ListMoto - Culture Of Croatia

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The culture of Croatia
has roots in a long history: the Croatian people have been inhabiting the area for fourteen centuries, but there are important remnants of the earlier periods still preserved in the country. Because of its geographic position, Croatia
represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroad of influences of the western culture and the east—ever since division of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Byzantine Empire—as well as of the Mitteleuropa and the Mediterranean culture.[1] The Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th-century period proved crucial in emancipation of the Croatian language
Croatian language
and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures. Most notably, Croatia
has a place in the history of clothing as the origin of the cravat, a precursor of the modern necktie.


1 Ancient heritage 2 Visual arts

2.1 Sculpture 2.2 Painting

3 Music 4 Education 5 Places 6 Architecture 7 Festivities and traditions 8 Cuisine 9 Sports 10 Entertainment 11 Media 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Ancient heritage[edit] Ancient monuments from the Paleolithic
era consist of simple stone and bone objects. Some of the earliest remaining historical features include 100,000-year-old bones of a Neandertal
man near Krapina, Hrvatsko Zagorje. The most interesting Copper Age
Copper Age
or Eneolithic
finds are from Vučedol culture. Out of that culture sprung out Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture (named after the city of Vinkovci) that is recognizable by bronze fibulas that were replacing objects like needles and buttons. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture of Illyrians, ethnic group with distinct culture and art form started to organize itself in 7th century BC. Numerous monumental sculptures are preserved, as well as walls of citadel, Nezakcij near Pula, one of numerous Istrian cities from Iron Age. Greeks from Syracuse in Sicily
in 390 BC came to the islands of Vis (Issa), Hvar
(Pharos), and Korčula
(Corcyra Nigra), and there have founded city-states in which they lived quite isolated. While the Greek colonies
Greek colonies
were flourishing on the island, on the continent the Illyrians
were organizing their centers. Their art was greatly influenced by Greek art, and they have even copied some. Illyrians even conquered Greek colonies
Greek colonies
on Dalmatian islands. Famous was the queen Teuta
of Issa (today island of Vis) which waged wars with the Romans. But finally, Rome subdued the Illyrians
in the 1st century, cesar and after that the history of these parts is a history of Illyrian provinces
Illyrian provinces
of Rome and Byzantium. The Romans[2] organized the entire coastal territory by transforming citadels to urban cities. There have been at least thirty cities in Istria, Liburnia
and Dalmatia
with Roman citizenship (civitas). The best-preserved networks of Roman streets (decumanus/cardo) are those in Epetion (Poreč) and Jader (Zadar). The best preserved Roman monuments are in Pola (Pula) including an Amphitheater
(an arena) from the 2nd century. In the 3rd century AD, the city of Salona
was the largest (with 40,000 inhabitants) and most important city of Dalmatia. Near the city, emperor Diocletian, born in Salona, built Diocletian's Palace
Diocletian's Palace
(around year 300 AD),[3] which is the largest and most important monument of late antique architecture in the World. In the 4th century, Salona became the center of Christianity for entire western Balkans. It hade numerous basilicas and necropolises, and even two saints: Domnius (Duje) and Anastasius (Staš). One of few preserved basilicas in western Europe (beside ones in Ravenna) from the time of early Byzantium
is Euphrasian Basilica
Euphrasian Basilica
in Poreč
from the 6th century.

Church of St. Donatus in Zadar, from the 9th century

The early Middle Ages brought the great migration of the Slavs
and this period was perhaps a Dark Age
Dark Age
in the cultural sense until the successful formation of the Slavic states which coexisted with Italic cities that remained on the coast, each of them were modelled like Venice. Visual arts[edit] Main article: Art of Croatia

Portal of the Trogir cathedral
Trogir cathedral
by sculptor Radovan, c. 1240

In the 7th century the Croats, along with other Slavs
and Avars, came from Northern Europe to the region where they live today.[4] The Croatians
were open to Roman art
Roman art
and culture, and most of all to Christianity. Sculpture[edit] The altar enclosure and windows of early medieval churches were highly decorated with a transparent shallow string-like ornament that is called Croatian interlace
Croatian interlace
because the strings were threaded and rethreaded through themselves. Sometimes the engravings in early Croatian script-– Glagolitic
appear. Soon, the Glagolitic
writings were replaced with Latin
ones on altar boundaries and architraves of old-Croatian churches.

