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PREDOMINANTLY: Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
MINORITY: Protestantism
Protestantism
, Santería
Santería
, Ifá
Ifá
, Judaism
Judaism

RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS

Spaniards
Spaniards
, Hispanics
Hispanics
Afro-Cubans , Jewish Cubans
Cubans
, Chinese Cubans

Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans

National origin groups

* Argentine Americans * Bolivian Americans
Americans
* Brazilian Americans * Chilean Americans
Americans
* Colombian Americans
Americans
* Costa Rican Americans
Americans
* Cuban Americans
Americans
* Dominican Americans
Americans
* Ecuadorian Americans
Americans
* Guatemalan Americans
Americans
* Honduran Americans
Americans
* Mexican Americans
Americans
* Nicaraguan Americans
Americans
* Panamanian Americans
Americans
* Paraguayan Americans
Americans
* Peruvian Americans
Americans
* Puerto Ricans (stateside) * Salvadoran Americans
Americans
* Spanish Americanss * Uruguayan Americans
Americans
* Venezuelan Americans
Americans

History

* History of Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
* History of Mexican Americans
History of Mexican Americans

Colonial casta system

* castizo * cholo * criollo * mestizo * mulato * pardo /moreno * zambo

Political movements

* Chicano Movement * Hispanic and Latino American politics

Organizations

* Association of Hispanic Arts * Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
* Congressional Hispanic Conference * LULAC * MALDEF * MEChA
MEChA
* NALEO * NALFO * National Council of La Raza
National Council of La Raza
* National Hispanic Institute
National Hispanic Institute
* RNHA * SHPE * UFW * USHCC

Culture

* Literature * Music * Religion * Studies

Related national groups

* Belizean Americans
Americans
* Brazilian Americans * Filipino Americans
Filipino Americans
* Guyanese Americans
Americans
* Haitian Americans * Portuguese Americans * Spanish Americans * Surinamese Americans
Americans

Languages

* English * Spanglish
Spanglish
* Spanish

* Cuban Spanish

* United States
United States

* New Mexican * Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups

* Californio * Chicano
Chicano
* Hispano * Isleño * Nuevomexicano * Nuyorican
Nuyorican
* Tejano

Lists

* Communities with Hispanic majority * Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* Related topics

* v * t * e

CUBAN AMERICANS (Spanish : CUBANOAMERICANOS) are Americans
Americans
who trace their ancestry to Cuba
Cuba
. Cuban Americans
Americans
are the third largest Latino group in the United States.

Many communities throughout the United States
United States
have significant Cuban American populations. Florida
Florida
(1.4 million in 2015) has the highest concentration of Cuban Americans
Americans
in the US, standing out in part because of its proximity to Cuba, followed by California
California
(92,022), New Jersey (89,997), New York (73,439) and Texas
Texas
(59,115).

South Florida
Florida
is followed by New York City
New York City
, Tampa
Tampa
, Union County and North Hudson, New Jersey
New Jersey
areas, particularly Union City , Elizabeth and West New York . With a population of 141,250, the New York metropolitan area's Cuban community is the largest outside of Florida. Nearly 70% of all Cuban Americans
Americans
live in Florida.

CONTENTS

* 1 Immigration

* 1.1 Early migrations * 1.2 Key West and Tampa, Florida
Florida
* 1.3 Other early waves (1900–1959) * 1.4 Post-Castro revolution (1959–2016) * 1.5 1980s * 1.6 Mid-1990s to 2000s

* 2 Immigration policy

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Ancestry * 3.2 U.S. states with largest Cuban populations * 3.3 US metropolitan areas with largest Cuban populations * 3.4 U.S. communities with high percentages of people of Cuban ancestry * 3.5 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Cuba
Cuba

* 4 Cuban-American culture

* 4.1 Assimilation * 4.2 Religion * 4.3 Language

* 4.4 Food and drink

* 4.4.1 Beverages

* 5 Political beliefs

* 6 Socioeconomics

* 6.1 Education * 6.2 Cuban Americans
Americans
in the United States Congress
United States Congress
* 6.3 Cuban Americans
Americans
in state government * 6.4 Notable People * 6.5 TV "> Since 1820, the Cuban presence was more than 1,000 people. In 1870 the number of Cuban immigrants increased to almost 12,000, of which about 4,500 resided in New York City
New York City
, about 3,000 in New Orleans
New Orleans
, and 2,000 in Key West . The causes of these movements were both economic and political, which intensified after 1860, when political factors played the predominant role in emigration, as a result of deteriorating relations with the Spanish metropolis.

The year 1869 marked the beginning of one of the most significant periods of emigration from Cuba
Cuba
to the United States, again centered on Key West. The exodus of hundreds of workers and businessmen was linked to the manufacture of tobacco. The reasons are many: the introduction of more modern techniques of elaboration of snuff, the most direct access to its main market, the United States, the uncertainty about the future of the island, which had suffered years of economic, political and social unrest during the beginning of the Ten Years' War against Spanish rule. It was an exodus of skilled workers, precisely the class in the island that had succeeded in establishing a free labor sector amid a slave economy.

The manufacture of snuff by the Cuban labor force, became the most important source of income for Key West between 1869 and 1900.

