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Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500

Republic
Republic
of Croatia Republika Hrvatska[a]

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino" "Our Beautiful Homeland"

Location of  Croatia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)

Capital and largest city Zagreb 45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000

Official languages Croatian

Recognised national languages See Languages of Croatia

Writing system Latin

Ethnic groups (2011[1])

90.42% Croats 4.36% Serbs 5.22% others

Religion (2011)

91.06% Christians 4.57% Irreligious 1.47% Muslims 2.90% others

Demonym

Croatian

Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

• President

Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović

• Prime Minister

Andrej Plenković

• Speaker of Parliament

Gordan Jandroković

• Chief Justice

Miroslav Šeparović

Legislature Sabor

Establishment

• Croatian settlement

6th century[2][3][4]

• Duchy

7th century

• Kingdom

925

•  Personal union
Personal union
with Hungary

1102

• Joined Habsburg Monarchy

1 January 1527

• Secession from Austria-Hungary

29 October 1918

• Creation of Yugoslavia

4 December 1918

• Decision on independence

25 June 1991

• Joined the European Union

1 July 2013

Area

• Total

56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)

• Water (%)

1.09

Population

• 2017 estimate

4,154,200[5] (129th)

• 2011 census

4,284,889[6] (128th)

• Density

75.8/km2 (196.3/sq mi) (126th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$104.856 billion[7] (84th)

• Per capita

$25,295[7] (56th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$57.860 billion[7] (81st)

• Per capita

$13,958[7] (57th)

Gini (2018)  29.7[8] low · 17th

HDI (2015)  0.827[9] very high · 45th

Currency Kuna (HRK)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)

CEST (UTC+2)

Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE)

Drives on the right

Calling code +385

Patron saint St. Joseph[10]

ISO 3166 code HR

Internet TLD

.hr and .eu

Croatia
Croatia
(/kroʊˈeɪʃə/ ( listen) kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska,  listen (help·info)), is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. Its capital city is Zagreb, which forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with its twenty counties. Croatia
Croatia
has a total area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. The Croats
Croats
arrived in the area of present-day Croatia
Croatia
during the 6th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia
Croatia
to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia
Croatia
entered a personal union with Hungary
Hungary
in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. During the early 19th century, parts of the country were split into the French Illyrian Provinces, and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
occupied its Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina side–a dispute settled by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia
Croatia
was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. A fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
existed in World War II. After the war, Croatia became a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic
Republic
of Yugoslavia, a constitutionally socialist state. On 25 June 1991, Croatia
Croatia
declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration. Croatia
Croatia
is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. A middle power in international relations, it is a member of the European Union
European Union
(EU), United Nations
United Nations
(UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia
Croatia
has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. The service sector dominates Croatia's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. International tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia
Croatia
ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union
European Union
is Croatia's most important trading partner. Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia. Croatia
Croatia
provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory and antiquity 2.2 Greek and Roman rule 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1538–1918) 2.5 Yugoslavia (1918–1991) 2.6 Independence (1991–present)

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity

4 Politics

4.1 Law and judicial system 4.2 Administrative divisions 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Infrastructure

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health

7 Culture

7.1 Arts and literature 7.2 Media 7.3 Cuisine 7.4 Sports

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of Croatia

The Branimir Inscription
Branimir Inscription
is the oldest preserved monument containing an inscription defining a Croatian medieval ruler as a duke of Croats

The name of Croatia
Croatia
derives from Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Croātia. Compare DUX CRUATORVM [sic] ("Duke of the Croats") attested in the Branimir inscription. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic
North-West Slavic
*Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from proposed Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xŭrvatŭ (*Xъrvatъ) which possibly comes from Old Persian
Old Persian
*xaraxwat-.[11] The word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait- which is the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.[12] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet
Baška tablet
in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").[13] The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim.[14] The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription
Branimir Inscription
found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.[15] History

Historical affiliations

Early duchies

Duchy of Croatia
Duchy of Croatia
(7th century–925) Duchy of Pannonia (8th–9th century)

Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(925–1102) Kingdom of Croatia

in personal union with Hungary
Hungary
(1102–1526)

Habsburg Monarchy

Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(1527–1868) Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
(1699–1868) Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
(1815–1868)

Austria-Hungary

  Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
(1868–1918) Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
(1868–1918)

State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs (1918)   Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(1918–1945)

Banovina of Croatia
Banovina of Croatia
(1939–1943)

Independent State of Croatia

puppet state of   Germany
Germany
(1941–1945)

 SR Croatia

federal subject of  Yugoslavia (1945–1990)

Republic
Republic
of Croatia

democratic republic within  Yugoslavia (1990–1991)

  Croatia
Croatia
(1991–present)

Main article: History of Croatia Prehistory and antiquity Main article: History of Croatia
History of Croatia
before the Croats The area known as Croatia
Croatia
today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals
Neanderthals
dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina.[16] Remnants of several Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
cultures were found in all regions of the country.[17] The largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, and the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Starčevo, Vučedol and Baden cultures.[18][19] The Iron Age
Iron Age
left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
and the Celtic La Tène culture.[20] Greek and Roman rule Main articles: Illyria
Illyria
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(Roman province)

Tanais Tablet B, name Khoroáthos highlighted

Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians
Illyrians
and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar,[21] Korčula, and Vis.[22] In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
built a large palace in Split when he retired in AD 305.[23] During the 5th century, one of the last Emperors of the Western Roman Empire, Julius Nepos, ruled his small empire from the palace.[24] The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of almost all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast, islands and mountains. The city of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum.[25] The ethnogenesis of Croats
Croats
is uncertain and there are several competing theories, Slavic and Iranian being the most frequently put forward. The most widely accepted of these, the Slavic theory, proposes migration of White Croats
Croats
from the territory of White Croatia during the Migration Period. Conversely, the Iranian theory proposes Iranian origin, based on Tanais Tablets
Tanais Tablets
containing Greek inscription of given names Χορούαθ[ος], Χοροάθος, and Χορόαθος (Khoroúathos, Khoroáthos, and Khoróathos) and their interpretation as anthroponyms of Croatian people.[26] Middle Ages Main articles: Duchy of Croatia, Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(925–1102), Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(1102–1526), and Republic
Republic
of Ragusa

Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav

The Arrival of the Croats
Croats
at the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, painting by Oton Iveković

The Baška tablet, the oldest evidence of the glagolitic script

According to the work De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
written by the 10th-century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats
Croats
had arrived in what is today Croatia
Croatia
in the early 7th century; however, that claim is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries.[27] Eventually two dukedoms were formed—Duchy of Pannonia and Duchy of Croatia, ruled by Ljudevit
Ljudevit
and Borna, as attested by chronicles of Einhard
Einhard
starting in 818. The record represents the first document of Croatian realms, vassal states of Francia
Francia
at the time.[28] The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later.[29] According to the Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Christianization
Christianization
of Croats began in the 7th century, but the claim is disputed and generally Christianization
Christianization
is associated with the 9th century.[30] The first native Croatian ruler recognised by the Pope was Duke Branimir, who received papal recognition from Pope John VIII
Pope John VIII
on 7 June 879.[15] Tomislav was the first ruler of Croatia
Croatia
who was styled a king in a letter from the Pope John X, dating kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
to year 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings.[31] The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir
Dmitar Zvonimir
(1075–1089).[32] When Stjepan II died in 1091 ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Ladislaus I of Hungary claimed the Croatian crown in name of his sister Helena, wife of King Dmitar Zvonimir. Opposition to the claim led to a war and personal union of Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary
Hungary
in 1102, ruled by Coloman.[33] For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
was ruled by the Sabor
Sabor
(parliament) and a Ban (viceroy) appointed by the king.[34] The period saw increasing threat of Ottoman conquest and struggle against the Republic
Republic
of Venice for control of coastal areas. The Venetians gained control over most of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
by 1428, with exception of the city-state of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
which became independent. Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field
Battle of Krbava field
and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II died at Mohács, and in 1527, the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
met in Cetin and chose Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
as new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia
Croatia
against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
while respecting its political rights.[34][35] This period saw the rise of influential nobility such as the Frankopan
Frankopan
and Zrinski
Zrinski
families to prominence and ultimately numerous Bans from the two families.[36] Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1538–1918) Main articles: Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Habsburg), Croatian–Ottoman Wars, and Austria-Hungary