Well of Life, Ivan Meštrović, 1905

In Croatian Romanesque sculpture, we have a transformation from decorative interlace relief (Croatian interlace) to figurative relief. The best examples of Romanesque sculpture
Romanesque sculpture
are: the wooden doors of the Split cathedral
Split cathedral
made by Andrija Buvina (c. 1220) and the stone portal of the Trogir cathedral
Trogir cathedral
by the artisan Radovan (c. 1240). Zadar
was an independent Venetian city. The most beautiful examples of Gothic humanism in Zadar
are reliefs in gilded metal as in Arc of St. Simon by artisans from Milan
in 1380. Most prominent modern sculptors include Ivan Meštrović, Antun Augustinčić, Frano Krišnić and others. Painting[edit] Gothic painting is less well-preserved, and the finest works are in Istria
such as the fresco-cycle of Vincent from Kastav in the Church of Holy Mary in Škriljinah near Beram, from 1474. From that time are two of the best and most decorated illuminated liturgical books made by monks from Split, Hvals’ Zbornik (today in Zagreb) and the Missal of the Bosnian Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (now in Istanbul). The most prominent painter from Croatia
was Federiko Benković
Federiko Benković
who worked almost his entire life in Italy, while an Italian, Francesco Robba, did the best Baroque sculptures in Croatia. In Austrian countries at the beginning of the 19th century the Romantic movement in Croatia
was sentimental, gentle and subtle. Vlaho Bukovac brought the spirit of impressionism from Paris, and he strongly influenced the young artists (including the authors of "Golden Hall"). On the Millennium Exhibition in Budapest
they were able to set aside all other artistic options in Austro-Hungary. The turbulent 20th century re-oriented Croatia
politically on many occasions and affected it in many other ways, but it could not significantly alter its already peculiar position at the crossroads of many different cultures.

Page from Fragmenta Vindobonensia
Fragmenta Vindobonensia
dated 11th/12th century from the west of Croatia[5]

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Croatia Music in Croatia
has two major influences: Central European, present in the central and northern parts of the country including Slavonia, and Mediterranean, particularly present in the coastal regions of Dalmatia
and Istria. In Croatia, both pop and rock are popular, and often incorporates Dalmatian or Slavonian folk elements. Since the mid-20th century, schlagers and chanson-inspired music have formed the backbone of the Croatian popular music. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Croatia People in Croatia
enjoy free government-sponsored education at the primary and secondary level, and partially free university education. There are over 800 primary schools and over 400 secondary schools in the country. The higher education is also government-sponsored, and mostly free for students who enroll with better results. There are thirty two various polytechnic schools, as well as seven universities in seven larger cities: Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik, and Pula. Each of the universities in Croatia
is composed of many independent "faculties" (Croatian fakultet, meaning college or department), which focus on specific areas of learning: Natural Sciences, Philosophy, Law, Engineering, Economy, Architecture, Medicine, and so on. There are also a number of other educational and scientific institutions, such as institutes (most notably the Ruđer Bošković Institute) or the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, a learned society promoting language, culture, and science from its first conception in 1866. The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
was instrumental in the founding of many educational facilities in Croatia. The Catholic Church in Croatia continues to maintain numerous seminaries and theological faculties in the country, as well as the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome for Croatian students in Rome. Places[edit]

Plitvice Lakes, IUCN
Category II (National Park)

has marked seven places in Croatia
as World Heritage Sites:

Episcopal complex of the Euphrasian Basilica
Euphrasian Basilica
in the historic center of Poreč The cathedral of St. James in Šibenik Historic city of Trogir Diocletian's Palace, built by Roman Emperor Diocletian Old city of Dubrovnik Plitvice Lakes Stari Grad Plain
Stari Grad Plain
on the Adriatic
island of Hvar, parceled by Ancient Greece

Regarding conservation and natural beauty, Croatia
has eight national parks, mostly situated along the Adriatic
coast. Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Croatia

of St Stephen
St Stephen
in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, the 14th century interior

The oldest preserved examples of architecture in Croatia
are the 9th century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Donatus of Zadar
and Church of Holy Trinity, Split.[6][7] Some of the first churches[8] build by the Croats
were royal sanctuaries, and the influences of Roman art
Roman art
were the strongest in Dalmatia
where urbanization was most dense, and there were the largest number of monuments. Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong influence of renaissance architecture in major urban areas best exemplified in works of Venetian Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino. Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions. Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Varaždin and Karlovac.[9][10] Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
was reflected in contemporary architecture.[11] Festivities and traditions[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2015)

