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Dakhini
Dakhini
or Dakkhani (دکنی‬), also spelled Dakkani (داکھان) and Deccani
Deccani
(dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
of South India. It arose as a language of the Deccan
Deccan
sultanates ca. 1300 AD in ways similar to Urdu. It is similar to Urdu
Urdu
in its influence from Arabic and Persian with a Prakrit base, but differs because of the strong influence of Marathi, Telugu and Kannada
Kannada
spoken in the states of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu. This dialect has a rich and extensive literary heritage. It is also the spoken form of Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
for many people of the region to this day and is a common "street-language" in several cities including Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Aurangabad, Kurnool, Guntur, Nellore and Mangalore. Dakhini
Dakhini
is the native language of the Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslims.

Contents

1 Overview

1.1 North Dakhini 1.2 South Dakhini 1.3 Differences between dialects

2 History 3 Legacy

3.1 Dakhini
Dakhini
and Hindustani 3.2 Dakhini
Dakhini
and Hindi

4 Classification 5 Geographic distribution

5.1 Dialects

6 Deccani
Deccani
Film Industry 7 See also 8 References

Overview[edit] Dakhini
Dakhini
is spoken in the Deccan
Deccan
region of India. Just as Urdu developed in Lucknow, Dakhini
Dakhini
developed in Deccan
Deccan
plateau parallel to Urdu
Urdu
with Khari Boli. The term Dakhini
Dakhini
is perhaps an umbrella for a group of dialects spoken by certain communities of Muslims
Muslims
in the Deccan
Deccan
region. Dakhini
Dakhini
was the lingua franca of the Muslims
Muslims
of Deccan, chiefly living in Hyderabad state
Hyderabad state
(including the regions ceded to the British by Nizams), and the Mysore state, covering most of Deccan
Deccan
plateau and adjacent plains except for Moplah Muslims
Muslims
of Kerala
Kerala
and the Maricar, Rawthar and Lebbai Muslims
Muslims
in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the south, to the Beary Bhashe language and Konkani speaking Muslims
Muslims
along the western coast of Karnataka, Goa
Goa
and Maharashtra. Though, a minor Segment of Kerala Muslims
Muslims
do speak the Dakhini
Dakhini
dialect and identify themselves as Dakhini Muslims who follow Hanafi Fiqh (Hanafi School of Islamic Jurisprudence). Dakhni for all practical purposes today is an oral language which is flexible enough to be visually represented by different scripts like Devanagari
Devanagari
or Urdu
Urdu
or even Persian.[citation needed] Dakhini
Dakhini
was widely spoken across the Deccan
Deccan
peninsula with subtle changes in the dialect as you go down south away from Hyderabad
Hyderabad
ending as a heavily Tamilized version around the middle of Tamil Nadu.[citation needed] Dakhini
Dakhini
mainly spoken by the native Muslims
Muslims
living in these areas can also be divided into 2 dialects:

Dakhini
Dakhini
in the Indo European Languages' Family Tree, is represented under Urdu, and is a Hindustani Language.

North Dakhini[edit] North Dakhini
Dakhini
is spoken in areas of Former Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State, mainly Hyderabad
Hyderabad
City, Telangana
Telangana
(mainly Nizamabad city), Marathwada
Marathwada
(cities of Aurangabad and Nanded), Hyderabad-Karnataka
Hyderabad-Karnataka
(Gulbarga, Bidar
Bidar
& Raichur
Raichur
in Present day Karnataka), minority native Goan Konkani Muslims
Muslims
in the Uttara Kannada
Kannada
district of Karnataka
Karnataka
with some variation of Nawayath, and Goan Muslim dialect in Goa. South Dakhini[edit] South Dakhini
Dakhini
is spoken along Central Karnataka, Bangalore, Southern and Central Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(Vijayawada, Kurnool, Kadapa, Guntur, Nellore.,etc.), North Tamil Nadu, Chennai. This form of Deccani
Deccani
is interlaced with the native language words of the respective regions.These were the areas under the Mysore and Carnatic sultanates. This is also the form of Dakhini
Dakhini
spoken by the minor Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslim community of Kerala.[citation needed] Differences between dialects[edit]