Croatian ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski
Zrinski
is honored as a national hero both in Croatia
Croatia
and in Hungary
Hungary
for his defense of Szigetvár against the invading Ottoman Turks

Following the decisive Ottoman victories, Croatia
Croatia
was split into civilian and military territories, with the partition formed in 1538. The military territories would become known as the Croatian Military Frontier and were under direct Imperial control. Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and stabilisation of borders.[35] During the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
(1683–1698), Slavonia
Slavonia
was regained but western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia
Croatia
before the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control.[35] The present-day border between the two countries is a remnant of this outcome. Dalmatia, the southern part of the border, was similarly defined by the Fifth and the Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars.[37]

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
(no. 17) was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
created in 1868 following the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement

The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats
Croats
migrated towards Austria
Austria
and the present-day Burgenland Croats
Croats
are direct descendants of these settlers.[38] To replace the fleeing population, the Habsburgs encouraged the Christian populations of Bosnia
Bosnia
and Serbia
Serbia
to provide military service in the Croatian Military Frontier. Serb migration into this region peaked during the Great Serb Migrations of 1690 and 1737–39.[39]

Ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelačić
fought Hungarians
Hungarians
in 1848 and 1849

The Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
supported King Charles III's Pragmatic Sanction and signed their own Pragmatic Sanction in 1712.[40] Subsequently, the emperor pledged to respect all privileges and political rights of Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and Queen Maria Theresa
Queen Maria Theresa
made significant contributions to Croatian matters. Between 1797 and 1809 the First French Empire
First French Empire
gradually occupied the entire eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coastline and a substantial part of its hinterland, ending the Venetian and the Ragusan republics, establishing the Illyrian Provinces.[35] In response the Royal Navy started the blockade of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
leading to the Battle of Vis in 1811.[41] The Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
were captured by the Austrians in 1813, and absorbed by the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
following the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
in 1815. This led to formation of the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
and restoration of the Croatian Littoral
Croatian Littoral
to the Kingdom of Croatia, now both under the same crown.[42] The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating the unity of all South Slavs
South Slavs
in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture.[43] During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia
Croatia
sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelačić
helping defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering a period of Germanization policy.[44] By the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary, and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
of 1868, when kingdoms of Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia
Slavonia
were united.[45] The Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
remained under de facto Austrian control, while Rijeka retained the status of Corpus separatum introduced in 1779.[33] After Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
occupied Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Croatian Military Frontier
Croatian Military Frontier
was abolished and the territory returned to Croatia
Croatia
in 1881,[35] pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian settlement.[46][47] Renewed efforts to reform Austria-Hungary, entailing federalisation with Croatia
Croatia
as a federal unit, were stopped by advent of World War I.[48] Yugoslavia (1918–1991) Main articles: Creation of Yugoslavia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Banovina of Croatia, World War II
World War II
in Yugoslavia, Independent State of Croatia, and Socialist Republic
Republic
of Croatia

Stjepan Radić, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
who stood against Serbian hegemony and advocated federal organisation of Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
meets fascist dictator Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
upon his arrival at the Berghof for a state visit, June 1941

On 29 October 1918 the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
(Sabor) declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs,[34] which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.[49] The Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
never ratified a decision to unite with Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro.[34] The 1921 constitution defining the country as a unitary state and abolition of Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
and historical administrative divisions effectively ended Croatian autonomy. The new constitution was opposed by the most widely supported national political party—the Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
(HSS) led by Stjepan Radić.[50] The political situation deteriorated further as Radić was assassinated in the National Assembly in 1928, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929.[51] The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia.[52] The HSS, now led by Vladko Maček, continued to advocate federalisation of Yugoslavia, resulting in the Cvetković–Maček Agreement of August 1939 and the autonomous Banovina of Croatia. The Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor
Sabor
and a crown-appointed Ban.[53] In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany
Germany
and Italy. Following the invasion the territory, parts of Croatia, Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina, and the region of Syrmia
Syrmia
were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH), a Nazi-backed puppet state. Parts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
were annexed by Italy
Italy
and the northern Croatian regions of Baranja and Međimurje
Međimurje
were annexed by Hungary.[54] The NDH regime was led by Ante Pavelić and ultranationalist Ustaše.

People of Zagreb
Zagreb
celebrating liberation from the Axis powers, 12 May 1945

A resistance movement soon emerged. On 22 June 1941,[55] the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment was formed near Sisak, as the first military unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Europe.[56] This sparked the beginning of the Yugoslav Partisan
Yugoslav Partisan
movement, a communist multi-ethnic anti-fascist resistance group led by Josip Broz Tito.[57] The movement grew rapidly and at the Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
in December 1943 the Partisans gained recognition from the Allies.[58] With Allied support in logistics, equipment, training and air power, and with the assistance of Soviet troops taking part in the 1944 Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans gained control of Yugoslavia and the border regions of Italy
Italy
and Austria
Austria
by May 1945, during which thousands of members of the Ustaše, as well as Croat refugees, were killed by the Yugoslav Partisans.[59]

Josip Broz Tito, a Croat by nationality, led SFR Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslavia
from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in the White House, 1971

The political aspirations of the Partisan movement were reflected in the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia, which developed in 1943 as the bearer of Croatian statehood and later transformed into the Parliament of Croatia
Croatia
in 1945, and AVNOJ—its counterpart at the Yugoslav level.[60][61] Ustaše
Ustaše
regime conducted a campaign of persecution of Jewish, Serb, Romani and antifascist Croat inhabitants of the NDH, exemplified by the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps.[62] It is estimated that out of 39,000 Jews
Jews
in the country only 9,000 survived; the rest were either killed or deported to Germany, both by the local authorities and the German Army itself.[63] Furthermore, according to Midlarsky, the number of Serbs killed by the regime was at least 500,000,[64] but the figure is contradicted by Bogoljub Kočović and Vladimir Žerjavić, whose figures are in agreement with estimates of the United States
United States
Census Bureau,[65] with Kočović estimating the total number of Serbs killed throughout Yugoslav territory in various circumstances at 487,000, while Žerjavić put the figure at 530,000 (320,000 killed in the NDH, including 82,000 killed among the Yugoslav Partisans, 23,000 killed as Axis collaborators, 25,000 victims of a typhoid epidemic, 45,000 killed by Germans
Germans
and 15,000 by Italians). The number of Croats
Croats
killed in the NDH is estimated to be approximately 200,000, either by Ustaše, as members of the armed resistance, or as Axis collaborators.[66][67] Several thousand of these were killed by the Chetniks; most Croatian historians place the number of Croats
Croats
killed by the Chetniks on the territory of modern-day Croatia
Croatia
at between 3,000 and 3,500. Croatian estimates for the number of Croats
Croats
killed by Chetniks in the whole of Yugoslavia range from 18,000 to 32,000 combatants and civilians.[68] After World War II, Croatia
Croatia
became a single-party socialist federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. In 1967, Croatian authors and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language demanding greater autonomy for Croatian language.[69] The declaration contributed to a national movement seeking greater civil rights and decentralization of the Yugoslav economy, culminating in the Croatian Spring
Croatian Spring
of 1971, suppressed by Yugoslav leadership.[70] Still, the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution
1974 Yugoslav Constitution
gave increased autonomy to federal units, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.[71]