Tampa
Tampa
was added to such efforts, with a strong migration of Cubans, which went from 720 inhabitants in 1880 to 5,532 in 1890. However, the second half of the 1890s marked the decline of the Cuban immigrant population, as an important part of it returned to the island to fight for independence. The War accentuated Cuban immigrant integration into American society, whose numbers were significant: more than 12,000 people. Statue of Jose Martí at the Circulo Cubano (Cuban Club) , Ybor City

KEY WEST AND TAMPA, FLORIDA

In the mid- to late 19th century, several cigar manufacturers moved their operations to Key West to get away from growing disruptions as Cubans
Cubans
sought independence from Spanish colonial rule. Many Cuban cigar workers followed. The Cuban government had even established a grammar school in Key West to help preserve Cuban culture. There, children learned folk songs and patriotic hymns such as "La Bayamesa ", the Cuban national anthem.

In 1885, Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his cigar operations from Key West to the town of Tampa, Florida
Florida
to escape labor strife. Ybor City was designed as a modified company town , and it quickly attracted thousands of Cuban workers from Key West and Cuba. West Tampa
Tampa
, another new cigar manufacturing community, was founded nearby in 1892 and also grew quickly. Between these communities, the Tampa
Tampa
Bay area 's Cuban population grew from almost nothing to the largest in Florida in just over a decade, and the city as a whole grew from a village of approximately 1000 residents in 1885 to over 16,000 by 1900.

Both Ybor City and West Tampa
Tampa
were instrumental in Cuba's eventual independence. Inspired by revolutionaries such as Jose Martí , who visited Florida
Florida
several times, Tampa-area Cubans
Cubans
and their sympathetic neighbors donated money, equipment, and sometimes their lives to the cause of Cuba
Cuba
Libre. After the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
, some Cubans returned to their native land, but many chose to stay in the U.S. due to the physical and economic devastation caused by years of fighting on the island.

OTHER EARLY WAVES (1900–1959)

Several other small waves of Cuban emigration to the U.S. occurred in the early 20th century (1900–1959). Most settled in Florida
Florida
and the northeast U.S. The majority of an estimated 100,000 Cubans
Cubans
arriving in that time period usually came for economic reasons (the Great Depression of 1929, volatile sugar prices and migrant farm labor contracts), but included anti-Batista refugees fleeing the military dictatorship, which had pro-U.S. diplomatic ties. During the '20s and '30s, emigration from Cuba
Cuba
to U.S. territory, basically comprised workers looking for jobs, mainly in New York and New Jersey. They were classified as labor migrants and workers, much like other immigrants in the area at that time. Thus migrated more than 40,149 in the first decade, encouraged by U.S. immigration facilities at the time and more than 43,400 by the end of the 30s.

Subsequently, the flow of Cubans
Cubans
to the United States
United States
fluctuated, due to both the domestic situation in the 40s and 50s in Cuba, and U.S. immigration policies, plus intermittent anti-immigrant sentiment. Cuban Migration in those years included, in addition to workers, a small mass of the population who could afford to leave the country and live abroad. The U.S. was considered a favored destination by the Cuban bourgeoisie and the middle classes of society, to send their children to school, take vacations and bring some of their capital to establish small and medium-sized businesses.

The Cuban population officially registered in the United States
United States
for 1958 was around 125,000 people including descendants. Of these, more than 50,000 remained in the United States
United States
after the revolution of 1959.

POST-CASTRO REVOLUTION (1959–2016)

After the Cuban revolution
Cuban revolution
led by Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in 1959, a Cuban exodus began as the new government allied itself with the Soviet Union and began to introduce communism. The first Cubans
Cubans
to come to America after the revolution were those affiliated with former dictator Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista
, next were Cuba's professionals. Most Cuban Americans
Americans
that arrived in the United States
United States
initially came from Cuba's educated upper and middle classes centered in Cuba's capital Havana. This middle class arose in the period after the Platt Amendment when Cuba
Cuba
became one of the most successful countries in Latin America. Between December 1960 and October 1962 more than 14,000 Cuban children arrived alone in the U.S. Their parents were afraid that their children were going to be sent to some Soviet bloc countries to be educated and they decided to send them to the States as soon as possible.

This program was called Operation Peter Pan ( Operacion Pedro Pan ). When the children arrived in Miami
Miami
they were met by representatives of Catholic Charities and they were sent to live with relatives if they had any or were sent to foster homes, orphanages or boarding schools until their parents could leave Cuba. From 1965 to 1973, there was another wave of immigration known as the Freedom Flights. In order to provide aid to recently arrived Cuban immigrants, the United States Congress passed the Cuban Adjustment Act in 1966. The Cuban Refugee Program provided more than $1.3 billion of direct financial assistance. They also were eligible for public assistance , Medicare , free English courses, scholarships , and low-interest college loans .

Some banks pioneered loans for exiles who did not have collateral or credit but received help in getting a business loan. These loans enabled many Cuban Americans
Americans
to secure funds and start up their own businesses. With their Cuban-owned businesses and low cost of living, Miami, Florida
Florida
and Union City, New Jersey
New Jersey
(dubbed Havana on the Hudson ) were the preferred destinations for many immigrants and soon became the main centers for Cuban-American culture. According to author Lisandro Perez, Miami
Miami
was not particularly attractive to Cubans prior to the 1960s.

It was not until the exodus of the Cuban exiles in 1959 that Miami started to become a preferred destination. Westchester, Florida
Florida
within Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
, was the area most densely populated by Cubans
Cubans
and Cuban Americans
Americans
in the United States, followed by Hialeah, Florida
Florida
in second.

Communities like Miami, Tampa, and Union City, which Cuban-Americans have made their home, have experienced a profound cultural impact as a result, as seen in such aspects of their local culture as cuisine, fashion, music, entertainment and cigar -making.

1980S

Another large wave (an estimated 125,000 people) of Cuban immigration occurred in the early 1980s with the Mariel boatlifts . Most of the "Marielitos" were people wanting to escape from communism, and have succeeded in establishing their roots in the US.

Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
sent some 20,000 criminals directly from Cuban prisons, as well as mentally ill persons from Cuban mental institutions, with the alleged double purpose of cleaning up Cuban society and poisoning the USA. Those people were labeled "unadmissible" by the US government, and with time, through many negotiations, have been returned to Cuba.

MID-1990S TO 2000S

Since the mid-1990s, after the implementation of the "Wet feet, dry feet" policy immigration patterns changed. Many Cuban immigrants departed from the southern and western coasts of Cuba
Cuba
and arrived at the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
in Mexico
Mexico
; many landed on Isla Mujeres
Isla Mujeres
. From there Cuban immigrants traveled to the Texas- Mexico
Mexico
border and found asylum. Many of the Cubans
Cubans
who did not have family in Miami
Miami
settled in Houston
Houston
; this has caused Houston's Cuban-American community to increase in size. The term "dusty foot" refers to Cubans
Cubans
emigrating to the U.S. through Mexico. In 2005 the Department of Homeland Security had abandoned the approach of detaining every dry foot Cuban who crosses through Texas
Texas
and began a policy allowing most Cubans
Cubans
to obtain immediate parole.

Jorge Ferragut, a Cuban immigrant who founded Casa Cuba, an agency that assists Cuban immigrants arriving in Texas, said in a 2008 article that many Cuban immigrants of the first decade of the 21st century left due to economic instead of political issues. By October 2008 Mexico
Mexico
and Cuba
Cuba
created an agreement to prevent immigration of Cubans
Cubans
through Mexico.

In recent years, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
has become a major drop-off point for Cubans
Cubans
trying to reach the United States
United States
illegally. As a U.S. Commonwealth , Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
is seen as a stepping stone for Cubans trying to get to the continental U.S., though Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
itself is home to a number of Cubans.

IMMIGRATION POLICY

Before the 1980s, all refugees from Cuba
Cuba
were welcomed into the United States
United States
as political refugees. This changed in the 1990s so that only Cubans
Cubans
who reach U.S. soil are granted refuge under the "wet foot, dry foot policy ". While representing a tightening of U.S. immigration policy, the wet foot, dry foot policy still affords Cubans a privileged position relative to other immigrants to the U.S. This privileged position is the source of a certain friction between Cuban Americans
Americans
and other Latino citizens and residents in the United States, adding to the tension caused by the divergent foreign policy interests pursued by conservative Cuban Americans. Cuban immigration also continues with an allotted number of Cubans
Cubans
(20,000 per year) provided legal U.S. visas.

According to a U.S. Census 1970 report, Cuban Americans
Americans
as well as Latinos lived in all fifty states. But as later Census reports demonstrated, the majority of Cuban immigrants settled in south Florida. A new trend in the late 1990s showed that fewer immigrants arrived from Cuba
Cuba
than previously. While U.S.-born Cuban Americans moved out of their enclaves, other nationalities settled there.

In late 1999, U.S. news media focused on the case of Elián González , the six-year-old Cuban boy caught in a custody battle between his relatives in Miami
Miami
and his father in Cuba, after the boy's mother died trying to bring him to the United States. On April 22, 2000, ICE (now USCIS) agents took Elián González to the Cuban Interests Section in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
From there, his father took him back to Cuba.

On January 12, 2017, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced the immediate cessation of the wet feet, dry feet policy. The Cuban government agreed to accept the return of Cuban nationals. Beginning with the United States–Cuban Thaw
United States–Cuban Thaw
in 2014, anticipation of the end of the policy had led to increased numbers of Cuban immigrants.

DEMOGRAPHICS

In the census in 2000 there were 1,241,685 Cuban Americans, and in the 2010 census there were 1,785,547 (both native and foreign born), and represented 3.5% of all Hispanics, and 0.58% of the US population. 983,147 were born abroad in Cuba, 628,331 were U.S born and of the 1.6 million, 415,212 were not U.S citizens. In the 2013 ACS, there were 2,013,155 Cuban Americans. The 2010 US Census shows that 85% report of Cubans
Cubans
that immigrated to the USA from Cuba
Cuba
identify as being "white". The most recent 2012 Cuban census has the island population at 64.12% white, 26.62% mulatto , 9.26% black , and 0.1% asian .

ANCESTRY

The ancestry of Cuban Americans
Americans
comes primarily from Spain and Africa . During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Castilians, Basques , Canarians , Catalans , Andalusians , Asturians and Galicians emigrated to Cuba. Canary Islanders immigrated to many countries along the Caribbean from Louisiana
Louisiana
to Venezuela. But Cuba
Cuba
was the Latin American culture most influenced by the emigration of Canary Islanders (they developed the production of sugar in Cuba), and Cuban Spanish is closest to that of the Canary Islands. Canary Islanders were viewed by other Spanish- Cubans
Cubans
as superstitious but also hard-working. Some of Haiti’s white population (French ) migrated to Cuba
Cuba
after the Haitian War of Independence in the early 18th century. Also, minor but significant ethnic influx is derived from diverse peoples from Middle East places such as Lebanon and Palestine.

There was also a significant influx of Jews , especially between the World Wars, from many countries, including Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
from Turkey and Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
from Poland, Germany and Russia. Other Europeans that have contributed slightly include Italians, Germans, Swedes, and Hungarians. Many Chinese also settled Cuba
Cuba
as contract laborers and they formerly boast the largest Chinatown
Chinatown
in Western Hemisphere as most Chinese Cubans left for Florida.

