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v t e

Cuban Americans
Americans
(Spanish: Cubanoamericanos)[3] are Americans
Americans
who trace their ancestry to Cuba. The word may refer to someone born in the U.S. of Cuban descent or to someone who has emigrated to the U.S.
U.S.
from Cuba. Cuban Americans
Americans
are the third-largest Latino group in the United States. Many communities throughout the United States
United States
have significant Cuban American populations.[4] Florida
Florida
(1.49 million in 2016) has the highest concentration of Cuban Americans
Americans
in the US,[5][6] standing out in part because of its proximity to Cuba, followed by California (91,438), Texas
Texas
(90,376), New Jersey
New Jersey
(85,935), and New York (70,947). South Florida
Florida
is followed by New York City, Tampa, Union County and North Hudson, New Jersey
New Jersey
areas, particularly Union City, Elizabeth and West New York.[4] With a population of 141,250, the New York metropolitan area's Cuban community is the largest outside Florida. Nearly 70% of all Cuban Americans
Americans
live in Florida.[6]

Contents

1 Immigration

1.1 Early migrations 1.2 Key West
Key West
and Tampa, Florida 1.3 Other early waves (1900–1959) 1.4 Post-Castro revolution (1959–2016) 1.5 1980s 1.6 Mid-1990s to 2000s

2 Immigration policy 3 Demographics

3.1 Ancestry 3.2 U.S.
U.S.
states with largest Cuban populations 3.3 US metropolitan areas with largest Cuban populations 3.4 U.S.
U.S.
communities with high percentages of people of Cuban ancestry 3.5 U.S.
U.S.
communities with the most residents born in Cuba

4 Culture

4.1 Assimilation 4.2 Religion 4.3 Language 4.4 Food and drink

4.4.1 Beverages

5 Political beliefs 6 Socioeconomics

6.1 Education

7 Notable Cuban Americans

7.1 In the United States
United States
Congress 7.2 In state government 7.3 Notable People 7.4 Television & Entertainment 7.5 Singers & Songwriters 7.6 Athletes

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Immigration[edit] Main articles: Cuban immigration to the United States
Cuban immigration to the United States
and Cuban migration to Miami See also: Cuban exile Early migrations[edit] Before the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
and the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819, Spanish Florida, and when divided during British occupation, East Florida
Florida
and West Florida, including what is now Florida
Florida
and the Gulf Coast west to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River were provinces of the Captaincy General of Cuba
Cuba
(Captain General being the Spanish title equivalent to the British colonial Governor). Consequently, Cuban immigration to the U.S.
U.S.
has a long history, beginning in the Spanish colonial period in 1565 when St. Augustine, Florida
Florida
was established by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, and hundreds of Spanish-Cuban soldiers and their families moved from Cuba
Cuba
to St. Augustine to establish a new life. Thousands of Cuban settlers also immigrated to Louisiana
Louisiana
between 1778 and 1802 and Texas
Texas
during the period of Spanish rule.[citation needed] Since 1820, the Cuban presence was more than 1,000 people. In 1870 the number of Cuban immigrants increased to almost 12,000, of which about 4,500 resided in New York City, about 3,000 in New Orleans, and 2,000 in Key West. The causes of these movements were both economic and political, which intensified after 1860, when political factors played the predominant role in emigration, as a result of deteriorating relations with the Spanish metropolis. The year 1869 marked the beginning of one of the most significant periods of emigration from Cuba
Cuba
to the United States, again centered on Key West. The exodus of hundreds of workers and businessmen was linked to the manufacture of tobacco. The reasons are many: the introduction of more modern techniques of elaboration of snuff, the most direct access to its main market, the United States, the uncertainty about the future of the island, which had suffered years of economic, political and social unrest during the beginning of the Ten Years' War against Spanish rule. It was an exodus of skilled workers, precisely the class in the island that had succeeded in establishing a free labor sector amid a slave economy. The manufacture of snuff by the Cuban labor force, became the most important source of income for Key West
Key West
between 1869 and 1900. Tampa
Tampa
was added to such efforts, with a strong migration of Cubans, which went from 720 inhabitants in 1880 to 5,532 in 1890. However, the second half of the 1890s marked the decline of the Cuban immigrant population, as an important part of it returned to the island to fight for independence. The War accentuated Cuban immigrant integration into American society, whose numbers were significant: more than 12,000 people.[7]