A scene from the Croatian War of Independence

Following the death of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
in 1980, the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated, with national tension fanned by the 1986 Serbian SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Montenegro.[72][73] In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation.[74] In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further.[75] Some of Serbs in Croatia left Sabor
Sabor
and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognised Republic
Republic
of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.[76][77] Independence (1991–present) Main articles: Independence of Croatia, Croatian War of Independence, and History of Croatia
History of Croatia
since 1995

Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
was the first democratically elected President of Croatia

As tensions rose, Croatia
Croatia
declared independence on 25 June 1991; however, the full implementation of declaration only came into effect on 8 October 1991.[78][79] In the meantime, tensions escalated into overt war when the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) and various Serb paramilitary groups attacked Croatia.[80] By the end of 1991, a high-intensity conflict fought along a wide front reduced Croatia
Croatia
to control of only about two-thirds of its territory.[81][82] The various Serb paramilitary groups then began pursuing a campaign of killing, terror and expulsion against the non-Serb population in the rebel territories, killing thousands of Croat civilians and forcing at least 170,000 from their homes.[83] On 15 January 1992, Croatia
Croatia
gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
members, and subsequently the United Nations.[84][85] The war effectively ended in August 1995 with a decisive victory by Croatia.[86] This was accompanied by the exodus of about 200,000 Serbs from the rebel territories, whose lands were subsequently settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina.[87] The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement
Erdut Agreement
of November 1995, with the process concluded in January 1998.[88] Following the end of the war, Croatia
Croatia
faced the challenges of post-war reconstruction, the return of refugees, advancing democratic principles, protection of human rights and general social and economic development. The post-2000 period is characterized by democratization, economic growth and structural and social reforms, as well as problems such as unemployment, corruption and the inefficiency of the public administration. In 2000, collation of six liberal parties led by Ivica Račan won parliamentary and liberal Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
presidential elections. Croatia
Croatia
became a member of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) on 30 November 2000. In November 2000 and March 2001, the Parliament amended the Constitution changing bicameral parliament back into historic unicameral and reducing the presidential powers. Furthermore, Croatia joined Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
program in May 2000 and signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement
Stabilization and Association Agreement
with the European Union
European Union
in 2001, submitted a formal application for the membership in 2003, was given the status of candidate country in 2004, and began accession negotiations in 2005. On 1 April 2009, Croatia
Croatia
joined NATO. Croatia
Croatia
completed EU accession negotiations in 2011 and joined the European Union
European Union
on 1 July 2013. Geography Main article: Geography of Croatia

Topographic map of Croatia

Fields in undulating landscape of the Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
region

Croatia
Croatia
is located in Central and Southeast Europe, bordering Hungary to the northeast, Serbia
Serbia
to the east, Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina to the southeast, Montenegro
Montenegro
to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the southwest and Slovenia
Slovenia
to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.[89]

Croatia
Croatia
has over a thousand islands; Pictured: part of Mljet
Mljet
National Park, the oldest marine protected area in the Mediterranean

The territory covers 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), consisting of 56,414 square kilometres (21,782 square miles) of land and 128 square kilometres (49 square miles) of water. It is the 127th largest country in the world.[90] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
with the highest point of the Dinara
Dinara
peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet) near the border with Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina in the south[90] to the shore of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
which makes up its entire southwest border. Insular Croatia
Croatia
consists of over a thousand islands and islets varying in size, 48 of which are permanently inhabited. The largest islands are Cres
Cres
and Krk,[90] each of them having an area of around 405 square kilometres (156 square miles). The hilly northern parts of Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
and the flat plains of Slavonia
Slavonia
in the east which is part of the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
are traversed by major rivers such as Danube, Drava, Kupa, and Sava. The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar
Vukovar
in the extreme east and forms part of the border with Serbia. The central and southern regions near the Adriatic
Adriatic
coastline and islands consist of low mountains and forested highlands. Natural resources found in the country in quantities significant enough for production include oil, coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt and hydropower.[90] Karst topography
Karst topography
makes up about half of Croatia
Croatia
and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps.[91] There are a number of deep caves in Croatia, 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft), 14 of them deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes, a system of 16 lakes with waterfalls connecting them over dolomite and limestone cascades. The lakes are renowned for their distinctive colours, ranging from turquoise to mint green, grey or blue.[92] Climate

Köppen climate types of Croatia

Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of Senj

Most of Croatia
Croatia
has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). The coldest parts of the country are Lika
Lika
and Gorski Kotar
Gorski Kotar
where snowy forested climate is found at elevations above 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The warmest areas of Croatia
Croatia
are at the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast and especially in its immediate hinterland characterised by the Mediterranean climate, as the temperature highs are moderated by the sea. Consequently, temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas—the lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) was recorded on 5 July 1950 in Karlovac.[93] Mean annual precipitation ranges between 600 millimetres (24 inches) and 3,500 millimetres (140 inches) depending on geographic region and prevailing climate type. The least precipitation is recorded in the outer islands (Biševo, Lastovo, Svetac, Vis) and in the eastern parts of Slavonia; however, in the latter case, it occurs mostly during the growing season. The maximum precipitation levels are observed on the Dinara
Dinara
mountain range and in Gorski kotar.[93] Prevailing winds in the interior are light to moderate northeast or southwest, and in the coastal area prevailing winds are determined by local area features. Higher wind velocities are more often recorded in cooler months along the coast, generally as bura or less frequently as sirocco. The sunniest parts of the country are the outer islands, Hvar and Korčula, where more than 2700 hours of sunshine are recorded per year, followed by the middle and southern Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
area in general and northern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast, all with more than 2000 hours of sunshine per year.[94] Biodiversity Main article: Protected areas of Croatia

Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Cliffs in Telašćica
Telašćica
Nature Park

Paklenica

Krka National Park

Croatia
Croatia
can be subdivided between a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology. The country is consequently one of the richest in Europe
Europe
in terms of biodiversity. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia—Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika
Lika
and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava
Drava
and Danube, and continental in the remaining areas. One of the most significant are karst habitats which include submerged karst, such as Zrmanja
Zrmanja
and Krka canyons and tufa barriers, as well as underground habitats. The karst geology harbours approximately 7,000 caves and pits, some of which are habitat of the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm. Forests are also significantly present in the country, as they cover 2,490,000 hectares (6,200,000 acres) representing 44% of Croatian land surface. Other habitat types include wetlands, grasslands, bogs, fens, scrub habitats, coastal and marine habitats.[95] In terms of phytogeography, Croatia
Croatia
is a part of the Boreal Kingdom
Boreal Kingdom
and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic
Adriatic
province of the Mediterranean Region. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides Croatia
Croatia
between three ecoregions—Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests
and Illyrian deciduous forests.[96] There are 37,000 known species in Croatia, but their actual number is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000.[95] The claim is supported by nearly 400 new taxa of invertebrates discovered in Croatia
Croatia
in the first half of the 2000s alone.[95] There are more than a thousand endemic species, especially in Velebit
Velebit
and Biokovo
Biokovo
mountains, Adriatic islands and karst rivers. Legislation protects 1,131 species.[95] The most serious threat to species is loss and degradation of habitats. A further problem is presented by invasive alien species, especially Caulerpa taxifolia
Caulerpa taxifolia
algae. The invasive algae are regularly monitored and removed to protect the benthic habitat. Indigenous sorts of cultivated plants and breeds of domesticated animals are also numerous. Those include five breeds of horses, five breeds of cattle, eight breeds of sheep, two breeds of pigs and a poultry breed. Even the indigenous breeds include nine endangered or critically endangered ones.[95] There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia
Croatia
is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000
Natura 2000
network.[95] Politics Further information: Politics of Croatia, List of political parties in Croatia, and Human rights in Croatia