U.S. STATES WITH LARGEST CUBAN POPULATIONS

The Top 10 US states with the largest Cuban populations are:

STATE/TERRITORY Cuban-American Population (2010 Census) PERCENTAGE

Alabama
Alabama
4,064 0.1

Alaska
Alaska
927 0.1

Arizona
Arizona
10,692 0.2

Arkansas
Arkansas
1,493 0.1

California
California
88,607 0.2

Colorado
Colorado
6,253 0.1

Connecticut
Connecticut
9,490 0.3

Delaware
Delaware
1,443 0.2

District of Columbia 1,789 0.3

Florida
Florida
1,213,438 6.5

Georgia 25,048 0.3

Hawaii
Hawaii
1,544 0.1

Idaho
Idaho
825 0.1

Illinois
Illinois
22,541 0.2

Indiana
Indiana
4,042 0.1

Iowa
Iowa
1,226 0.0

Kansas
Kansas
2,723 0.1

Kentucky
Kentucky
9,323 0.2

Louisiana
Louisiana
10,330 0.2

Maine
Maine
783 0.1

Maryland
Maryland
10,366 0.2

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
11,306 0.2

Michigan
Michigan
9,922 0.1

Minnesota
Minnesota
3,661 0.1

Mississippi
Mississippi
2,063 0.1

Missouri
Missouri
4,979 0.1

Montana
Montana
421 0.0

Nebraska
Nebraska
2,152 0.1

Nevada
Nevada
21,459 0.8

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
1,349 0.1

New Jersey
New Jersey
83,362 0.9

New Mexico
Mexico
4,298 0.2

New York 70,803 0.4

North Carolina
North Carolina
18,079 0.2

North Dakota
North Dakota
260 0.0

Ohio
Ohio
7,523 0.1

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
2,755 0.1

Oregon
Oregon
4,923 0.1

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
17,930 0.1

Rhode Island
Rhode Island
1,640 0.2

South Carolina
South Carolina
5,955 0.1

South Dakota
South Dakota
265 0.0

Tennessee
Tennessee
7,773 0.1

Texas
Texas
46,541 0.2

Utah
Utah
1,963 0.1

Vermont
Vermont
510 0.1

Virginia
Virginia
15,229 0.2

Washington 6,744 0.1

West Virginia
Virginia
764 0.0

Wisconsin
Wisconsin
3,696 0.1

Wyoming
Wyoming
275 0.0

USA 1,785,547 0.6

US METROPOLITAN AREAS WITH LARGEST CUBAN POPULATIONS

The largest populations of Cubans
Cubans
are situated in the following metropolitan areas (Source: Census 2010):

* Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL MSA – 982,758 * New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA-CT MSA – 135,391 * Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA – 81,542 * Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA – 49,702 * Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA – 36,724 * Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA – 20,633 * Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA – 20,569 * Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA – 19,130 * Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA – 17,648 * Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA – 14,527

U.S. COMMUNITIES WITH HIGH PERCENTAGES OF PEOPLE OF CUBAN ANCESTRY

Cubans
Cubans
in the US, 2000 census.

The top 25 US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Cuban ancestry are (the top 22 of which are in Miami-Dade County ):

* Westchester, Florida
Florida
65.69% * Hialeah, Florida
Florida
62.12% * Coral Terrace, Florida
Florida
61.87% * West Miami, Florida
Florida
61.61% * University Park, Florida
Florida
59.80% * Olympia Heights, Florida
Florida
57.65% * Tamiami, Florida
Florida
56.63% * Hialeah Gardens, Florida
Florida
54.31% * Medley, Florida
Florida
51.91% * Sweetwater, Florida
Florida
49.92% * Palm Springs North, Florida
Florida
43.59% * Miami
Miami
Lakes, Florida
Florida
42.28% * Kendale Lakes, Florida
Florida
38.58% * Fontainebleau, Florida
Florida
37.29% * Miami, Florida
Florida
34.14% * Miami
Miami
Springs, Florida
Florida
31.83% * Richmond West, Florida
Florida
29.30% * Coral Gables, Florida
Florida
28.72% * Virginia
Virginia
Gardens, Florida
Florida
26.11% * South Miami
Miami
Heights, Florida
Florida
25.70% * Kendall, Florida
Florida
21.31% * Miami
Miami
Beach, Florida
Florida
20.51% * Ybor City, Florida
Florida
20.28% * West Tampa, Florida
Florida
20.23% * Surfside, Florida
Florida
20.15%

U.S. COMMUNITIES WITH THE MOST RESIDENTS BORN IN CUBA

For total 101 communities, see the reference given. Top 20 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Cuba
Cuba
are (all of which are located within Miami
Miami
):

* Westchester, Florida
Florida
55.8% * Hialeah, Florida
Florida
53.5% * Coral Terrace, Florida
Florida
51.9% * West Miami, Florida
Florida
50.5% * South Westside, FL 48.3% * University Park, Florida
Florida
48.1% * Hialeah Gardens, Florida
Florida
47.5% * Medley, Florida
Florida
46.0% * Tamiami, Florida
Florida
45.7% * Olympia Heights, Florida
Florida
45.2% * Sweetwater, Florida
Florida
45.2% * Westwood Lakes, Florida
Florida
44.9% * Sunset, Florida
Florida
32.7% * Fountainbleau, Florida
Florida
32.3% * North Westside, FL 30.4% * Miami, Florida
Florida
30.3% * Miami
Miami
Lakes, Florida
Florida
30.1% * Palm Springs North, Florida
Florida
29.8% * Kendale Lakes, Florida
Florida
28.9% * Kendale Lakes-Lindgren Acres, FL 24.3%

CUBAN-AMERICAN CULTURE

ASSIMILATION

Many Cuban Americans
Americans
have assimilated themselves into the American culture, which includes Cuban influences.

