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Cyaxares
Cyaxares
(Ancient Greek: Κυαξάρης; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 Uvaxštra;[2][3] Persian: هووخشتره‎, translit. Hovakhshatra; Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar[4]; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces. He was the first to divide his troops into separate sections of spearmen, archers, and horsemen.[5] By uniting most of the Iranian tribes of ancient Iran and conquering neighbouring territories, Cyaxares
Cyaxares
transformed the Median Empire
Median Empire
into a regional power.[6] He facilitated the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and according to Herodotus
Herodotus
repelled the Scythians
Scythians
from Media.[7]

Contents

1 The rise of Cyaxares 2 War against Lydia 3 Qyzqapan 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

The rise of Cyaxares[edit]

Cyaxares' Median Empire
Median Empire
at the time of its maximum expansion.

Cyaxares
Cyaxares
was born in the Median capital of Ecbatana. His father Phraortes was killed in a battle against the Assyrians, led by Ashurbanipal, the king of Assyria. After Phraortes' demise, the Scythians
Scythians
overran Media. Cyaxares, seeking revenge, killed the Scythian leaders[8] and proclaimed himself King of Medes. After throwing off the Scythians, he prepared for war against Assyria.[9] Cyaxares
Cyaxares
reorganized the Median army, then allied himself with King Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
of Babylonia, a mutual enemy of Assyria. This alliance was formalized through the marriage of Cyaxares' daughter, Amytis, to Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II. These allies overthrew the Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
and destroyed Nineveh
Nineveh
in 612 BC. War against Lydia[edit]

Herodotus
Herodotus
reported the wars of Cyaxares
Cyaxares
in The Histories

After the victory in Assyria, the Medes
Medes
conquered Northern Mesopotamia, Armenia
Armenia
and the parts of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
east of the Halys River, which was the border established with Lydia
Lydia
after a decisive battle between Lydia
Lydia
and Media, the Battle of Halys ended with an eclipse on May 28, 585 BC. The conflict between Lydia
Lydia
and the Medes
Medes
was reported by Herodotus
Herodotus
as follows:

"A horde of the nomad Scythians
Scythians
at feud with the rest withdrew and sought refuge in the land of the Medes: and at this time the ruler of the Medes
Medes
was Cyaxares
Cyaxares
the son of Phraortes, the son of Deïokes, who at first dealt well with these Scythians, being suppliants for his protection; and esteeming them very highly he delivered boys to them to learn their speech and the art of shooting with the bow. Then time went by, and the Scythians
Scythians
used to go out continually to the chase and always brought back something; till once it happened that they took nothing, and when they returned with empty hands Cyaxares
Cyaxares
(being, as he showed on this occasion, not of an eminently good disposition) dealt with them very harshly and used insult towards them. And they, when they had received this treatment from Cyaxares, considering that they had suffered indignity, planned to kill and to cut up one of the boys who were being instructed among them, and having dressed his flesh as they had been wont to dress the wild animals, to bear it to Cyaxares
Cyaxares
and give it to him, pretending that it was game taken in hunting; and when they had given it, their design was to make their way as quickly as possible to Alyattes the son of Sadyattes at Sardis. This then was done; and Cyaxares
Cyaxares
with the guests who ate at his table tasted of that meat, and the Scythians
Scythians
having so done became suppliants for the protection of Alyattes.

