaka loved Hawaii's people (who loved him right back)". Hawaii
Hawaii
News Now. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ "Office of Elections" (PDF). Hawaii.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ "2000 ELECTION STATISTICS". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2018.  ^ "Primary Election 2006 - State of Hawaii
Hawaii
- Statewide" (PDF). Hawaii.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2018. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Daniel Akaka.

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress Profile at Project Vote Smart Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission Appearances on C-SPAN

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Patsy Mink Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Hawaii's 2nd congressional district 1977–1990 Succeeded by Patsy Mink

Party political offices

Preceded by Spark Matsunaga Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Hawaii (Class 1) 1990, 1994, 2000, 2006 Succeeded by Mazie Hirono

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Spark Matsunaga U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Hawaii 1990–2013 Served alongside: Dan Inouye, Brian Schatz Succeeded by Mazie Hirono

Preceded by Larry Craig Chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee 2007–2011 Succeeded by Patty Murray

Preceded by Byron Dorgan Chair of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee 2011–2013 Succeeded by Maria Cantwell

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Hawaii

Class 1

Fong Matsunaga Akaka Hirono

Class 3

Long Inouye Schatz

v t e

Members of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
from Hawaii

Territorial (1899–1959)

Seat

Wilcox Kalanianaʻole Baldwin Jarrett Houston McCandless King J. Farrington E. Farrington Burns

One At-large seat (1959–1963)

Seat

Inouye

Two At-large seat (1963–1971)

Seat

Gill Mink

Seat

Matsunaga

Districts (1971–present)

1st district

Matsunaga Heftel Abercrombie Saiki Abercrombie Djou Hanabusa Takai Hanabusa

2nd district

Mink Akaka Mink Case Hirono Gabbard

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Indian Affairs

Full Committee (1820–1947)

Holmes Johnson Benton H. White Troup H. White Sevier Morehead A. White Sevier Bagby Atchison Sebastian Doolittle Henderson Harlan Buckingham Allison Coke Dawes Jones Pettigrew Thurston Stewart Clapp Gamble Stone Ashurst Curtis Spencer Harreld Frazier Wheeler Thomas O'Mahoney

Select Committee (1977–1993)

Abourezk Melcher Cohen Andrews Inouye

Full Committee (1993–)

Inouye McCain Campbell Inouye Campbell Inouye Campbell McCain Dorgan Akaka Cantwell Tester Barrasso Hoeven

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Veterans' Affairs

Hartke Cranston Simpson Murkowski Cranston Rockefeller Simpson Specter Rockefeller Specter Craig Akaka Murray Sanders Isakson

v t e

    Order of the Golden Heart recipients    

Grand Collar (Maringal na Kuwintas)

Fe del Mundo Rodolfo V. Quizon, Sr. Queen Sofía of Spain

Grand Cross (Maringal na Krus)

Daniel Akaka Bob Filner Darrell Issa Queen Letizia of Spain Nancy Pelosi Harry Reid Tsuneo Tanaka

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 171370336 LCCN: no2011085628 US

.