Cuban Americans
Americans
live in all 50 states, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Puerto Rico , which received thousands of anti-Castro refugees as well in the 1960s. Since the 1980s, Cuban Americans
Americans
have moved out of "Little Havana" and "Hialeah" to the suburbs of Miami, such as Kendall , as well in the more affluent Coral Gables and Miami
Miami
Lakes . Many new South and Central Americans
Americans
, along with new Cuban refugees, have replaced the Cuban Americans
Americans
who have relocated elsewhere in Florida (Fort Lauderdale , Orlando , Tampa
Tampa
Bay and West Palm Beach ) and dispersed throughout the nation. Nevertheless, Cubans
Cubans
are still heavily concentrated in Florida, which slows assimilation; according to the 2010 Census, 68% of Cuban Americans
Americans
still live in Florida.

More recently, there has been substantial growth of new Cuban-American communities in places like Louisville, Kentucky
Kentucky
, the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, Katy, Texas
Texas
, and Downey, California
California
; the latter city now having the second highest percentage of Cubans
Cubans
and Cuban Americans
Americans
in the Western United States
United States
at 1.96% of the population.

Cuban Americans
Americans
have been very successful in establishing businesses and developing political clout in Miami. Cuban Americans
Americans
have also contributed to and participated in many areas of American life including academia, business, acting, politics, and literature.

In the last 15 years, due to the growth of interest around the world for genealogy, Cuban genealogy has become a major interest for Cuban Americans
Americans
and a growing segment in the family research industry. This has complemented assimilation by preserving Cuban and colonial roots, while also adopting American culture and value

RELIGION

Cuban Americans
Americans
are mostly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, but some Cubans
Cubans
practice African traditional religions (such as Santería
Santería
or Ifá
Ifá
), which evolved from mixing the Catholic religion with the traditional African religion. Cuban Catholicism was also influenced by the Catholicism practiced by the Canarian people. However, there are many Protestant (primarily Pentecostal ) with small numbers of syncretist , nonreligious or tiny communities of Jewish and Muslim Cuban Americans. The Protestant movement in Cuba
Cuba
started after the Spanish–American War when many Americans
Americans
came to Cuba.

LANGUAGE

Similar to the 67% of other Hispanics, 69% of Cubans
Cubans
under 18 speak a language other than English at home. For Cubans
Cubans
over the age of 18, the percent speaking a language other than English at home climbs to 89%, which is higher than the 80% among other Hispanic groups.

Only 12% of Cubans
Cubans
under the age of 18 speak English less than very well, which is much lower than the 20% among other Hispanic groups.

FOOD AND DRINK

See also: Cuban cuisine
Cuban cuisine
A Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
.

Cuban food is varied, though rice is a staple and commonly served at lunch and dinner. Other common dishes are arroz con pollo (chicken and rice), pan con bistec (steak sandwich ), platanos maduros (sweet plantains ), lechon asado (pork), yuca (cassava root ), flan , batido de mamey (mamey milkshake ), papayas , and guava paste.

A common lunch staple is the Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
(sometimes called a mixto sandwich), which is built on Cuban bread and was created and standardized among cigar workers who traveled between Cuba
Cuba
and Florida (especially Ybor City ) around the turn of the 20th century

Cuban versions of pizza contains bread, which is usually soft, and cheese, toppings, and sauce, which is made with spices such as Adobo and Goya onion. Picadillo, ground beef that has been sauteed with tomato, green peppers, green olives, and garlic is another popular Cuban dish. It can be served with black beans and rice, and a side of deep-fried, ripened plantains.

Beverages

Cuban coffee is popular in the Cuban-American community. Cubans
Cubans
often drink cafe cubano: a small cup of coffee called a cafecito (or a colada), which is traditional espresso coffee, sweetened with sugar, with a little foam on top called espumita. It is also popular to add milk, which is called a cortadito for a small cup or a cafe con leche for a larger cup.

A common soft drink is Materva , a Cuban soda made of yerba mate . Jupiña , Ironbeer and Cawy lemon-lime are soft drinks which originated in Cuba. Since the Castro era, they are also produced in Miami. Other famous Cuban drinks include guarapo de caña.

A popular drink of Cuban origin is the Cuba
Cuba
Libre, a mix of Cuban rum and cola, usually Coca-Cola.

POLITICAL BELIEFS

Until recently, Cuban Americans
Americans
historically tended to be more Republican than Democratic . The failed Bay of Pigs invasion
Bay of Pigs invasion
, and its association with John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
, left many Cubans
Cubans
distrustful of the Democratic Party . Many Cuban Americans
Americans
believe that Kennedy deliberately denied Cuban exiles air support, leading to a rout by Castro forces. The trauma of this event has led to speculation about possible Cuban-American involvement in the assassination of President Kennedy. Cuban exiles began an alliance with the Republic Party of Florida. In Florida, Cuban-American congressmen have tended to be Republican, beginning with Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen. The presence of Cubans
Cubans
in the Republican Party was highlighted by the 2016 presidential race, which featured U.S. Senators Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio as prominent candidates, both of whom are of Cuban descent. But in New Jersey, another state with many Cuban Americans, Cuban-American congressmen have tended to be Democrats, for example Representative Albio Sires. Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
is particularly popular in the Cuban exile community (there is a street in Miami
Miami
named for Reagan).. And George W. Bush received 75 and 78 percent (in 2000 and 2004 respectively) of the Cuban-American vote. The Cuban-American lobby has also lobbied both parties on causes important to Cuban Americans.