Statue of Jose Martí
Jose Martí
at the Circulo Cubano (Cuban Club), Ybor City

Key West
Key West
and Tampa, Florida[edit] In the mid- to late 19th century, several cigar manufacturers moved their operations to Key West
Key West
to get away from growing disruptions as Cubans
Cubans
sought independence from Spanish colonial rule. Many Cuban cigar workers followed. The Cuban government had even established a grammar school in Key West
Key West
to help preserve Cuban culture. There, children learned folk songs and patriotic hymns such as "La Bayamesa", the Cuban national anthem. In 1885, Vicente Martinez Ybor
Vicente Martinez Ybor
moved his cigar operations from Key West to the town of Tampa, Florida
Florida
to escape labor strife. Ybor City was designed as a modified company town, and it quickly attracted thousands of Cuban workers from Key West
Key West
and Cuba. West Tampa, another new cigar manufacturing community, was founded nearby in 1892 and also grew quickly. Between these communities, the Tampa
Tampa
Bay area's Cuban population grew from almost nothing to the largest in Florida
Florida
in just over a decade, and the city as a whole grew from a village of approximately 1000 residents in 1885 to over 16,000 by 1900. Both Ybor City
Ybor City
and West Tampa
Tampa
were instrumental in Cuba's eventual independence.[8] Inspired by revolutionaries such as Jose Martí, who visited Florida
Florida
several times, Tampa-area Cubans
Cubans
and their sympathetic neighbors donated money, equipment, and sometimes their lives to the cause of Cuba
Cuba
Libre.[9] After the Spanish–American War, some Cubans returned to their native land, but many chose to stay in the U.S.
U.S.
due to the physical and economic devastation caused by years of fighting on the island.[10] Other early waves (1900–1959)[edit] Several other small waves of Cuban emigration to the U.S.
U.S.
occurred in the early 20th century (1900–1959). Most settled in Florida
Florida
and the northeast U.S.
U.S.
The majority of an estimated 100,000 Cubans
Cubans
arriving in that time period usually came for economic reasons (the Great Depression of 1929, volatile sugar prices and migrant farm labor contracts),[citation needed] but included anti-Batista refugees fleeing the military dictatorship, which had pro- U.S.
U.S.
diplomatic ties. During the '20s and '30s, emigration from Cuba
Cuba
to U.S.
U.S.
territory, basically comprised workers looking for jobs, mainly in New York and New Jersey. They were classified as labor migrants and workers, much like other immigrants in the area at that time. Thus migrated more than 40,149 in the first decade, encouraged by U.S.
U.S.
immigration facilities at the time and more than 43,400 by the end of the 30s.[citation needed] Subsequently, the flow of Cubans
Cubans
to the United States
United States
fluctuated, due to both the domestic situation in the 40s and 50s in Cuba, and U.S. immigration policies, plus intermittent anti-immigrant sentiment. Cuban Migration in those years included, in addition to workers, a small mass of the population who could afford to leave the country and live abroad. The U.S.
U.S.
was considered a favored destination by the Cuban bourgeoisie and the middle classes of society, to send their children to school, take vacations and bring some of their capital to establish small and medium-sized businesses.[citation needed] The Cuban population officially registered in the United States
United States
for 1958 was around 125,000 people including descendants. Of these, more than 50,000 remained in the United States
United States
after the revolution of 1959.[7] Post-Castro revolution (1959–2016)[edit] After the Cuban revolution
Cuban revolution
led by Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in 1959, a Cuban exodus began as the new government allied itself with the Soviet Union and began to introduce communism. The first Cubans
Cubans
to come to America after the revolution were those affiliated with former dictator Fulgencio Batista, next were Cuba's professionals. Most Cuban Americans
Americans
that arrived in the United States
United States
initially came from Cuba's educated upper and middle classes centered in Cuba's capital Havana. This middle class arose in the period after the Platt Amendment
Platt Amendment
when Cuba
Cuba
became one of the most successful countries in Latin America. Between December 1960 and October 1962 more than 14,000 Cuban children arrived alone in the U.S.
U.S.
Their parents were afraid that their children were going to be sent to some Soviet bloc countries to be educated[citation needed] and they decided to send them to the States as soon as possible.[citation needed] This program was called Operation Peter Pan (Operacion Pedro Pan). When the children arrived in Miami
Miami
they were met by representatives of Catholic Charities and they were sent to live with relatives if they had any or were sent to foster homes, orphanages or boarding schools until their parents could leave Cuba. From 1965 to 1973, there was another wave of immigration known as the Freedom Flights. In order to provide aid to recently arrived Cuban immigrants, the United States Congress passed the Cuban Adjustment Act
Cuban Adjustment Act
in 1966. The Cuban Refugee Program provided more than $1.3 billion of direct financial assistance. They also were eligible for public assistance, Medicare, free English courses, scholarships, and low-interest college loans.[citation needed] Some banks pioneered loans for exiles who did not have collateral or credit but received help in getting a business loan. These loans enabled many Cuban Americans
Americans
to secure funds and start up their own businesses. With their Cuban-owned businesses and low cost of living, Miami, Florida
Florida
and Union City, New Jersey
New Jersey
(dubbed Havana on the Hudson)[11][12] were the preferred destinations for many immigrants and soon became the main centers for Cuban-American culture. According to author Lisandro Perez, Miami
Miami
was not particularly attractive to Cubans
Cubans
prior to the 1960s.[13] It was not until the exodus of the Cuban exiles in 1959 that Miami started to become a preferred destination. Westchester within Miami-Dade County, was the area most densely populated by Cubans
Cubans
and Cuban Americans
Americans
in the United States, followed by Hialeah in second.[14] Communities like Miami, Tampa, and Union City, which Cuban Americans have made their home, have experienced a profound cultural impact as a result, as seen in such aspects of their local culture as cuisine, fashion, music, entertainment and cigar-making.[15][16] 1980s[edit] Another large wave (an estimated 125,000 people) of Cuban immigration occurred in the early 1980s with the Mariel boatlifts. Most of the "Marielitos" were people wanting to escape from communism, and have succeeded in establishing their roots in the US.[citation needed] Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
sent some 20,000 criminals directly from Cuban prisons, as well as mentally ill persons from Cuban mental institutions, with the alleged double purpose of cleaning up Cuban society and poisoning the USA. Those people were labeled "unadmissible" by the US government, and with time, through many negotiations, have been returned to Cuba.[citation needed] Mid-1990s to 2000s[edit] Since the mid-1990s, after the implementation of the "Wet feet, dry feet" policy immigration patterns changed. Many Cuban immigrants departed from the southern and western coasts of Cuba
Cuba
and arrived at the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
in Mexico; many landed on Isla Mujeres. From there Cuban immigrants traveled to the Texas- Mexico
Mexico
border and found asylum. Many of the Cubans
Cubans
who did not have family in Miami
Miami
settled in Houston; this has caused Houston's Cuban-American community to increase in size. The term "dusty foot" refers to Cubans
Cubans
emigrating to the U.S.
U.S.
through Mexico. In 2005 the Department of Homeland Security had abandoned the approach of detaining every dry foot Cuban who crosses through Texas
Texas
and began a policy allowing most Cubans
Cubans
to obtain immediate parole.[17] Jorge Ferragut, a Cuban immigrant who founded Casa Cuba, an agency that assists Cuban immigrants arriving in Texas, said in a 2008 article that many Cuban immigrants of the first decade of the 21st century left due to economic instead of political issues.[18] By October 2008 Mexico
Mexico
and Cuba
Cuba
created an agreement to prevent immigration of Cubans
Cubans
through Mexico.[19][20] In recent years,[when?] Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
has become a major drop-off point for Cubans
Cubans
trying to reach the United States
United States
illegally. As a U.S. Commonwealth, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
is seen as a stepping stone for Cubans trying to get to the continental U.S., though Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
itself is home to a number of Cubans.[21] Immigration policy[edit] Before the 1980s, all refugees from Cuba
Cuba
were welcomed into the United States as political refugees. This changed in the 1990s so that only Cubans
Cubans
who reach U.S.
U.S.
soil are granted refuge under the "wet foot, dry foot policy". While representing a tightening of U.S.
U.S.
immigration policy, the wet foot, dry foot policy still affords Cubans
Cubans
a privileged position relative to other immigrants to the U.S.
U.S.
This privileged position is the source of a certain friction between Cuban Americans
Americans
and other Latino citizens and residents in the United States, adding to the tension caused by the divergent foreign policy interests pursued by conservative Cuban Americans. Cuban immigration also continues with an allotted number of Cubans
Cubans
(20,000 per year) provided legal U.S.
U.S.
visas.[citation needed] According to a U.S.
U.S.
Census 1970 report, Cuban Americans
Americans
as well as Latinos lived in all fifty states. But as later Census reports demonstrated, the majority of Cuban immigrants settled in south Florida. A new trend in the late 1990s showed that fewer immigrants arrived from Cuba
Cuba
than previously. While U.S.-born Cuban Americans moved out of their enclaves, other nationalities settled there.[22] In late 1999, U.S.
U.S.
news media focused on the case of Elián González, the six-year-old Cuban boy caught in a custody battle between his relatives in Miami
Miami
and his father in Cuba, after the boy's mother died trying to bring him to the United States. On April 22, 2000, ICE (now USCIS) agents took Elián González
Elián González
to the Cuban Interests Section in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
From there, his father took him back to Cuba.[citation needed] On January 12, 2017, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced the immediate cessation of the wet feet, dry feet policy.[23] The Cuban government agreed to accept the return of Cuban nationals.[24] Beginning with the United States–Cuban Thaw
United States–Cuban Thaw
in 2014, anticipation of the end of the policy had led to increased numbers of Cuban immigrants.[25] Demographics[edit] In the census in 2000 there were 1,241,685 Cuban Americans, and in the 2010 census there were 1,785,547 (both native and foreign born), and represented 3.5% of all Hispanics, and 0.58% of the US population. 983,147 were born abroad in Cuba, 628,331 were U.S born and of the 1.6 million, 415,212 were not U.S citizens.[26] In the 2013 ACS, there were 2,013,155 Cuban Americans. The 2010 US Census
2010 US Census
shows that 85% report of Cubans
Cubans
that immigrated to the USA from Cuba
Cuba
identify as being white.[27] The most recent 2012 Cuban census has the island population at 64.12% white, 26.62% mulatto, 9.26% black, and 0.1% Asian.[28] Ancestry[edit] Further information: Cuban people The ancestry of Cuban Americans
Americans
is primarily from Spaniards
Spaniards
and Black Africans[29], as well as more distant ancestry from among the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean and those of Florida. During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, there were waves of Spanish immigration to Cuba
Cuba
(Castilians, Basques, Canarians, Catalans, Andalusians, Asturians and Galicians). Canarians
Canarians
immigrated to many countries along the Caribbean from Louisiana
Louisiana
to Venezuela. But Cuba was the Latin American culture most influenced by the emigration of Canary Islanders (they developed the production of sugar in Cuba), and Cuban Spanish
Cuban Spanish
is closest to that of the Canary Islands. Canary Islanders were viewed by other Spanish- Cubans
Cubans
as superstitious but also hard-working. Some of Haiti’s white population (French) migrated to Cuba
Cuba
after the Haitian War of Independence in the early 18th century. Also, minor but significant ethnic influx is derived from diverse peoples from Middle East places such as Lebanon and Palestine. There was also a significant influx of Jews, especially between the World Wars, from many countries, including Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
from Turkey and Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
from Poland, Germany and Russia. Other Europeans that have contributed slightly include Italians, Germans, Swedes, and Hungarians. Many Chinese also settled Cuba
Cuba
as contract laborers and they formerly boast the largest Chinatown
Chinatown
in Western Hemisphere as most Chinese Cubans
Chinese Cubans
left for Florida. U.S.
U.S.
states with largest Cuban populations[edit] The Top 10 US states with the largest Cuban populations are: [30]