St. Mark's Square in Zagreb
Zagreb
– Left-to-right: Banski dvori
Banski dvori
official residence of the Croatian Government, St. Mark's Church and Croatian Parliament

The Republic
Republic
of Croatia
Croatia
is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance. With the collapse of the ruling communist party in SFR Yugoslavia, Croatia
Croatia
organized its first multi-party elections and adopted its present constitution in 1990.[97] It declared independence on 8 October 1991 which led to the break-up of Yugoslavia and countries international recognition by the United Nations
United Nations
in 1992.[79][85] Under its 1990 constitution, Croatia
Croatia
operated a semi-presidential system until 2000 when it switched to a parliamentary system.[98] Government powers in Croatia
Croatia
are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers.[99] The President of the Republic
Republic
(Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy.[99] The most recent presidential elections were held on 11 January 2015, when Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
won. She took the oath of office on 15 February 2015.[100] The government is headed by the Prime Minister, who has four deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity.[101] As the executive branch, it is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. The government is seated at Banski dvori
Banski dvori
in Zagreb.[99] Since 19 October 2016, Croatian Prime Minister has been Andrej Plenković. The parliament (Sabor) is a unicameral legislative body. A second chamber, the House of Counties, set up in 1993 pursuant to the 1990 Constitution, was abolished in 2001. The number of Sabor
Sabor
members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The sessions of the Sabor
Sabor
take place from 15 January to 15 July, and from 15 September to 15 December.[102] The two largest political parties in Croatia
Croatia
are the Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.[103] Law and judicial system Further information: Law of Croatia

Seat of the Constitutional Court on the St. Mark's Square, Zagreb

Croatia
Croatia
has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving merely as implementers, and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by German and Austrian legal systems. Croatian law is divided into two principal areas – private and public law. By the time EU accession negotiations were completed on 30 June 2010, Croatian legislation was fully harmonised with the Community acquis.[104] The main law in the county is the Constitution adopted on December 22, 1990. The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. In addition, there are also County, Municipal, Misdemeanor, Commercial, and Administrative courts.[105] Cases falling within judicial jurisdiction are in the first instance decided by a single professional judge, while appeals are deliberated in mixed tribunals of professional judges. Lay magistrates also participate in trials.[106] State's Attorney Office is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors that is empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences. Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. Croatia's security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (SOA). Administrative divisions Further information: Counties of Croatia
Counties of Croatia
and NUTS of Croatia

Varaždin County
Varaždin County
seat

Croatia
Croatia
was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages.[107] The divisions changed over time to reflect losses of territory to Ottoman conquest and subsequent liberation of the same territory, changes of political status of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
and Istria. Traditional division of the country into counties was abolished in the 1920s, when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes
Slovenes
and subsequent Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
introduced oblasts and banovinas respectively.[108] Communist-ruled Croatia, as a constituent part of post-World War II Yugoslavia, abolished earlier divisions and introduced municipalities, subdividing Croatia
Croatia
into approximately one hundred municipalities. Counties were reintroduced in 1992 legislation, significantly altered in terms of territory relative to the pre-1920s subdivisions: In 1918, the Transleithanian part of Croatia
Croatia
was divided into eight counties with their seats in Bjelovar, Gospić, Ogulin, Osijek, Požega, Varaždin, Vukovar, and Zagreb, and the 1992 legislation established 14 counties in the same territory.[109][110] Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia
Croatia
is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. Borders of the counties changed in some instances since, with the latest revision taking place in 2006. The counties subdivide into 127 cities and 429 municipalities.[111] Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) division of Croatia
Croatia
is performed in several tiers. NUTS 1 level places the entire country in a single unit, while there are three NUTS 2 regions. Those are Northwest Croatia, Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia, and Adriatic
Adriatic
Croatia. The latter encompasses all the counties along the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast. The Northwest Croatia
Croatia
includes Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Međimurje, Varaždin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb
Zagreb
counties and the Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia
Croatia
includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
counties. Individual counties and the city of Zagreb also represent NUTS 3 level subdivision units in Croatia. The NUTS Local administrative unit divisions are two-tiered. LAU 1 divisions match the counties and the city of Zagreb
Zagreb
in effect making those the same as NUTS 3 units, while LAU 2 subdivisions correspond to the cities and municipalities of Croatia.[112]

Požega

Virovitica

Bjelovar

Koprivnica

Čakovec

Varaždin

Krapina

Pazin

Rijeka

Zagreb

Osijek

Vukovar

Slavonski Brod

Karlovac

Dubrovnik

Split

Šibenik

Zadar

Sisak

Gospić

Counties of Croatia

County Seat Area (km2) Population at 2011 Census

Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652 119,743

Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 158,559

Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783 122,783

Istria Pazin 2,820 208,440

Karlovac Karlovac 3,622 128,749

Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746 115,582

Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224 133,064

Lika-Senj Gospić 5,350 51,022

Međimurje Čakovec 730 114,414

Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 304,899

Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 78,031

Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582 296,123

Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463 172,977

Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534 455,242

Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939 109,320

Varaždin Varaždin 1,261 176,046

Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 84,586

Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,448 180,117

Zadar Zadar 3,642 170,398

Zagreb
Zagreb
County Zagreb 3,078 317,642

City of Zagreb Zagreb 641 792,875

Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Croatia See also: 2013 enlargement of the European Union

Flag hoisting ceremony at Ministry of Defence marking Croatian accession to the NATO
NATO
in 2009

Croatia
Croatia
became a member of the European Union
European Union
on 1 July 2013

Croatia
Croatia
has established diplomatic relations with 181 countries.[113] It's considered a middle power in international affairs.[114][115][116][117][118] As of 2009[update], Croatia maintains a network of 51 embassies, 24 consulates and eight permanent diplomatic missions abroad. Furthermore, there are 52 foreign embassies and 69 consulates in the Republic
Republic
of Croatia
Croatia
in addition to offices of international organisations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Organization for Migration, OSCE, World Bank, World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
(ICTY), United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme, United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF.[119] In 2009, the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration employed 1,381 personnel and expended 648.2 million kuna (€86.4 million).[120] Stated aims of Croatian foreign policy include enhancing relations with neighbouring countries, developing international co-operation and promotion of the Croatian economy and Croatia
Croatia
itself.[121] Since 2003, Croatian foreign policy has focused on achieving the strategic goal of becoming a member state of the European Union (EU).[122][123] In December 2011, Croatia
Croatia
completed the EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011.[124][125] Croatia
Croatia
joined the European Union
European Union
on 1 July 2013 marking the end of a process started in 2001 by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement and Croatian application for the EU membership in 2003.[126] A recurring obstacle to the negotiations was Croatia's ICTY co-operation record and Slovenian blocking of the negotiations because of Croatia– Slovenia
Slovenia
border disputes.[127][128] The latter was resolved through an Arbitration Agreement of 4 November 2009, approved by national parliaments and a referendum in Slovenia.[129] Another strategic Croatian foreign policy goal for the 2000s was NATO membership.[122][123] Croatia
Croatia
was included in the Partnership for Peace in 2000, invited to NATO
NATO
membership in 2008 and formally joined the alliance on 1 April 2009.[130][131] Croatia
Croatia
became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council for the 2008–2009 term, assuming presidency in December 2008.[132] The country is preparing to join the Schengen Area.[133] Military Main article: Republic
Republic
of Croatia
Croatia
Armed Forces