In recent years, the Cuban-American vote has become more contested between the parties. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
received 47% of the Cuban-American vote in Florida. According to Bendixen's exit polls , 84% of Miami-Dade Cuban-American voters 65 or older backed McCain, while 55% of those 29 or younger backed Obama. In 2012, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
received 49 percent of the Cuban-American vote in Florida, compared to 47 percent for Mitt Romney according to Edison Research exits polls. By the spring of 2014, this increasing trend among Cuban-American voters having a preference for Democratic Party candidates increased particularly for younger voters aged 18–49, increasing to some 56% for the younger voter demographic, versus Cuban-American voters over 50 years of age having just a 39% preference for Democratic candidates.

SOCIOECONOMICS

The median household income for Cuban Americans
Americans
is $36,671, a figure higher than all other Hispanic groups, but lower than that of non-Hispanic whites.

In contrast, U.S.-born Cuban Americans
Americans
have a higher median income than even non-Hispanic whites, $50,000 as compared to $48,000 for non-Hispanic whites.

EDUCATION

25% of Cuban Americans
Americans
have a college education, about twice the average of all other Hispanic groups, and lower than that of non-Hispanic whites, of which 30% are college graduates.

39% of U.S.-born Cuban Americans
Americans
have a college degree or higher, as compared to only 30% of non-Hispanic whites.

Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americans

National origin groups

* Argentine Americans * Bolivian Americans
Americans
* Brazilian Americans * Chilean Americans
Americans
* Colombian Americans
Americans
* Costa Rican Americans
Americans
* Cuban Americans
Americans
* Dominican Americans
Americans
* Ecuadorian Americans
Americans
* Guatemalan Americans
Americans
* Honduran Americans
Americans
* Mexican Americans
Americans
* Nicaraguan Americans
Americans
* Panamanian Americans
Americans
* Paraguayan Americans
Americans
* Peruvian Americans
Americans
* Puerto Ricans (stateside) * Salvadoran Americans
Americans
* Spanish Americanss * Uruguayan Americans
Americans
* Venezuelan Americans
Americans

History

* History of Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
* History of Mexican Americans
History of Mexican Americans

Colonial casta system

* castizo * cholo * criollo * mestizo * mulato * pardo /moreno * zambo

Political movements

* Chicano Movement * Hispanic and Latino American politics

Organizations

* Association of Hispanic Arts * Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
* Congressional Hispanic Conference * LULAC * MALDEF * MEChA
MEChA
* NALEO * NALFO * National Council of La Raza
National Council of La Raza
* National Hispanic Institute
National Hispanic Institute
* RNHA * SHPE * UFW * USHCC

Culture

* Literature * Music * Religion * Studies

Related national groups

* Belizean Americans
Americans
* Brazilian Americans * Filipino Americans
Filipino Americans
* Guyanese Americans
Americans
* Haitian Americans * Portuguese Americans * Spanish Americans * Surinamese Americans
Americans

Languages

* English * Spanglish
Spanglish
* Spanish

* Cuban Spanish

* United States
United States

* New Mexican * Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups

* Californio * Chicano
Chicano
* Hispano * Isleño * Nuevomexicano * Nuyorican
Nuyorican
* Tejano

Lists

* Communities with Hispanic majority * Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* Related topics

* v * t * e

CUBAN AMERICANS IN THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS

Eight Cuban Americans
Americans
currently serve in the United States Congress
United States Congress
. There have been seven Cuban-American US representatives elected from Florida, two from New Jersey, and one from Texas
Texas
and West Virginia.

*

* Ileana Ros-Lehtinen , Congresswoman from Florida’s 27th Congressional District (1989–Present)

*

* Bob Menendez , U.S Senator from New Jersey
New Jersey
(2006–present)

*

* Marco Rubio
Marco Rubio
, U.S Senator from Florida
Florida
(2011–present)

*

* Ted Cruz , U.S Senator from Texas
Texas
(2013–present)

Three United States Senators :

* Marco Rubio
Marco Rubio
, Republican , Florida
Florida
, (2011–present) * Bob Menendez , Democrat , New Jersey
New Jersey
(2006–present), Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Jersey's 13th district (1993–2006) * Ted Cruz , Republican , Texas
Texas
(2013–present)

Five are United States
United States
Representatives :

* Mario Diaz-Balart , Republican, Florida\'s 25th congressional district (2003–present) * Ileana Ros-Lehtinen , Republican, Florida\'s 27th congressional district (1989–present), First Cuban-American ">

Lt.Governor of Florida
Florida
Carlos Lopez-Cantera *

Anitere Flores
Anitere Flores
, Florida
Florida
Senate, Majority Whip

Florida
Florida
:

* Carlos Lopez-Cantera , Republican, Lieutenant Governor of Florida , (2014–Present) * Anitere Flores
Anitere Flores
, Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
Senate from the 37th district * Miguel Díaz de la Portilla , Republican, Member of the Florida Senate from the 40th district * René García , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
Senate from the 38th district * José Félix Díaz , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 116th district * Manny Díaz, Jr. , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 103rd district * Eduardo Gonzalez , Republican,Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 111th district * Jeanette Núñez , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 119th district * Carlos Trujillo , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 105th district * Erik Fresen , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 114th district * Frank Artiles , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 118th district * José R. Oliva , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 110th district * Mike La Rosa , Republican, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 42nd district * José Javier Rodríguez , Democrat, Member of the Florida
Florida
House of Representatives from the 112th district

New Jersey
New Jersey
:

* Vincent Prieto , Democrat, Speaker of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly (2014–Present), Member of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly from the 32nd Legislative District (2004–Present) * Angelica Jimenez , Democrat, Member of the New Jersey
New Jersey
General Assembly from the 32nd Legislative District (2012–Present) * Angel Fuentes , Democrat, New Jersey * Carmelo Garcia , Democrat, New Jersey * Marlene Caride . Democrat, New Jersey