State or territory Cuban-American population (2010 Census)[31][32] Percentage[note 1][6]

 Alabama 4,064 0.1

 Alaska 927 0.1

 Arizona 10,692 0.2

 Arkansas 1,493 0.1

 California 88,607 0.2

 Colorado 6,253 0.1

 Connecticut 9,490 0.3

 Delaware 1,443 0.2

 District of Columbia 1,789 0.3

 Florida 1,213,438 6.5

Georgia 25,048 0.3

 Hawaii 1,544 0.1

 Idaho 825 0.1

 Illinois 22,541 0.2

 Indiana 4,042 0.1

 Iowa 1,226 0.0

 Kansas 2,723 0.1

 Kentucky 9,323 0.2

 Louisiana 10,330 0.2

 Maine 783 0.1

 Maryland 10,366 0.2

 Massachusetts 11,306 0.2

 Michigan 9,922 0.1

 Minnesota 3,661 0.1

 Mississippi 2,063 0.1

 Missouri 4,979 0.1

 Montana 421 0.0

 Nebraska 2,152 0.1

 Nevada 21,459 0.8

 New Hampshire 1,349 0.1

 New Jersey 83,362 0.9

 New Mexico 4,298 0.2

 New York 70,803 0.4

 North Carolina 18,079 0.2

  North Dakota 260 0.0

 Ohio 7,523 0.1

 Oklahoma 2,755 0.1

 Oregon 4,923 0.1

 Pennsylvania 17,930 0.1

 Rhode Island 1,640 0.2

 South Carolina 5,955 0.1

 South Dakota 265 0.0

 Tennessee 7,773 0.1

 Texas 46,541 0.2

 Utah 1,963 0.1

 Vermont 510 0.1

 Virginia 15,229 0.2

 Washington 6,744 0.1

 West Virginia 764 0.0

 Wisconsin 3,696 0.1

 Wyoming 275 0.0

USA 1,785,547 0.6

US metropolitan areas with largest Cuban populations[edit] The largest populations of Cubans
Cubans
are situated in the following metropolitan areas (Source: Census 2010):[6]

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL MSA – 982,758 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA-CT MSA – 135,391 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA
– 81,542 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA – 49,702 Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA
– 36,724 Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA
– 20,633 Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA – 20,569 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA – 19,130 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA – 17,648 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA – 14,527

U.S.
U.S.
communities with high percentages of people of Cuban ancestry[edit]

Cubans
Cubans
in the US, 2000 census.