Croatian Air Force
Croatian Air Force
and US Navy
US Navy
aircraft participate in multinational training, 2002

The Croatian Armed Forces (CAF) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy branches in addition to the Education and Training Command and Support Command. The CAF is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President of Croatia. According to the constitution, the President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and in case of immediate threat during wartime he issues orders directly to the General Staff.[134]

M-95 Degman, a prototype Croatian main battle tank

Following the 1991–95 war defence spending and CAF size have been in constant decline. As of 2005[update] military spending was an estimated 2.39% of the country's GDP, which placed Croatia
Croatia
64th in a ranking of all countries.[90] Since 2005 the budget was kept below 2% of GDP, down from the record high of 11.1% in 1994.[135] Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, CAF also went through a period of reforms focused on downsizing, restructuring and professionalisation in the years prior to Croatia's accession to NATO in April 2009. According to a presidential decree issued in 2006 the CAF is set to employ 18,100 active duty military personnel, 3,000 civilians and 2,000 voluntary conscripts between the ages of 18 and 30 in peacetime.[134] Compulsory conscription was abolished in January 2008.[90] Until 2008 military service was compulsory for men at age 18 and conscripts served six-month tours of duty, reduced in 2001 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours. Conscientious objectors could instead opt for an eight-month civilian service.[136] As of April 2011[update] the Croatian military had 120 members stationed in foreign countries as part of United Nations-led international peacekeeping forces, including 95 serving as part of the UNDOF in the Golan Heights.[137] As of 2011[update] an additional 350 troops serve as part of the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and another 20 with the KFOR in Kosovo.[138][139] Croatia
Croatia
also has a significant military industry sector which exported around US$120 million worth of military equipment and armament in 2010.[140] Croatian-made weapons and vehicles used by CAF include the standard sidearm HS2000
HS2000
manufactured by HS Produkt
HS Produkt
and the M-84D battle tank designed by the Đuro Đaković factory. Uniforms and helmets worn by CAF soldiers are also locally produced and successfully marketed to other countries.[140] Economy Main article: Economy of Croatia

Istrian vineyards; Wine is produced in nearly all regions of Croatia

The largest Croatian companies by turnover in 2015[141][142]

Rank Name Revenue (Mil. €) Profit (Mil. €)

1 Agrokor 6,435 131

2 INA 2,476 122

3 Konzum 1,711 18

4 Hrvatska elektroprivreda
Hrvatska elektroprivreda
(HEP) 1,694 260

5 Orbico Group 1,253 17

Croatia
Croatia
is classified as a high-income economy by the United Nations.[143] International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
data projects that Croatian nominal GDP stands at $53.5 billion, or $12,863 per capita for year 2017, while purchasing power parity GDP stands at $100 billion, or $24,095 per capita.[144] According to Eurostat data, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 61% of the EU average in 2012.[145] Real GDP growth in 2007 was 6.0 per cent.[146] The average net salary of a Croatian worker in January 2017 was 5,895 HRK per month, and the average gross salary was 7,911 HRK per month.[147] As of February 2017, registered unemployment rate in Croatia
Croatia
was 15.3%.[148] In 2010, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 27.2% and agriculture accounting for 6.8% of GDP.[149] According to 2004 data, 2.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 32.8% by industry and 64.5% in services.[90][150] The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. In 2010, Croatian exports were valued at 64.9 billion kuna (€8.65 billion) with 110.3 billion kuna (€14.7 billion) worth of imports. The largest trading partner is rest of the European Union.[151] More than half of Croatia's trade is with other European Union
European Union
member states.[152] Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government
Croatian Government
when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry. From 1989 to 1993, the GDP fell 40.5%. The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditures accounting for as much as 40% of GDP.[153] A backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially on issues of land ownership and corruption, are particular concerns. In the 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index, published by Transparency International, the country is ranked joint 50th with a score of 51, where zero denotes "highly corrupt" and 100 "very clean".[154] In June 2013, the national debt stood at 59.5% of the nation's GDP.[155] Tourism Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in Croatia

Zlatni Rat
Zlatni Rat
beach on the Island of Brač
Brač
is one of foremost spots of tourism in Croatia

Tourism
Tourism
dominates the Croatian service sector and accounts for up to 20% of Croatian GDP. Annual tourist industry income for 2014 was estimated at €7.4 billion.[156] Its positive effects are felt throughout the economy of Croatia
Croatia
in terms of increased business volume observed in retail business, processing industry orders and summer seasonal employment. The industry is considered an export business, because it significantly reduces the country's external trade imbalance.[157] Since the conclusion of the Croatian War of Independence, the tourist industry has grown rapidly, recording a fourfold rise in tourist numbers, with more than 11 million tourists each year.[158] The most numerous are tourists from Germany, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, and the Czech Republic
Republic
as well as Croatia itself.[159] Length of a tourist stay in Croatia
Croatia
averages 4.9 days.[160] The bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Opatija
Opatija
was the first holiday resort since the middle of the 19th century. By the 1890s, it became one of the most significant European health resorts.[161] Later a number of resorts sprang up along the coast and islands, offering services ranging from mass tourism to catering and various niche markets, the most significant being nautical tourism, as there are numerous marinas with more than 16 thousand berths, cultural tourism relying on appeal of medieval coastal cities and numerous cultural events taking place during the summer. Inland areas offer agrotourism, mountain resorts, and spas. Zagreb
Zagreb
is also a significant tourist destination, rivalling major coastal cities and resorts.[162] Croatia
Croatia
has unpolluted marine areas reflected through numerous nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches.[163] Croatia
Croatia
is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world.[164] About 15% of these visitors, or over one million per year, are involved with naturism, an industry for which Croatia
Croatia
is world-famous. It was also the first European country to develop commercial naturist resorts.[165] Infrastructure See also: Transport in Croatia
Transport in Croatia
and Energy in Croatia

Zagreb
Zagreb
Airport is the largest and busiest international airport in the country

Croatia
Croatia
has over 1250 km of modern highways most of which were built in the early 2000s; Pictured: A1 motorway near Maslenica

The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly developed motorway network, largely built in the late 1990s and especially in the 2000s (decade). By September 2011, Croatia
Croatia
had completed more than 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) of motorways, connecting Zagreb
Zagreb
to most other regions and following various European routes and four Pan-European corridors.[166][167][168] The busiest motorways are the A1, connecting Zagreb
Zagreb
to Split and the A3, passing east–west through northwest Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia.[169] A widespread network of state roads in Croatia
Croatia
acts as motorway feeder roads while connecting all major settlements in the country. The high quality and safety levels of the Croatian motorway network were tested and confirmed by several EuroTAP and EuroTest programs.[170][171]

Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways
train HŽ 6112

The Port of Rijeka
Rijeka
is the largest Croatian seaport

Croatia
Croatia
has an extensive rail network spanning 2,722 kilometres (1,691 miles), including 984 kilometres (611 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways.[172] The most significant railways in Croatia
Croatia
are found within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka
Rijeka
to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb.[166] All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways.[173] There are international airports in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, and Zagreb.[174] The largest and busiest is Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
Airport.[175] As of January 2011, Croatia
Croatia
complies with International Civil Aviation Organization aviation safety standards and the Federal Aviation Administration upgraded it to Category 1 rating.[176] The busiest cargo seaport in Croatia
Croatia
is the Port of Rijeka
Rijeka
and the busiest passenger ports are Split and Zadar.[177][178] In addition to those, a large number of minor ports serve an extensive system of ferries connecting numerous islands and coastal cities in addition to ferry lines to several cities in Italy.[179] The largest river port is Vukovar, located on the Danube, representing the nation's outlet to the Pan-European transport corridor VII.[166][180] There are 610 kilometres (380 miles) of crude oil pipelines in Croatia, connecting the Port of Rijeka
Rijeka
oil terminal with refineries in Rijeka
Rijeka
and Sisak, as well as several transhipment terminals. The system has a capacity of 20 million tonnes per year.[181] The natural gas transportation system comprises 2,113 kilometres (1,313 miles) of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines, and more than 300 associated structures, connecting production rigs, the Okoli natural gas storage facility, 27 end-users and 37 distribution systems.[182] Croatian production of energy sources covers 85% of nationwide natural gas demand and 19% of oil demand. In 2008, 47.6% of Croatia's primary energy production structure comprised use of natural gas (47.7%), crude oil (18.0%), fuel wood (8.4%), hydro power (25.4%) and other renewable energy sources (0.5%). In 2009, net total electrical power production in Croatia
Croatia
reached 12,725 GWh and Croatia
Croatia
imported 28.5% of its electric power energy needs.[89] The bulk of Croatian imports are supplied by the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, 50% owned by Hrvatska elektroprivreda, providing 15% of Croatia's electricity.[183] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Croatia
Demographics of Croatia
and Croats

2011 census ethnic structure by municipalities, Red: Croats, Blue: Serbs, Yellow: Italians, Green: Hungarians, Purple: Czechs

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1890 2,854,558 —    

1900 3,161,456 +10.8%

1910 3,460,584 +9.5%

1921 3,443,375 −0.5%

1931 3,785,455 +9.9%

1948 3,779,958 −0.1%

1953 3,936,022 +4.1%

1961 4,159,696 +5.7%

1971 4,426,221 +6.4%

1981 4,601,469 +4.0%

1991 4,784,265 +4.0%

2002 4,492,049 −6.1%

2011 4,456,096 −0.8%

As of 29 June 2011

With its estimated population of 4.19 million in 2016, Croatia ranks 125th by population in the world. Its population density stands at 75.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overall life expectancy in Croatia
Croatia
at birth was 78.20 years in 2016.[184] The total fertility rate of 1.43 children per mother, is one of the lowest in the world. Since 1991, Croatia's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate.[89] Since the late 1990s, there has been a positive net migration into Croatia, reaching a level of more than 7,000 net immigrants in 2006.[185] According to the 2013 United Nations
United Nations
report, 17.6% of Croatia's population were foreign-born immigrants.[186] The Croatian Bureau of Statistics
Croatian Bureau of Statistics
forecast that the population may shrink to 3.1 million by 2051, depending on actual birth rate and the level of net migration.[187] The population of Croatia
Croatia
rose steadily from 2.1 million in 1857 until 1991, when it peaked at 4.7 million, with exception of censuses taken in 1921 and 1948, i.e. following two world wars.[89] The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative[90] with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s.[188] In recent years, the Croatian government has been pressured each year to add 40% to work permit quotas for foreign workers.[189] In accordance with its immigration policy, Croatia
Croatia
is trying to entice emigrants to return.[190] The population decrease was also a result of the Croatian War of Independence. During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased. In 1991, in predominantly Serb areas, more than 400,000 Croats
Croats
and other non-Serbs were either removed from their homes by the Croatian Serb forces or fled the violence.[191] During the final days of the war in 1995, more than 120,000 Serbs,[192] and perhaps as many as 200,000,[193] fled the country before arrival of Croatian forces during Operation Storm. Within a decade following the end of the war, only 117,000 Serb refugees returned out of 300,000 displaced during the entire war.[194] Most of Croatia's remaining Serbs never lived in areas occupied in the Croatian War of Independence. Serbs have been only partially re-settled in the regions they previously inhabited while some of the settlements previously inhabited by Serbs were settled by Croat refugees from Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina, mostly from Republika Srpska.[195][196] Croatia
Croatia
is inhabited mostly by Croats
Croats
(90.4%) and is ethnically the most homogeneous of the six countries of former Yugoslavia. Minority groups include Serbs (4.4%), Bosniaks, Hungarians, Italians, Slovenes, Germans, Czechs, Romani people
Romani people
and others (5.9%).[1] Religion

The Shrine of Saint
Saint
Mary of Marija Bistrica, a popular religious destination.

Main article: Religion in Croatia

Religion in Croatia[197]

religion

percent

Roman Catholicism

86.28%

Eastern Orthodoxy

4.44%

Islam

1.47%

Protestantism

0.34%

Atheism
Atheism
or Agnosticism

4.57%

Others and unspecified

3.24%

Croatia
Croatia
has no official religion. Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state. According to the 2011 census, 91.36% of Croatians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 86.28% of the population, after which follows Eastern Orthodoxy (4.44%), Protestantism
Protestantism
(0.34%) and other Christianity (0.30%). Second largest religion is Islam
Islam
(1.47%). 4.57% of the population describes themselves as non-religious.[198] In the Eurostat
Eurostat
Eurobarometer Poll of 2005, 67% of the population of Croatia
Croatia
responded that "they believe there is a God".[199] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 70% answered yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".[200] However, only 24% of the population attends religious services regularly.[201]

Most populous cities of Croatia

Zagreb

Split

Rank City County Urban population City-governed population

view talk edit

Rijeka

Osijek

1 Zagreb City of Zagreb 688,163 790,017

2 Split Split-Dalmatia 167,121 178,102

3 Rijeka Primorje-Gorski Kotar 128,314 128,624

4 Osijek Osijek-Baranja 83,104 108,048

5 Zadar Zadar 71,471 75,082

6 Pula Istria 57,460 57,460

7 Slavonski Brod Brod-Posavina 53,531 59,143

8 Karlovac Karlovac 46,833 55,705

9 Varaždin Varaždin 38,839 46,946

10 Šibenik Šibenik-Knin 34,302 46,332

Source: 2011 Census[202]

Languages Main articles: Languages of Croatia, Serbo-Croatian, and Croatian language

Map of the dialects of Croatia

Speech example

Old Croatian used in the Baška tablet

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Croatian is the official language of Croatia, and became the 24th official language of the European Union
European Union
upon its accession in 2013.[203][204] Minority languages are in official use in local government units where more than a third of population consists of national minorities or where local legislation defines so. Those languages are Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Ruthenian, Serbian, and Slovakian.[205] According to the 2011 Census, 95.6% of citizens of Croatia
Croatia
declared Croatian as their native language, 1.2% declared Serbian as their native language, while no other language is represented in Croatia
Croatia
by more than 0.5% of native speakers among population of Croatia.[206] Croatian is one of the five spoken languages of the Western South Slavic group and one of the eighteen spoken Slavic languages. Croatian is written using the Latin alphabet. It has three major dialects represented, with standard Croatian based on the Shtokavian dialect. The Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects are distinguished by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.[207] From 1961 to 1991, the official language was Serbo-Croatian. Even during socialist rule, Croats
Croats
always referred to their language as Croatian, instead of Serbo-Croatian.[208] Croatian and Serbian variants of the language were not officially recognised as different at the time, but referred to as the west and east version, and had different alphabets: the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and Serbian Cyrillic.[207] Croatians are protective of their Croatian language
Croatian language
from foreign influences, as the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian, and Turkish words were changed and altered to Slavic looking or sounding ones). Efforts made to impose policies to alter Croatian into "Serbo-Croatian" or "South Slavic" language, met resistance from Croats
Croats
in form of Croatian linguistic purism. Croatian replaced Latin as the official language of the Croatian government in the 19th century.[209] A 2011 survey revealed that 78% of Croatians claim knowledge of at least one foreign language.[210] According to a survey ordered by the European Commission
European Commission
in 2005, 49% of Croatians speak English as the second language, 34% speak German, 14% speak Italian, and 10% speak French. Russian is spoken by 4% each, and 2% of Croatians speak Spanish. However, there are large municipalities that have minority languages that include substantial populations that speak these languages. An odd-majority of Slovenes
Slovenes
(59%) have a certain level of knowledge of Croatian.[211] The country is a part of various language-based international associations most notably the European Union Language Association.[212] Education Main article: Education in Croatia