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North Dakhini
Dakhini
is spoken with an added influence of pure standardized Urdu
Urdu
and while South Dakhini
Dakhini
draws slightly more influences from local languages, it has quite a number of original words not to be found in Urdu
Urdu
or Northern Dakhini, with even a slightly varied grammar and sentence structuring. This particularly points towards possible signs that Dakhini
Dakhini
as a language in its own sense could have evolved from the Southern parts much more than the Northern variation. This dialect is used extensively in the spoken form; when it comes to writing and literary work, standard Urdu
Urdu
is used. Most Dakhini speakers are fluent in standard Urdu, as well as Dakhini, and most will put Urdu
Urdu
as their mother tongue on official censuses, and surveys as Dakhini
Dakhini
has not been recognized as an official language by India. History[edit] The Urdu
Urdu
language from Delhi
Delhi
was introduced in the Deccan
Deccan
region during Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
invasion in between 1295 AD to 1316 AD[citation needed]. It became more popular in the Deccan
Deccan
plateau during and after Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
shifted the Sultanate capital from Delhi, making the city of Daulatabad the new capital in 1327 AD. As a revolt against the Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
was formed in 1347 AD with Daulatabad as its sultanate capital. This was later moved to Gulbargah and once again, in 1430, to Bidar, The Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
lasted for about 150 years, expanding to almost the entire Deccan
Deccan
Plateau (which was then named as Deccan). This shifting of power, moving of capitals, expansion of sultanate collectively propagated the Urdu
Urdu
language of Delhi, which came to be known as Deccani
Deccani
and received patronage from its rulers. It was also known through other names like Hinduastani, Zaban Hinduastani, Dehalvi and Hindawi. The Sufis were the earliest to use Deccani
Deccani
in its written form. The earliest available manuscript on record is Kadam Rao Padam Rao a Masnavi of Fakhruddin Nizami, written during 1421–1434 AD.[3] When the Mughals
Mughals
took over Deccan, many notable personalities, both secular and religious, settled in the Deccan
Deccan
and spread the language across borders that now form parts of Telangana, southern Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa. One such poet of Mughal region was Wali Deccani
Deccani
(1667–1707), the first established poet to have composed Ghazals and compiled a divan (a collection of ghazals where the entire alphabet is used at least once as the last letter to define the rhyme pattern). Legacy[edit] Dakhini
Dakhini
has plenty of Turkish evolved loanwords,[4] due to the fact that the ancestors of its people were of Malmuk origin, although most of the Dakhini
Dakhini
population has above 90 percentage of Dravidian genes,[5] excluding the Nizams, who are more Turkish due to their marriage to daughters of the last Turkish Caliphate. It is similar to Urdu
Urdu
in its influence from Arabic and Persian with a Prakrit base, but differs because of the strong influence of Marathi, Telugu and Kannada spoken in the states of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu. This language, which is often mistaken as a dialect of Urdu, has a rich and extensive literary herite, the most important being Kitab-E-Navras - revered for its transcendence beyond Secularism (A first for India), and Kadam Rao Padam Rao, the book that created Rekhta, which has since then evolved to become the Heart & Soul of Music in India, especially Bollywood. Dakhini
Dakhini
has directly lead to the evolution of what is now modern Sufism, which since then has spread throughout the World. Such was its impact that even the Mughals
Mughals
who had come to destroy Dakhini
Dakhini
fell in love with it. Despite it being the native language of most Muslims
Muslims
of the erstwhile Deccan
Deccan
sultanates and later of the Princely States
Princely States
of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State (including the regions ceded to the British by Nizams) and the Kingdom of Mysore, it is also the spoken form of Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
for most Hindus and non-Hindus of the region to this day and is the most common "street-language" in several cities including Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Vijayawada, Aurangabad, Kurnool, Guntur, Nellore
Nellore
and Mangalore. Dakhini
Dakhini
is the native language of the Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslims, although there are some non- Muslims
Muslims
of this ethnicity as well but they are negligible. Hyderabadi people pronounce their language as 'Dakani' and Bengluri folks, not the city, but the ethnicity, pronounce it as 'Dakhni'. This includes all descendant Dakhini
Dakhini
population of the erstwhile Mysore State, although some consider themselves Mysuri. Also, people from the old Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Princely state ruled by the Nizams call themselves Hyderabadi. Dakhini
Dakhini
and Hindustani[edit] Dakhini, though built on a base of Khadi Boli, influenced the development of Urdu
Urdu
(also known as Hindustani, Hindavi, or Rekhta). This was achieved primarily through the continual interaction of Sufi poets, courtesans and public between the Deccan
Deccan
and the Mughal Courts and the Khadi Boli heartland. Hyderabad
Hyderabad
was the southernmost city of North India. Noteworthy are the contributions of Wali Dakhni (also known as Wali Aurangabadi and Wali Gujarati), a famous poet of Dakhni, who visited Delhi
Delhi
in 1700. He astonished the poets of Delhi
Delhi
with his ghazals. He drew wide applause from the Persian-speaking poets, some of who, after listening to Wali, also adopted the language of the people, ‘Urdu’, as the medium of their poetic expressions. Prominent poets—Shah Hatem, Shah Abro and Mir Taqi Mir—were among his admirers. At that time in Delhi, the court poets were composing in Persian and Arabic. For others, Braj and Awadhi were the languages of literary and religious expressions. The spoken language of all was Khadi Boli. When the poets listened to Wali in Dakhni language (which is also a variant of Khari Boli) they were struck by the fact that the spoken language of the people was capable of such rich literary expression. These events were important for they hastened the adoption of Urdu
Urdu
over Khadi Boli, in the early 18th century, as the language for literary and religious expression (in which Dakhini
Dakhini
played the role of a catalyst).[6][better source needed] Dakhini
Dakhini
and Hindi[edit] A twentieth-century Kerala
Kerala
Hindi
Hindi
scholar, Dr. Muhammad Kunj Mettar, established Dakhini
Dakhini
as a source for modern Hindi.[citation needed] Dr. Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay
Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay
also maintained that it was Dakhini
Dakhini
that established the use of Khari Boli
Khari Boli
replacing Braj in the North. In fact, even the name Hindi
Hindi
for the language originated in the South. A Tamil, Kazi Mahamud Bahari, used the word Hindi
Hindi
for Dakhini
Dakhini
in the 17th century in his Sufi poem Man Lagan. Renaming Dakhini
Dakhini
as Hindi
Hindi
was probably a symbolic gesture by him to extend the geographical reach of this language.[6][better source needed] Classification[edit] Dakhini
Dakhini
is part of the Indo-Aryan grouping of the Indo-European languages. The Dakhini
Dakhini
language has puzzled linguists for years, and its specific classification is a confusing subject, it could be a direct descendant, or sister language of Urdu, or be a Persianization of the Marathi language. It was also declared as the National language of the former defunct Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State. Geographic distribution[edit] Most speakers of Dakhini
Dakhini
live in the Indian region known as the Deccan. They inhabit the regions comprising the erstwhile Muslim kingdoms in Deccan
Deccan
Plateau viz. portions of the states of Telangana, southern Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu. They can be collectively be known as Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslims, and include subgroups like the Hyderabadi Muslims. Dialects[edit] Other than the Northern, including Hyderabadi, and Southern, dialects of Dakhini
Dakhini
include Savji bhasha i.e. the language of the Savji community in the Hubli, Dharwad, Gadag, Bijapur, Belgaum region. Deccani
Deccani
Film Industry[edit] Main article: Deccani
Deccani
Film Industry The Deccani
Deccani
Film Industry is based in Hyderabad, India, and its movies are produced in Hyderabadi Urdu, a dialect of Deccani.[7] See also[edit]