The top 25 US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Cuban ancestry are (the top 22 of which are in Miami-Dade County):

Westchester, Florida
Florida
65.69% Hialeah, Florida
Florida
62.12% Coral Terrace, Florida
Florida
61.87% West Miami, Florida
Florida
61.61% University Park, Florida
Florida
59.80% Olympia Heights, Florida
Florida
57.65% Tamiami, Florida
Florida
56.63% Hialeah Gardens, Florida
Florida
54.31% Medley, Florida
Florida
51.91% Sweetwater, Florida
Florida
49.92% Palm Springs North, Florida
Florida
43.59% Miami
Miami
Lakes, Florida
Florida
42.28% Kendale Lakes, Florida
Florida
38.58% Fontainebleau, Florida
Florida
37.29% Miami, Florida
Florida
34.14% Miami
Miami
Springs, Florida
Florida
31.83% Richmond West, Florida
Florida
29.30% Coral Gables, Florida
Florida
28.72% Virginia
Virginia
Gardens, Florida
Florida
26.11% South Miami
Miami
Heights, Florida
Florida
25.70% Kendall, Florida
Florida
21.31% Miami
Miami
Beach, Florida
Florida
20.51% Ybor City, Florida
Florida
20.28% West Tampa, Florida
Florida
20.23% Surfside, Florida
Florida
20.15%

U.S.
U.S.
communities with the most residents born in Cuba[edit] For total 101 communities, see the reference given. Top 20 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Cuba
Cuba
are (all of which are located within Miami):[33]

Westchester, Florida
Florida
55.8% Hialeah, Florida
Florida
53.5% Coral Terrace, Florida
Florida
51.9% West Miami, Florida
Florida
50.5% South Westside, FL 48.3%[34] University Park, Florida
Florida
48.1% Hialeah Gardens, Florida
Florida
47.5% Medley, Florida
Florida
46.0% Tamiami, Florida
Florida
45.7% Olympia Heights, Florida
Florida
45.2% Sweetwater, Florida
Florida
45.2% Westwood Lakes, Florida
Florida
44.9% Sunset, Florida
Florida
32.7% Fountainbleau, Florida
Florida
32.3% North Westside, FL 30.4%[35] Miami, Florida
Florida
30.3% Miami
Miami
Lakes, Florida
Florida
30.1% Palm Springs North, Florida
Florida
29.8% Kendale Lakes, Florida
Florida
28.9% Kendale Lakes-Lindgren Acres, FL 24.3%[36]

Culture[edit] Assimilation[edit]

The Bay of Pigs Memorial in Little Havana, Miami

Many Cuban Americans
Americans
have assimilated themselves into the American culture, which includes Cuban influences. Cuban Americans
Americans
live in all 50 states, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Puerto Rico, which received thousands of anti-Castro refugees as well in the 1960s. Since the 1980s, Cuban Americans
Americans
have moved out of "Little Havana" and "Hialeah" to the suburbs of Miami, such as Kendall, as well in the more affluent Coral Gables and Miami
Miami
Lakes.[citation needed] Many new South and Central Americans, along with new Cuban refugees, have replaced the Cuban Americans
Americans
who have relocated elsewhere in Florida
Florida
(Fort Lauderdale, Orlando, Tampa
Tampa
Bay and West Palm Beach) and dispersed throughout the nation.[citation needed] Nevertheless, Cubans
Cubans
are still heavily concentrated in Florida, which slows assimilation; according to the 2010 Census, 68% of Cuban Americans
Americans
still live in Florida. More recently,[when?] there has been substantial growth of new Cuban American communities in places like Louisville, Kentucky, the Research Triangle area of North Carolina,[37] Katy, Texas, and Downey, California; the latter city now has the second-highest percentage of Cubans
Cubans
and Cuban Americans
Americans
in the Western United States
United States
at 1.96% of the population.[14] Cuban Americans
Americans
have been very successful in establishing businesses and developing political clout in Miami. Cuban Americans
Americans
have also contributed to and participated in many areas of American life including academia, business, acting, politics, and literature.[38] [39] In the last 15 years,[when?] due to the growth of interest around the world for genealogy, Cuban genealogy
Cuban genealogy
has become a major interest for Cuban Americans
Americans
and a growing segment in the family research industry. This has complemented assimilation by preserving Cuban and colonial roots, while also adopting American culture and value [40] Religion[edit]

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Cuban Americans
Americans
are mostly Roman Catholic, but some Cubans
Cubans
practice African traditional religions (such as Santería
Santería
or Ifá), which evolved from mixing the Catholic religion with the traditional African religion. Cuban Catholicism was also influenced by the Catholicism practiced by the Canarian people. However, there are many Protestant (primarily Pentecostal) with small numbers of syncretist, nonreligious or tiny communities of Jewish and Muslim Cuban Americans. The Protestant movement in Cuba
Cuba
started after the Spanish–American War when many Americans
Americans
came to Cuba. Language[edit] Similar to the 67% of other Hispanics, 69% of Cubans
Cubans
under 18 speak a language other than English at home. For Cubans
Cubans
over the age of 18, the percent speaking a language other than English at home climbs to 89%, which is higher than the 80% among other Hispanic groups.[41] Only 12% of Cubans
Cubans
under the age of 18 speak English less than very well, which is much lower than the 20% among other Hispanic groups.[41] Food and drink[edit] See also: Cuban cuisine