New York :

* Nicole Malliotakis , Republican, Staten Island, Member of the New York General Assembly from the 64th district

Connecticut
Connecticut
:

* Art Linares , Republican, Westbrook, Member of the Connecticut State Senate from the 33rd district

Nevada
Nevada
:

* Moises “Mo” Denis , Democrat, Member of the Nevada
Nevada
Senate from the 2nd district

Eduardo Aguirre (R) served as Vice Chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the United States
United States
in the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration and later named Director of Immigration and Naturalization Services under the Department of Homeland Security. In 2006, Eduardo Aguirre was named US ambassador to Spain. Cuban Americans
Americans
have also served other high-profile government jobs including White House Chief of Staff John H. Sununu (R) Florida-based businessman and Cuban exile
Cuban exile
Elviro Sanchez made his multimillion-dollar fortune by investing the proceeds of his family's fruit plantations. He is one of the most low-profile philanthropists in the Southern States. Cuban Americans
Americans
also serve in high-ranking judicial positions as well. Danny Boggs is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
and Raoul G. Cantero, III , served as a Florida
Florida
Supreme Court justice until stepping down in 2008.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

*

José Raúl Capablanca
José Raúl Capablanca
*

Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg *

Richard Blanco
Richard Blanco
*

Alfred-Maurice de Zayas
Alfred-Maurice de Zayas
*

Oscar Hijuelos *

Ambrosio José Gonzales
Ambrosio José Gonzales
*

Luis Walter Alvarez *

Carlos Finlay *

Calixto García in 1898

TV ">

Desi Arnaz
Desi Arnaz
*

Andy Garcia *

Eva Mendes *

Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz
*

Cesar Romero
Cesar Romero
*

Rosario Dawson
Rosario Dawson
*

Joanna García *

Gina Torres *

Bella Thorne
Bella Thorne
*

William Levy *

Christina Milian
Christina Milian
*

Cesar Evora *

Guillermo Díaz *

Enrique Murciano *

Nestor Carbonell *

Laz Alonso *

Marilyn Milian *

David Gallagher *

Carlos Ponce *

Cristina Saralegui
Cristina Saralegui
*

Raúl De Molina *

Lili Estefan

SINGERS/SONGWRITERS

*

Celia Cruz
Celia Cruz
*

Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
*

Pitbull *

Arturo Sandoval
Arturo Sandoval
*

Emilio Estefan *

Sammy Davis Jr.
Sammy Davis Jr.
*

B-Real
B-Real
*

Willy Chirino *

Camila Cabello
Camila Cabello
*

Cris Cab *

Jencarlos Canela
Jencarlos Canela
*

Fat Joe
Fat Joe

ATHLETES

*

Dara Torres
Dara Torres
*

Ryan Lochte *

Monica Puig *

Amy Rodriguez
Amy Rodriguez
*

John Carlos *

Tony Pérez *

José Fernández *

Jose Conseco *

Brook Lopez *

Kiko Alonso *

Yoenis Céspedes *

Robin Lopez *

Al Montoya
Al Montoya
*

Jorge Posada *

Luis Tiant
Luis Tiant
*

Orlando Hernández "Duque" *

Aric Almirola *

Bronson Arroyo *

Liván Hernández *

J. P. Arencibia *

Alex Avila

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
portal * Caribbean portal * Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
portal * Cuba
Cuba
portal

* Cubans
Cubans
in Miami
Miami
* Cubans
Cubans
* Cuban British * White Cuban * Spanish American * Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
* Hispanos * White Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
* White Latin American * Black
Black
Hispanic * Afro-Latin American
Afro-Latin American
* Cuba–United States relations
Cuba–United States relations
* History of Ybor City * Cuban exile
Cuban exile
* United States
United States
embargo against Cuba
Cuba
* Isleños
Isleños
* Canarian people * CubaOne Foundation

GENERAL:

* Diaspora politics in the United States * Hyphenated American

NOTES

* ^ Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Cuban relative to the state/territory" population as a whole.