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Croatian cuisine Croatian cuisine
Croatian cuisine
is heterogeneous, and is therefore known as "the cuisine of regions". Its modern roots date back to proto-Slavic and ancient periods and the differences in the selection of foodstuffs and forms of cooking are most notable between those on the mainland and those in coastal regions. Mainland cuisine is more characterized by the earlier proto-Slavic and the more recent contacts with the more famous gastronomic orders of today, Hungarian, Viennese and Turkish, while the coastal region bears the influences of the Greek, Roman and Illyrian, as well as of the later Mediterranean cuisine, including Italian and French. A large body of books bears witness to the high level of gastronomic culture in Croatia, which in European terms dealt with food in the distant past, such as the Gazophylacium by Belostenec, a Latin-Kajkavian dictionary dating from 1740 that preceded a similar French dictionary. There is also Beletristic literature by Marulić, Hektorović, Držić and other writers, down to the work written by Ivan Bierling in 1813 containing recipes for the preparation of 554 various dishes (translated from the German original), and which is considered to be the first Croatian cookbook. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Croatia Since independence Croatia
has been a fairly successful sporting country. The most popular team sports have been association football (soccer). The Croatian Football Federation
Croatian Football Federation
(Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.[12] Other popular sports are handball, basketball and to some extent water polo. The most popular sports played mainly by individuals are tennis, skiing, swimming, and to some extent table tennis and chess. The nation's arenas are primarily used for handball and basketball games. Entertainment[edit]

Science fiction in Croatia


List of radio stations in Croatia List of Croatian language
Croatian language
television channels Television in Croatia

See also[edit]


Natural and Cultural Heritage of Croatia List of museums in Croatia


^ "Culture and History". Croatian National Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.  ^ "Roman Art". Artchive.com. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Map, The Megalithic Portal and Megalith. "Diocletian's Palace". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Valentin V. Sedov, Slavs
in the Early Middle Ages Archived 2013-11-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Žagar, Mateo (1 January 2005). "Grapholinguistic description of Becki listici". Bib.irb.hr. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ "CROATIAN ART HISTORY – OVERVIEW OF PREHISTORY". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (Croatia). Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ "Church of Saint Donat". Zadar
Tourist Board. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ The First Croatian State Archived 2008-03-31 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Varaždin – Baroque Capital of Croatia". Varaždin County
Varaždin County
Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ "Najljepši gradovi Sjeverne Hrvatske – Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin" [The Most Beautiful Cities of the Northern Croatia
– Karlovac, Ozalj, Ogulin]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 14 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ Darja Radović Mahečić (2006). "Sekvenca secesije – arhitekt Lav Kalda" [Sequence of the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
– Architect Lav Kalda] (PDF). Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti (in Croatian). Institute of Art History (Croatia). 30: 241–264. ISSN 0350-3437. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ "About Croatian Football Federation". Croatian Football Federation. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Culture of Croatia.

External links[edit]

Croatian Cultural Center of Greater Los Angeles Croatian Cultural Heritage - digital collection of Croatian cultural heritage Arts and literature

Prehistory art in Croatia Antiquity in Croatia Croatian Culture Links Preromanesque art of coastal Croatia Croatia
Arts and Literature Croatian cultural heritage Online library of major Croatian literary works from Renaissance to Modernism. In Croatian only


Ministry of Science: the list of institutes and general survey Higher Education: Complete directory of higher education institutes in Croatia


Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments
Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments
home page Institute for Ethnology and Folklore Lado National Folklore Ansamble The History of Necktie

Nature Protection

State Institute for Nature Protection - Croatia

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Croatia articles


Prehistoric Origins of Croats White Croatia Red Croatia Dalmatian Croatia Pannonian Croatia Pagania Zahumlje Travunija Medieval kingdom Personal union with Hungary Republic of Ragusa Croatia
in the Habsburg Empire Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia State of Slovenes, Croats
and Serbs Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Banovina of Croatia

World War II

Independent State

Socialist Republic War of Independence Croatia
since 1995 European Union


Climate Extreme points Islands Lakes Mammals Mountains Protected areas Rivers Topography


Administrative divisions

cities counties municipalities

Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government

Prime Minister

Human rights


LGBT history Law enforcement Military Parliament Political parties President Security and intelligence


Brands Energy Gross domestic product (GDP) Industry Kuna (currency) National Bank Privatization Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transport


Demographics Croats Women Education Ethnic groups Healthcare Languages Religion


Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Croatian language Literature Music Public holidays Radio stations Sport Television


Anthem Coat of arms Costume Decorations Flags

national flag

Interlace Motto Name

Outline Index

Category Portal

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Culture of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

European Union

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World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in Croatia

of St. James, Šibenik Dubrovnik Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica, Poreč Plitvice Lakes Split with the Palace of Diocletian Stari Grad Plain Trogir Stećak

Dubravka Cista Velika

Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries 2

Zadar Šibenik

Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe 3

Paklenica Sjeverni Velebit

1 shared with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
and Serbia 2 shared with Italy
and Montenegro 3 shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
and Ukraine

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Protected areas of Croatia

National parks

Brijuni Kornati Krka Mljet Northern Velebit Paklenica Plitvice Lakes Risnjak

Nature parks

Biokovo Kopačevo Marsh Lastovo Lonjsko polje Medvednica Papuk Telašćica Učka Velebit Lake Vrana Žumbera


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