A Cuban sandwich

Cuban food is varied, though rice is a staple and commonly served at lunch and dinner. Other common dishes are arroz con pollo (chicken and rice), pan con bistec (steak sandwich), platanos maduros (sweet plantains), lechon asado (pork), yuca (cassava root), flan, batido de mamey (mamey milkshake), papayas, and guava paste. A common lunch staple is the Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
(sometimes called a mixto sandwich), which is built on Cuban bread
Cuban bread
and was created and standardized among cigar workers who traveled between Cuba
Cuba
and Florida (especially Ybor City) around the turn of the 20th century[42][43][44] Cuban versions of pizza contains bread, which is usually soft, and cheese, toppings, and sauce, which is made with spices such as Adobo and Goya onion. Picadillo, ground beef that has been sauteed with tomato, green peppers, green olives, and garlic is another popular Cuban dish. It can be served with black beans and rice, and a side of deep-fried, ripened plantains. Beverages[edit]

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Cuban coffee is popular in the Cuban-American community. Cubans
Cubans
often drink cafe cubano: a small cup of coffee called a cafecito (or a colada), which is traditional espresso coffee, sweetened with sugar, with a little foam on top called espumita. It is also popular to add milk, which is called a cortadito for a small cup or a cafe con leche for a larger cup. A common soft drink is Materva, a Cuban soda made of yerba mate. Jupiña, Ironbeer and Cawy lemon-lime are soft drinks which originated in Cuba. Since the Castro era, they are also produced in Miami. Other famous Cuban drinks include guarapo de caña. A popular drink of Cuban origin is the Cuba
Cuba
Libre, a mix of Cuban rum and cola, usually Coca-Cola and mojitos. Political beliefs[edit] Until recently,[when?] Cuban Americans
Americans
historically tended to be more Republican than Democratic. The failed Bay of Pigs invasion, and its association with John F. Kennedy, left many Cubans
Cubans
distrustful of the Democratic Party.[45][page needed] Many Cuban Americans
Americans
believe that Kennedy deliberately denied Cuban exiles air support, leading to a rout by Castro forces.[citation needed] The trauma of this event has led to speculation about possible Cuban-American involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy. Cuban exiles began an alliance with the Republican Party of Florida. In Florida, Cuban-American congressmen have tended to be Republican, beginning with Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. The presence of Cubans
Cubans
in the Republican Party was highlighted by the 2016 presidential race, which featured U.S.
U.S.
Senators Ted Cruz
Ted Cruz
and Marco Rubio
Marco Rubio
as prominent candidates, both of whom are of Cuban descent. But in New Jersey, another state with many Cuban Americans, Cuban-American congressmen have tended to be Democrats, for example Representative Albio Sires. Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
is particularly popular in the Cuban exile
Cuban exile
community (there is a street in Miami
Miami
named for Reagan),[citation needed] and George W. Bush
George W. Bush
received 75 and 78 percent (in 2000 and 2004 respectively) of the Cuban-American vote. The Cuban-American lobby has also lobbied both parties on causes important to Cuban Americans. In recent years, the Cuban-American vote has become more contested between the parties. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
received 47% of the Cuban-American vote in Florida.[46] According to Bendixen's exit polls, 84% of Miami-Dade Cuban-American voters 65 or older backed McCain, while 55% of those 29 or younger backed Obama.[47] In 2012, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
received 49 percent of the Cuban-American vote in Florida, compared to 47 percent for Mitt Romney according to Edison Research exits polls.[48] By spring 2014, this trend increased among Cuban American
Cuban American
voters having a preference for Democratic Party candidates increased particularly for younger voters aged 18–49, increasing to some 56% for the younger voter demographic, versus Cuban-American voters over 50 years of age having a 39% preference for Democratic candidates.[49] In the 2016 presidential election, there was an uptick in support for the Republican Party among the community, with Donald Trump
Donald Trump
garnering 54 percent of the Floridian Cuban-American vote, as opposed to 41 percent for Hillary Clinton.[50] Socioeconomics[edit] The median household income for U.S.-born Cuban Americans
Americans
is $57,000, higher than the overall U.S.
U.S.
median household income of $52,000.[51] However, the median annual personal earnings for foreign born Cuban Americans
Americans
is $25,000, which is lower than that of US population at $30,000.[51] Education[edit] Among U.S.-born Cuban Americans, 36% have a college degree or higher, compared to 30% for the overall U.S.
U.S.
population. Of foreign-born Cuban Americans, 27% have a college degree. This is higher than the U.S. Hispanic population (14%) but lower than that of the overall U.S. population.[51]

Hispanic and Latino Americans

National origin groups

Argentine Americans Bolivian Americans Brazilian Americans Chilean Americans Colombian Americans Costa Rican Americans Cuban Americans Dominican Americans Ecuadorian Americans Guatemalan Americans Honduran Americans Mexican Americans Nicaraguan Americans Panamanian Americans Paraguayan Americans Peruvian Americans Puerto Ricans (stateside) Salvadoran Americans Spanish Americanss Uruguayan Americans Venezuelan Americans

History

History of Hispanic and Latino Americans History of Mexican Americans

Colonial casta system

castizo cholo criollo mestizo mulato pardo/moreno zambo

Political movements

Chicano
Chicano
Movement Hispanic and Latino American politics

Organizations

Association of Hispanic Arts Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Hispanic Conference LULAC MALDEF MEChA NALEO NALFO National Council of La Raza National Hispanic Institute RNHA SHPE UFW USHCC

Culture

Literature Music Religion Studies

Related national groups

Belizean Americans Brazilian Americans Filipino Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Portuguese Americans Spanish Americans Surinamese Americans

Languages

English Spanglish Spanish Cuban Spanish

United States

New Mexican Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups

Californio Chicano Hispano Isleño Nuevomexicano Nuyorican Tejano

Lists

Communities with Hispanic majority Hispanic and Latino Americans Puerto Rico Related topics

v t e

Notable Cuban Americans[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Cuban Americans. In the United States
United States
Congress[edit] Eight Cuban Americans
Americans
currently serve in the United States
United States
Congress. There have been seven Cuban-American US representatives elected from Florida, two from New Jersey, and one each from Texas
Texas
and West Virginia.