University of Zagreb
Zagreb
is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe
Europe
south of Vienna
Vienna
and all of Southeastern Europe
Europe
(1669)

Library of the University of Split

Literacy in Croatia
Croatia
stands at 99.2 per cent.[213] A worldwide study about the quality of living in different countries published by Newsweek
Newsweek
in August 2010 ranked the Croatian education system at 22nd, to share the position with Austria.[214] Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. As of 2017[update], there are 2,049 elementary schools and 701 schools providing various forms of secondary education.[215] Primary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognized minorities in Croatia, where classes are held in Czech, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Serbian languages.[216] There are 137 elementary and secondary level music and art schools, as well as 120 schools for disabled children and youth and 74 schools for adults.[215] Nationwide leaving exams (Croatian: državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2009–2010. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Croatian language, mathematics, and a foreign language) and optional subjects and is a prerequisite for university education.[217] Croatia
Croatia
has 8 public universities, the University of Dubrovnik, University of Osijek, University of Pula, University of Rijeka, University of Split, University of Zadar
Zadar
and University of Zagreb, and 2 private universities, Catholic University of Croatia
Catholic University of Croatia
and Dubrovnik International University.[218] The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar
Zadar
in 2002.[219] The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating university in Southeast Europe.[220] There are also 15 polytechnics, of which 2 are private, and 30 higher education institutions, of which 27 are private.[218] In total, there are 55 institutions of higher education in Croatia, attended by more than 157 thousand students.[215] There are 205 companies, government or education system institutions and non-profit organisations in Croatia
Croatia
pursuing scientific research and development of technology. Combined, they spent more than 3 billion kuna (€400 million) and employed 10,191 full-time research staff in 2008.[89] Among the scientific institutes operating in Croatia, the largest is the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb.[221] The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
in Zagreb
Zagreb
is a learned society promoting language, culture, arts and science from its inception in 1866.[222] Croatia
Croatia
has also produced inventors and two Croatians received the Nobel Prize. Health Main article: Health in Croatia

University Hospital Centre Zagreb.

Croatia
Croatia
has a universal health care system, whose roots can be traced back to the Hungarian- Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
Act of 1891, providing a form of mandatory insurance of all factory workers and craftsmen.[223] The population is covered by a basic health insurance plan provided by statute and optional insurance. In 2017, annual healthcare related expenditures reached 22.0 billion kuna (€3.0 billion).[224] Healthcare expenditures comprise only 0.6% of private health insurance and public spending.[225] In 2017, Croatia spent around 6.6% of its GDP on healthcare.[226] In 2015, Croatia ranked 36th in the world in life expectancy with 74.7 years for men and 81.2 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 3 per 1,000 live births.[227][228] There are hundreds of healthcare institutions in Croatia, including 79 hospitals and clinics with 23,967 beds. The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists. There are 6,379 private practice offices, and a total of 41,271 health workers in the country. There are 63 emergency medical service units, responding to more than a million calls. The principal cause of death in 2008 was cardiovascular disease at 43.5% for men and 57.2% for women, followed by tumours, at 29.4% for men and 21.4% for women. In 2009 only 13 Croatians had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 6 had died from the disease.[89] In 2008 it was estimated by the WHO that 27.4% of Croatians over age of 15 are smokers.[229] According to 2003 WHO data, 22% of the Croatian adult population is obese.[230] Culture Main article: Culture of Croatia

Old Town of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
has been included in the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites since 1979.

Because of its geographic position, Croatia
Croatia
represents a blend of four different cultural spheres. It has been a crossroad of influences of the western culture and the east—ever since division of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Byzantine Empire—as well as of the Mitteleuropa and the Mediterranean culture.[231] The Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th-century period proved crucial in emancipation of the Croatian language
Croatian language
and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures.[43] The Ministry of Culture of the Republic
Republic
of Croatia
Croatia
is tasked with preserving the nation's cultural and natural heritage and overseeing its development. Further activities supporting development of culture are undertaken at local government level.[232] The UNESCO's World Heritage List includes seven sites in Croatia.[233] The country is also rich with Intangible culture
Intangible culture
and holds ten of UNESCO's World's intangible culture masterpieces, surpassing all countries in Europe except Spain
Spain
which possesses an equal number of the listed items.[234] A global cultural contribution from Croatia
Croatia
is the necktie, derived from the cravat originally worn by the 17th-century Croatian mercenaries in France.[235][236]

The necktie originates from cravat worn by 17th-century Croat soldiers.[235][236]

Trakošćan Castle
Trakošćan Castle
is one of the best preserved historic buildings in the country.[237]

As of 2017[update], Croatia
Croatia
has 91 professional theatres, 29 professional children's theatres and 56 amateur theatres visited by more than 1.69 million viewers per year. The professional theatres employ 1,195 artists. There are 47 professional orchestras, ensembles, and choirs in the country, attracting an annual attendance of 317 thousand. There are 156 cinemas with attendance exceeding 4.532 million.[238] Croatia
Croatia
has 222 museums, visited by more than 2.7 million people in 2016. Furthermore, there are 1,781 libraries in the country, containing 26.1 million volumes, and 19 state archives.[239] In 2010, 7,348 books and brochures were published, along with 2,676 magazines and 267 newspapers. There are also 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations operating in the country. In past five years, film production in Croatia
Croatia
produced up to five feature films and 10 to 51 short films, with an additional 76 to 112 TV films. As of 2009[update], there are 784 amateur cultural and artistic associations and more than 10 thousand cultural, educational and artistic events held annually.[89] The book publishing market is dominated by several major publishers and the industry's centrepiece event— Interliber exhibition held annually at Zagreb
Zagreb
Fair.[240] Croatia
Croatia
is categorised as having established a very high level of human development in the Human Development Index, with a high degree of equality in HDI achievements between women and men.[9] It promotes disability rights.[241] Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia
Recognition of same-sex unions in Croatia
has gradually improved over the past decade, culminating in registered civil unions in July 2014, granting same-sex couples equal inheritance rights, tax deductions and limited adoption rights.[242] In addition, in December 2013 Croatians voted in a constitutional referendum and approved changes to constitution to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman.[243] Arts and literature Main articles: Croatian art, Architecture of Croatia, and Croatian literature

Šibenik
Šibenik
Cathedral has been included in the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites in year 2000.

Ivan Gundulić, the most prominent Croatian Baroque
Baroque
poet.