REFERENCES

* ^ US Census Bureau 2015 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 22, 2016. * ^ Cubanoamericano López-Cantera es el nuevo vicegobernador de Florida
Florida
(in Spanish) * ^ A B Cuban Ancestry Maps, epodunk.com, accessed March 31, 2011. * ^ "Cuban-Americans: Politics, culture and shifting demographics". Journalistsresource.org. December 18, 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved June 5, 2015. * ^ A B C D "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2015. * ^ A B "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2012. Cuba
Cuba
vs Bloqueo (In Spanish). Posted by Dr. Antonio Aja Díaz – CEMI (Centro de Estudios de la Migración Internacional- Center for the Study of International Migration), July 2000. * ^ Westfall, Loy G. (2000). Tampa
Tampa
Bay: Cradle of Cuban Liberty. Key West Cigar
Cigar
City USA. ISBN 978-0-9668948-2-0 . * ^ "Ybor City: Cigar
Cigar
Capital of the World-Reading 3". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved August 8, 2010. * ^ Lastra, Frank (2006). Ybor City: The Making of a Landmark Town. University of Tampa
Tampa
Press. ISBN 978-1-59732-003-0 . * ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (February 5, 2006). "ON POLITICS; A Cuban Revolution, Only It\'s in New Jersey". The New York Times
The New York Times
. * ^ Bartlett, Kay. "Little Havana on the Hudson", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , June 28, 1977. Archived at Google News
Google News
, accessed March 31, 2011. * ^ Grenier, Guillermo J. Miami
Miami
Now!: Immigration, Ethnicity, and Social Change. Archived at Google Books
Google Books
. Retrieved March 31, 2011. * ^ A B "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved December 23, 2007. * ^ Martin, Lydia (August 9, 1995). "Cuban cool" The Star-Ledger
The Star-Ledger
, pp. 41 and 54. * ^ Juri, Carmen (August 9, 1995). "Jersey's Cuban flavors" The Star-Ledger, pp. 41 and 54. * ^ Russell Cobb and Paul Knight. "Immigration: Cubans
Cubans
Enter U.S. at Texas- Mexico
Mexico
Border", Houston
Houston
Press , January 9, 2008. * ^ "Immigration: Cubans
Cubans
Enter U.S. at Texas- Mexico
Mexico
Border." Houston
Houston
Press . 3. * ^ Knight, Paul. "Cuba, Mexico
Mexico
Look To Block The Texas
Texas
Entrance To The U.S.", Houston
Houston
Press , October 20, 2008. * ^ Olsen, Alexandra. "Cuba: Mexico
Mexico
to fight illegal migration to US", Associated Press
Associated Press
via The Monitor , October 20, 2008. * ^ " Cubans
Cubans
using Haitian, Dominican soil to reach Puerto Rico concerns the U.S.". dominicantoday.com. August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2007. * ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-02. * ^ Obama. "Statement by the President on Cuban Immigration Policy". The White House. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 12 January 2017. * ^ Whitefield, Mimi (12 January 2017). "Obama ending ‘wet foot, dry foot’ Cuban immigration policy". Miami
Miami
Herald. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. * ^ Gomez, Alan (January 12, 2017). "Obama to end \'wet foot, dry foot\' policy for Cubans". USA Today. * ^ http://factfinder.census.gov Cuban Americans
Americans
in 2007 * ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 14 (Table 6). Retrieved 2011-07-11. * ^ "Tabla II.4 Población por sexo y zona de residencia según grupos de edades y color de la piel" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Office of Statistics and Information, Republic of Cuba. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014. * ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved June 5, 2015. * ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". census.gov. * ^ "2010 Census". Medgar Evers College. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2010. * ^ US Census Bureau: Table QT-P10 Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 retrieved January 22, 2012 – select state from drop-down menu * ^ "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Cuba (population 500+)". city-data.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008. * ^ http://www.city-data.com/city/South-Westside-Florida.html * ^ http://www.city-data.com/city/North-Westside-Florida.html * ^ http://www.city-data.com/city/Kendale-Lakes-Lindgren-Acres-Florida.html * ^ Matt Saldaña, "Raleigh\'s Cuban community: Their stories, their views on Obama\'s new diplomacy", Indy Week. * ^ 15 Time, "Famous Cuban-Americans" * ^ "Ancestry in the United States". statisticalatlas.com. April 28, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017. * ^ Sun Sentinel, "The Cuba
Cuba
Connection" * ^ A B C D E Sonya Tafoya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center . Retrieved May 7, 2008. Cite error: Invalid tag; name "pewhispanic.org" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ). * ^ Andrew Huse. "Welcome to Cuban Sandwich City". Cigar
Cigar
City Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 2. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. * ^ Linda Stradley (2004). "History of Cuban Sandwich, Cubano Sandwich". What's Cooking America website. Archived from the original on 2005-04-21. * ^ Enrique Fernandez (August 9, 2007). "Our search for a good Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
takes a surprising turn" (PDF). The Miami
Miami
Herald . Archived from the original (PDF) on July 31, 2009. * ^ Benjamin G. Bishin; Casey A. Klofstad (2011). "The Political Incorporation of Cuban Americans: Why Won\'t Little Havana Turn Blue?" (PDF). Political Research Quarterly XX(X) 1– 14. University of Utah. doi :10.1177/1065912911414589 . Retrieved September 14, 2015. * ^ Cave, Damien (April 21, 2009). "U.S. Overtures Find Support Among Cuban-Americans". The New York Times
The New York Times
. * ^ Casey Woods (November 6, 2008). "Presidential and Congressional Candidate Cuba
Cuba
Watch: Analysis of Cuban American
Cuban American
vote". Candidatecubawatch.blogspot.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015. * ^ Marc Caputo (November 8, 2012). "Poll: Obama got big share of Cuban American
Cuban American
vote, won among other Hispanics
Hispanics
in Florida". Miamiherald.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved June 5, 2015. * ^ "More U.S. Cubans
Cubans
Are Shifting To Democratic Party". nbcnews.com. NBC News. June 24, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.

FURTHER READING

* De La Torre, Miguel A. , La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami, University of California
California
Press, 2003. * Diaz, Carmen (2008). Siete jornadas en Miami
Miami
(in Spanish) (1ra ed.). Miami, FL: Alexandria Library. ISBN 978-1-934804-26-1 . Interviews with Cuban-American women in Miami
Miami
about Cuban-American identity. * Kami, Hideaki, “Ethnic Community, Party Politics, and the Cold War: The Political Ascendancy of Miami
Miami
Cubans, 1980–2000,” Japanese Journal of American Studies (Tokyo), 23 (2012), 185–208. * Miguel A. De La Torre , "La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami", University of California
California
Press, 2003. * Gustavo Pérez Firmat , Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban-American Way. Austin: The University of Texas
Texas
Press, 1994. Rpt. 1996, 1999. Revised and expanded edition, 2012.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* "Immigration Law and the Racialization of Latina/Latino" * William E. Gibson, "Cuban Americans
Americans
can go Home More Easily

.