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Congresswoman from Florida’s 27th Congressional District (1989–present)

Bob Menendez, U.S Senator from New Jersey
New Jersey
(2006–present)

Marco Rubio, U.S Senator from Florida
Florida
(2011–present)

Ted Cruz, U.S Senator from Texas
Texas
(2013–present)

Three United States
United States
Senators:

Marco Rubio, Republican, Florida, (2011–present) Bob Menendez, Democrat, New Jersey
New Jersey
(2006–present), Member of the U.S.
U.S.
House of Representatives from New Jersey's 13th district (1993–2006) Ted Cruz, Republican, Texas
Texas
(2013–present)

Five are United States
United States
Representatives:

Mario Diaz-Balart, Republican, Florida's 25th congressional district (2003–present) Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Republican, Florida's 27th congressional district (1989–present), first Cuban-American and first Latina elected to Congress Albio Sires, Democrat, New Jersey's 8th congressional district (2006–present) Alex Mooney, Republican, West Virginia's 2nd district (2015–present) Carlos Curbelo, Republican, Florida's 26th district (2015–present)

Former Congressmen:

Mel Martínez, Republican, U.S Senator from Florida
Florida
(2005–09) Lincoln Diaz-Balart, Republican, Miami, U.S House of Representatives (1993–2011) David Rivera, Republican, Miami, U.S House of Representatives (2011–13) Joe Garcia, Democrat, Florida's 26th congressional district (2013–15)

In state government[edit] Cuban Americans
Americans
have had much success at the state level. In Florida, where Cuban-American legislators hold more seats than anywhere else in the nation, pro-democracy, anti-Castro, and anti-Chavez legislation is often promoted and passed even though states cannot dictate foreign policy. Even in states where Cuban Americans
Americans
are not concentrated in large numbers they have had successes especially in New Jersey, where albeit a tiny minority concentrated in Union City, Elizabeth, and Newark, they have had enormous political successes.[citation needed]

Governor of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Chris Sununu

Lt.Governor of Florida
Florida
Carlos Lopez-Cantera

Anitere Flores, Florida
Florida
Senate, Majority Whip

Florida:

Carlos Lopez-Cantera, Republican, Lieutenant Governor of Florida, (2014–present) Anitere Flores, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
Senate from the 37th district Miguel Díaz de la Portilla, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
Senate from the 40th district René García, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
Senate from the 38th district José Félix Díaz, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 116th district Manny Díaz, Jr., Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 103rd district Eduardo Gonzalez, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 111th district Jeanette Núñez, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 119th district Carlos Trujillo, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 105th district Erik Fresen, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 114th district Frank Artiles, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 118th district José R. Oliva, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 110th district Mike La Rosa, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 42nd district José Javier Rodríguez, Democrat, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 112th district

New Hampshire:

John H. Sununu, Republican, Governor of New Hampshire, (1983–1989) Chris Sununu, Republican, Governor of New Hampshire, (2017–present)

New Jersey:

Vincent Prieto, Democrat, Speaker of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly (2014–Present), Member of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly from the 32nd Legislative District (2004–Present) Angelica Jimenez, Democrat, Member of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly from the 32nd Legislative District (2012–Present) Carmelo Garcia, Democrat, New Jersey Marlene Caride. Democrat, New Jersey

New York:

Nicole Malliotakis, Republican, Staten Island, Member of the New York General Assembly from the 64th district

Connecticut:

Art Linares, Republican, Westbrook, Member of the Connecticut
Connecticut
State Senate from the 33rd district

Nevada:

Moises “Mo” Denis, Democrat, Member of the Nevada
Nevada
Senate from the 2nd district

Eduardo Aguirre (R) served as Vice Chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the United States
United States
in the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration and later named Director of Immigration and Naturalization Services under the Department of Homeland Security. In 2006, Eduardo Aguirre was named US ambassador to Spain. Cuban Americans
Americans
have also served other high-profile government jobs including White House Chief of Staff
White House Chief of Staff
John H. Sununu (R) Florida-based businessman and Cuban exile
Cuban exile
Elviro Sanchez made his multimillion-dollar fortune by investing the proceeds of his family's fruit plantations. He is one of the most low-profile philanthropists in the Southern States. Cuban Americans
Americans
also serve in high-ranking judicial positions as well. Danny Boggs is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
and Raoul G. Cantero, III, served as a Florida
Florida
Supreme Court justice until stepping down in 2008. Notable People[edit]

José Raúl Capablanca

Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

Richard Blanco

Alfred-Maurice de Zayas

Oscar Hijuelos

Ambrosio José Gonzales

Luis Walter Alvarez

Alicia Alonso

Calixto García

Carlos Finlay

Television & Entertainment[edit]

Desi Arnaz

Andy Garcia

Eva Mendes

Cameron Diaz

Cesar Romero

Rosario Dawson

Joanna García

Gina Torres

Bella Thorne

William Levy

Christina Milian

César Évora

Guillermo Díaz

Enrique Murciano

Nestor Carbonell

Laz Alonso

Marilyn Milian

Ana de Armas

David Gallagher

Carlos Ponce

Cristina Saralegui

Raúl De Molina

Lili Estefan

Joey Diaz

Singers & Songwriters[edit]

Celia Cruz

Gloria Estefan

Pitbull

Arturo Sandoval

Emilio Estefan

Sammy Davis Jr.

B-Real

Willy Chirino

Camila Cabello

Cris Cab

Jencarlos Canela

Fat Joe

Athletes[edit]

Dara Torres

Ryan Lochte

Monica Puig

Amy Rodriguez

Tino Martinez

Luis Gonzalez

Tony Pérez

José Fernández

Jose Canseco

Brook Lopez

Kiko Alonso

Yoenis Céspedes

Robin Lopez

Luis Tiant

Orlando Hernández
Orlando Hernández
"Duque"

John Carlos

Aric Almirola

Al Montoya

Bronson Arroyo

Liván Hernández

Jorge Posada

J. P. Arencibia

Alex Avila

See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Caribbean portal Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
portal Cuba
Cuba
portal

Cubans
Cubans
in Miami Cubans Cuban British White Cuban Spanish American Afro-Cuban Hispanos White Hispanic and Latino Americans White Latin American Black
Black
Hispanic Afro-Latin American Cuba– United States
United States
relations History of Ybor City Cuban exile United States
United States
embargo against Cuba Isleños Canarian people CubaOne Foundation Cuban-American lobby

General:

Diaspora
Diaspora
politics in the United States Hyphenated American

Notes[edit]

^ Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Cuban relative to the state/territory" population as a whole.