Hyderabadi Urdu Urdu
Urdu
in Aurangabad Nawayathi (Kumta, Honnavar, Bhatkal) Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslims Deccani
Deccani
Film Industry

References[edit]

^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Deccan". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Editors, D. Balasubramanian Harsh K. Gupta, Aloka Parasher-Sen; Nishat, Jameela (Author) (2000). Deccan
Deccan
heritage. Hyderabad: Universities Press. pp. 201–210. ISBN 9788173712852. Retrieved 5 December 2016.  ^ InpaperMagazine, From (13 November 2011). "Language: Urdu
Urdu
and the borrowed words". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 28 February 2018.  ^ Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK (19 August 2004). "Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India
India
and their affinity with related Indian and global groups". BMC Genetics. 5: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-23. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 515297 .  ^ a b http://www.bangalorenotes.com/dakhni.htm ^ Mumtaz, Roase. "Deccanwood: An Indian film industry taking on Bollywood". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2018-02-23. 

v t e

Urdu

History Alphabet Grammar Phonology Vocabulary Nastaliq Braille

Varieties

Dialects

Standard Urdu Dakhini Hyderabadi Rekhta

Forms

Aurangabad Urdu British Urdu Roman Urdu

Politics

Urdu
Urdu
movement Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
controversy

Arts

Awards Literature Informatics Cinema Poetry Music Writers Poets Progressive Writers' Movement Uddin & Begum Romanisation

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages;

.