After this, since Alyattes would not give up the Scythians
Scythians
when Cyaxares
Cyaxares
demanded them, there had arisen war between the Lydians and the Medes
Medes
lasting five years; in which years the Medes
Medes
often discomfited the Lydians and the Lydians often discomfited the Medes (and among others they fought also a battle by night): and as they still carried on the war with equally balanced fortune, in the sixth year a battle took

Halys River

place in which it happened, when the fight had begun, that suddenly the day became night. And this change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians laying down as a limit this very year in which the change took place. The Lydians however and the Medes, when they saw that it had become night instead of day, ceased from their fighting and were much more eager both of them that peace should be made between them. And they who brought about the peace between them were Syennesis the Kilikian and Labynetos the Babylonian: these were they who urged also the taking of the oath by them, and they brought about an interchange of marriages; for they decided that Alyattes should give his daughter Aryenis to Astyages
Astyages
the son of Cyaxares, since without the compulsion of a strong tie agreements are apt not to hold strongly together." (The Histories, 1.73-74, trans. Macaulay)

Cyaxares
Cyaxares
died shortly after the battle and was succeeded by his son, Astyages, who was the maternal grandfather of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
through his daughter Mandane of Media.

Tomb of Cyaxares, Qyzqapan, Sulaymaniyah. Iraqi Kurdistan

Qyzqapan[edit] Qyzqapan is a tomb located in the Kurdish mountains in Sulaymaniyah. The Russian historian Igor Diakonov believes that it is probably a royal tomb and that if it is royal it is the tomb of Cyaxares.[1] Legacy[edit] See also: Historiography and nationalism In later accounts of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, this was remembered as Nebuchadrezzar's present for his wife Amytis Cyaxares's daughter, to help with her homesickness for the mountainous country of her birth.[10] After Darius I
Darius I
seized the Iranshahr, rebellions erupted claiming Uvaxštra's legacy. After these were defeated, the shah noted two in the Behistun Inscription: "Another was Phraortes [Fravartiš], the Mede [Mâda]; he lied, saying: 'I am Khshathrita, of the dynasty of Cyaxares.' He made Media to revolt. Another was Tritantaechmes [Ciçataxma], the Sagartian [Asagartiya]; he lied, saying: 'I am king in Sagartia, of the dynasty of Cyaxares.' He made Sagartia to revolt." See also[edit]

Ancient Near East portal

History of Iran Iranian Peoples Cyaxares
Cyaxares
II Medes Eclipse of Thales

References[edit]

^ a b Gershevitch, Ilya (1984). The Cambridge history of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods.  ^ Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 87. ISBN 964-8499-05-5.  ^ Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP). Old Persian: Grammar, Text, Glossary (in Persian). translated into Persian by S. Oryan. p. 406. ISBN 964-421-045-X.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ http://www.livius.org/articles/person/cyaxares/ ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
(425 BC). The Histories (2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 48.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/147792/Cyaxares ^ Cyaxares
Cyaxares
(Livius.org) ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Gershevitch, Ilya (1984). The Cambridge history of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods.  ^ Dalley, Stephanie (2013). The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cyaxares.

Livius.org: Cyaxares

Preceded by Madius King of Medes Succeeded by Astyages

v t e

Median and Achaemenid kings

Family tree

Median (728–550 BC)

Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages

Achaemenid (550–330 BC)

Achaemenes Ariaramnes Arsames Teispes Cyrus I Cambyses I Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(Cyrus II) Cambyses II Smerdis Gaumata Darius the Great (Darius I) Xerxes the Great (Xerxes I) Artaxerxes I Xerxes II Sogdianus Darius II
Darius II
Nothus Artaxerxes II Mnemon Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
Ochus Artaxerxes IV Arses Darius III
Darius III
Codomannus Artaxerxes V Bessus

Italics indicate kings not directly attested and so possibly legendary.

v t e

Median topics

Language

Median language, Iranian language

Cities

Ecbatana
Ecbatana
(Hamadan) Rhagae
Rhagae
(Shahre Rey, Tehran) Laodicea (Nahavand)

Battles involving Lydia

Eclipse of Thales

Battles involving Persia

Persian Revolt Battle of Hyrba Battle of the Persian Border Siege of Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Hill Battle of Pasargadae Fall of Ecbatana

Kings/Satraps

Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages Cyaxares
Cyaxares
II

Other Medians

Amytis of Media Artembares Datis Gubaru Mazar

.