References[edit]

^ US Census Bureau 2016 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 14, 2017. ^ Misra, Tanvi. "The Heartland Wants More New Americans". Citylab. Retrieved January 16, 2017.  ^ "Cubanoamericano López-Cantera es el nuevo vicegobernador de Florida". ElNuevoHerald.com. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ a b Cuban Ancestry Maps, epodunk.com, accessed March 31, 2011. ^ "Cuban-Americans: Politics, culture and shifting demographics". Journalistsresource.org. December 18, 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ a b c d "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 Census Summary File
File
1". factfinder.census.gov. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  Cuba
Cuba
vs Bloqueo (In Spanish). Posted by Dr. Antonio Aja Díaz – CEMI (Centro de Estudios de la Migración Internacional- Center for the Study of International Migration), July 2000. ^ Westfall, Loy G. (2000). Tampa
Tampa
Bay: Cradle of Cuban Liberty. Key West Cigar
Cigar
City USA. ISBN 978-0-9668948-2-0.  ^ "Ybor City: Cigar
Cigar
Capital of the World-Reading 3". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved August 8, 2010.  ^ Lastra, Frank (2006). Ybor City: The Making of a Landmark Town. University of Tampa
Tampa
Press. ISBN 978-1-59732-003-0.  ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (February 5, 2006). "ON POLITICS; A Cuban Revolution, Only It's in New Jersey". The New York Times. ^ Bartlett, Kay. " Little Havana
Little Havana
on the Hudson", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 28, 1977. Archived at Google News, accessed March 31, 2011. ^ Grenier, Guillermo J. Miami
Miami
Now!: Immigration, Ethnicity, and Social Change. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved March 31, 2011. ^ a b "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved December 23, 2007.  ^ Martin, Lydia (August 9, 1995). "Cuban cool" The Star-Ledger, pp. 41 and 54. ^ Juri, Carmen (August 9, 1995). "Jersey's Cuban flavors" The Star-Ledger, pp. 41 and 54. ^ Russell Cobb and Paul Knight. "Immigration: Cubans
Cubans
Enter U.S.
U.S.
at Texas- Mexico
Mexico
Border", Houston
Houston
Press, January 9, 2008. ^ "Immigration: Cubans
Cubans
Enter U.S.
U.S.
at Texas- Mexico
Mexico
Border." Houston Press. 3. ^ Knight, Paul. "Cuba, Mexico
Mexico
Look To Block The Texas
Texas
Entrance To The U.S.", Houston
Houston
Press, October 20, 2008. ^ Olsen, Alexandra. "Cuba: Mexico
Mexico
to fight illegal migration to US", Associated Press
Associated Press
via The Monitor, October 20, 2008. ^ " Cubans
Cubans
using Haitian, Dominican soil to reach Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
concerns the U.S." dominicantoday.com. August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2007.  ^ Bureau, U.S.
U.S.
Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved March 2, 2017.  ^ Obama. "Statement by the President on Cuban Immigration Policy". The White House. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved January 12, 2017.  ^ Whitefield, Mimi (12 January 2017). "Obama ending 'wet foot, dry foot' Cuban immigration policy". Miami
Miami
Herald. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13.  ^ Gomez, Alan (January 12, 2017). "Obama to end 'wet foot, dry foot' policy for Cubans". USA Today.  ^ http://factfinder.census.gov Cuban Americans
Americans
in 2007[dead link] ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S.
U.S.
Census Bureau. p. 14 (Table 6). Retrieved 2011-07-11.  ^ "Tabla II.4 Población por sexo y zona de residencia según grupos de edades y color de la piel" [Table II.4 Population by sex and area of residence according to age groups and skin colour] (PDF) (in Spanish). National Office of Statistics and Information, Republic of Cuba. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.  ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". census.gov.  ^ "2010 Census". Medgar Evers College. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2010.  ^ US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 retrieved January 22, 2012 – select state from drop-down menu ^ "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Cuba
Cuba
(population 500+)". city-data.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008.  ^ "South Westside, Florida
Florida
(FL 33165) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news, sex offenders". www.city-data.com. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ "North Westside, Florida
Florida
(FL 33178) profile". City-data.com. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ "Kendale Lakes-Lindgren Acres, Florida
Florida
(FL 33183) profile". City-data.com. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ Matt Saldaña, "Raleigh's Cuban community: Their stories, their views on Obama's new diplomacy", Indy Week. ^ Photo, TIME. "15 Famous Cuban-Americans". Time. Retrieved October 29, 2017.  ^ "Ancestry in the United States". StatisticalAtlas.com. April 28, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017.  ^ "The Cuba
Cuba
Connection". Articles.Sun-Sentinel.com. January 10, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ a b Sonya Tafoya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved May 7, 2008.  ^ Andrew Huse. "Welcome to Cuban Sandwich City". Cigar
Cigar
City Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 2. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007.  ^ Linda Stradley (2004). "History of Cuban Sandwich, Cubano Sandwich". What's Cooking America website. Archived from the original on 2005-04-21.  ^ Enrique Fernandez (August 9, 2007). "Our search for a good Cuban sandwich takes a surprising turn" (PDF). The Miami
Miami
Herald. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 31, 2009.  ^ Benjamin G. Bishin; Casey A. Klofstad (2011). "The Political Incorporation of Cuban Americans: Why Won't Little Havana
Little Havana
Turn Blue?" (PDF). Political Research Quarterly XX(X) 1– 14. University of Utah. doi:10.1177/1065912911414589. Retrieved September 14, 2015.  ^ Cave, Damien (April 21, 2009). " U.S.
U.S.
Overtures Find Support Among Cuban-Americans". The New York Times.  ^ Casey Woods (November 6, 2008). "Presidential and Congressional Candidate Cuba
Cuba
Watch: Analysis of Cuban American
Cuban American
vote". Candidatecubawatch.blogspot.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ Marc Caputo (November 8, 2012). "Poll: Obama got big share of Cuban American vote, won among other Hispanics
Hispanics
in Florida". Miamiherald.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ "More U.S.
U.S.
Cubans
Cubans
Are Shifting To Democratic Party". nbcnews.com. NBC News. June 24, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.  ^ Kelly Riddell (November 15, 2016). "Trump won over Cubans
Cubans
in Florida, in possible backlash against Obama's Cuba
Cuba
detente". the Washington Times. Retrieved September 23, 2017.  ^ a b c López, Gustavo (September 15, 2015). " Hispanics
Hispanics
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Further reading[edit]

De La Torre, Miguel A., La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami, University of California
California
Press, 2003. Diaz, Carmen (2008). Siete jornadas en Miami
Miami
(in Spanish) (1ra ed.). Miami, FL: Alexandria Library. ISBN 978-1-934804-26-1.  Interviews with Cuban-American women in Miami
Miami
about Cuban-American identity. Kami, Hideaki, “Ethnic Community, Party Politics, and the Cold War: The Political Ascendancy of Miami
Miami
Cubans, 1980–2000,” Japanese Journal of American Studies (Tokyo), 23 (2012), 185–208. Miguel A. De La Torre, "La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami", University of California
California
Press, 2003. Gustavo Pérez Firmat, Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban-American Way. Austin: The University of Texas
Texas
Press, 1994. Rpt. 1996, 1999. Revised and expanded edition, 2012.

External links[edit]

This article's use of external links may not follow's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

"Immigration Law and the Racialization of Latina/Latino" William E. Gibson, "Cuban Americans
Americans
can go Home More Easily Under Obama Rules", Los Angeles Times, March 15, 2009 Zachary Dowdy, "Long Islanders of Cuban Descent see Glimmer of Hope", Newsday, April 13, 2009 Marc Frank, " Cuban American
Cuban American
Travel to Cuba
Cuba
on the Rise", Reuters, May 6, 2009 Andres Schipani, "Expats Flock to Cuba
Cuba
as U.S.
U.S.
Reforms Spark A Party", The Observer, May 31, 2009 The Cuban Heritage Collection at The University of Miami " Cubans
Cubans
in Miami, an historical perspective"

v t e

Hispanic and Latino American groups in the United States

Caribbean

Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican

Nuyorican

North American

Hispano

Californio Nuevomexicano Tejano

Creoles of Louisiana

Isleño

Mexican

Chicano Indigenous Mexican Punjabi

Central American

Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Panamanian Salvadoran

South American

Argentine Bolivian Brazilian Chilean Colombian Ecuadorian Paraguayan Peruvian Uruguayan Venezuelan

European

Spanish

Asturian Basque Catalan Canarian Galician Jews

Racial groups

All groups Amerindian Asian

Punjabi

Black White Multiracial

Quadroon Castizo "Cholo" Mestizo Mulatto Pardo Zambo

Languages

Chicano
Chicano
English New York Latino English New Mexican Spanish Spanglish Spanish Portuguese

Ethnic and religious groups

Christians Garifuna Jews Muslims

Related ethnic groups

Belizean Filipino Guyanese Haitian Portuguese Surinamese

v t e

Cuba–United States relations
Cuba–United States relations

pre-1902

Spanish–American War Teller Amendment Platt Amendment

1902–1959

Cuban–American Treaty of Relations (1903) First Occupation Second Occupation Sugar Intervention Hay-Quesada Treaty (1925) Cuban–American Treaty of Relations (1934)

1959–present

Groups and individuals

Brothers to the Rescue Balseros (rafters) Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations Cuban-American lobby Cuban Five Luis Posada Carriles

Military and activities

Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Project Elián González Cuba– United States
United States
aircraft hijackings Mariel boatlift Operation Northwoods Operation Peter Pan

Legislation and offices

United States
United States
embargo against Cuba United States
United States
Interests Section in Havana (1977–2015) Cuban thaw Embassy of the United States, Havana Embassy of Cuba
Cuba
in Washington, D.C. Guantanamo Bay Naval Base Helms–Burton Act United States
United States
Ambassador to Cuba

Miscellaneous

Balseros (2002 film) Cuban Americans

v t e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth

By religion

Baha'is Buddhists Christians

Catholics Coptics Protestants

Hindus Jains Jews Muslims

Ahmadiyyas

Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians

By continent and ethnicity

Africa

African diaspora in the Americas

Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans

Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

Black
Black
Hispanic and Latino Americans

African immigrants to the United States

Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States

Asia

Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

East Asia

Chinese Americans

Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans

Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans

South Asia

Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans

Southeast Asia

Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans

West Asia

Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans

Europe

White Americans

English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans

Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans

Oceania

Pacific Islands Americans

Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans

Americans
Americans
of Euro Oceanic origin

Australian Americans New Zealand Americans

North America

Native Americans
Americans
and Alaska
Alaska
Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

South America

Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans

Multiethnic

Melungeon

People of the United States
United States
/ Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism

v t e

Caribbean Americans

Anglo-Caribbean

Antiguan and Barbudan Bahamian Barbadian Belizean

Garifuna

Bermudian Dominican (Dominica) Grenadian Guyanese Jamaican Kittian and Nevisian Saint Lucian Trinidadian and Tobagonian Vincentian

Americo-Caribbean

Puerto Rican Virgin Islands

Franco-Caribbean

Haitian Guadeloupean Martiniquan

Hispano-Caribbean

Cuban Dominican (Dominican Republic) Panamanian Puerto Rican

Dutch Caribbean

Dutch West Indians (Aruban) Surinamese

Ethnic groups

Indo-Caribbean Americans

v t e

Cuban diaspora

Brazil Canada Italy Mexico Uni

.