Architecture in Croatia
Croatia
reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions, architecture found along coasts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Istria
Istria
exhibits Venetian influence.[244] Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque
Baroque
urban planning took place, for instance in Osijek
Osijek
(Tvrđa), Varaždin
Varaždin
and Karlovac.[245][246] Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
was reflected in contemporary architecture.[247] Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong Venetian and Renaissance influence in major urban areas exemplified in works of Giorgio da Sebenico
Giorgio da Sebenico
and Niccolò Fiorentino such as the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik. The oldest preserved examples of Croatian architecture are the 9th-century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Church of St. Donatus in Zadar.[248][249] Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Croatia, there is a long history of artists in Croatia
Croatia
reaching to the Middle Ages. In that period the stone portal of the Trogir Cathedral
Trogir Cathedral
was made by Radovan, representing the most important monument of Romanesque sculpture from Medieval Croatia. The Renaissance had the greatest impact on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
coast since the remainder of Croatia
Croatia
was embroiled in the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. With the waning of the Ottoman Empire, art flourished during the Baroque
Baroque
and Rococo. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Croatian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer.[250] Croatian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Vlaho Bukovac
Vlaho Bukovac
and Ivan Meštrović.[248] The Baška tablet, a stone inscribed with the glagolitic alphabet found on the Krk
Krk
island and dated to 1100, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Croatian.[251] The beginning of more vigorous development of Croatian literature
Croatian literature
is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Marulić. Besides Marulić, Renaissance playwright Marin Držić, Baroque
Baroque
poet Ivan Gundulić, Croatian national revival poet Ivan Mažuranić, novelist, playwright and poet August Šenoa, children's writer Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, writer and journalist Marija Jurić Zagorka, poet and writer Antun Gustav Matoš, poet Antun Branko Šimić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Krleža, poet Tin Ujević
Tin Ujević
and novelist and short story writer Ivo Andrić are often cited as the greatest figures in Croatian literature.[252][253] Media Main articles: Media of Croatia
Media of Croatia
and Cinema of Croatia The freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are guaranteed by the constitution of Croatia.[254] Croatia
Croatia
ranked 62nd in the 2010 Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
report compiled by Reporters Without Borders.[255] The state-owned news agency HINA runs a wire service in Croatian and English on politics, economics, society and culture.[256]

Radio Zagreb, now a part of Croatian Radiotelevision, was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe.[257]

Despite the provisions fixed in the constitution, freedoms of press and speech in Croatia
Croatia
have been classified as partly free since 2000 by Freedom House, the independent nongovernmental organisation that monitors press freedom worldwide. Namely the country has been ranked 85th (of 196 countries),[258] and the 2011 Freedom House
Freedom House
report noted improvement of applicable legislation reflecting Croatia's accession to the EU, yet pointed out instances of politicians' attempts to hinder investigative journalism and influence news reports contents, difficulties regarding public access to information, and that most of print media market is controlled by German-owned Hanza Media
Hanza Media
and Austrian-owned Styria Media Group.[259] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
reports that in 2009 in Croatia
Croatia
there was an increase in the number of physical attacks and murders of journalists. The incidents were mainly perpetrated against journalists investigating war crimes and organised crime.[260] As of October 2011, there are nine nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with Croatian Radiotelevision
Croatian Radiotelevision
(HRT), Nova TV and RTL Televizija
RTL Televizija
operating two of the channels each, and the remaining three operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee, Kapital Net d.o.o. and Author d.o.o. companies. In addition there are 21 regional or local DVB-T television channels.[261] The HRT is also broadcasting a satellite TV channel.[262] In 2016, there were 135 radio stations and 25 TV stations in Croatia.[263] Cable television and IPTV
IPTV
networks are gaining ground in the country, as the cable TV networks already serve 450 thousand people, 10% of the total population of the country.[264][265] There are 314 newspapers and 2,678 magazines published in Croatia.[89] The print media market is dominated by Europapress Holding
Europapress Holding
and Styria Media Group who publish their flagship dailies Jutarnji list, Večernji list
Večernji list
and 24sata. Other influential newspapers are Novi list and Slobodna Dalmacija.[266][267] In 2013, 24sata was the most widely circulated daily newspaper, followed by Večernji list
Večernji list
and Jutarnji list.[268] Croatia's film industry is small and heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through grants approved by the Ministry of Culture with films often being co-produced by HRT.[269][270] Pula
Pula
Film Festival, the national film awards event held annually in Pula, is the most prestigious film event featuring national and international productions.[271] The greatest accomplishment by Croatian filmmakers was achieved by Dušan Vukotić when he won the 1961 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Ersatz (Croatian: Surogat).[272]

Lobster
Lobster
from Dalmatia

Plavac wine

Cuisine Main articles: Croatian cuisine
Croatian cuisine
and Croatian wine Croatian traditional cuisine varies from one region to another. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Istria
Istria
draw upon culinary influences of Italian and other Mediterranean cuisines which prominently feature various seafood, cooked vegetables and pasta, as well as condiments such as olive oil and garlic. The continental cuisine is heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, and Turkish culinary styles. In that area, meats, freshwater fish and vegetable dishes are predominant.[273] There are two distinct wine-producing regions in Croatia. The continental region in the northeast of the country, especially Slavonia, is capable of producing premium wines, particularly whites. Along the north coast, Istrian and Krk
Krk
wines are similar to those produced in neighbouring Italy, while further south in Dalmatia, Mediterranean-style red wines are the norm.[273] Annual production of wine exceeds 140 million litres.[89] Croatia
Croatia
was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive production and consumption of beer started;[274] the annual consumption of beer in 2008 was 83.3 litres per capita which placed Croatia
Croatia
in 15th place among the world's countries.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Croatia

Arena Zagreb, one of venues of the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship.

There are more than 400,000 active sportspeople in Croatia.[276] Out of that number, 277,000 are members of sports associations and nearly 4,000 are members of chess and contract bridge associations.[89] Association football is the most popular sport. The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez), with more than 118,000 registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.[277] The Prva HNL
Prva HNL
football league attracts the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the country. In season 2010–11, it attracted 458,746 spectators.[278]

Poljud
Poljud
stadium, Split was the venue of the 1990 European Athletics Championships.

Croatian athletes competing at international events since Croatian independence in 1991 won 44 Olympic medals, including fifteen gold medals—at the 1996 and 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
in handball, 2000 Summer Olympics in weightlifting, 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympics
2006 Winter Olympics
in alpine skiing, 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
in discus throw, trap shooting, and water polo, and in 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
in shooting, rowing, discus throw, sailing and javelin throw.[279] In addition, Croatian athletes won 16 gold medals at world championships, including four in athletics at the World Championships in Athletics held in 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2017, one in handball at the 2003 World Men's Handball
Handball
Championship, two in water polo at the 2007 World Aquatics Championships and 2017 World Aquatics Championships, one in rowing at the 2010 World Rowing Championships, six in alpine skiing at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships held in 2003 and 2005 and two at the World Taekwondo Championships in 2011 and 2007. Croatian athletes also won the 2005 Davis Cup. Croatia
Croatia
hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball
Handball
Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games
1979 Mediterranean Games
and several European Championships. The governing sports authority in the country is the Croatian Olympic Committee
Croatian Olympic Committee
(Croatian: Hrvatski olimpijski odbor), founded on 10 September 1991 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee since 17 January 1992, in time to permit the Croatian athletes to appear at the 1992 Winter Olympics
1992 Winter Olympics
in Albertville, France
France
representing the newly independent nation for the first time at the Olympic Games.[280]

Medals won by Croatia
Croatia
at the Olympics[281]

Olympic Games Olympic medals

Gold Silver Bronze Total per OG

1992 Albertville 0 0 0 0

1992 Barcelona 0 1 2 3

1994 Lillehammer 0 0 0 0

1996 Atlanta 1 1 0 2

1998 Nagano 0 0 0 0

2000 Sydney 1 0 1 2

2002 Salt Lake City 3 1 0 4

2004 Athens 1 2 2 5

2006 Turin 1 2 0 3

2008 Beijing 0 2 3 5

2010 Vancouver 0 2 1 3

2012 London 3 1 2 6

2014 Sochi 0 1 0 1

2016 Brazil 5 3 2 10

TOTAL: 15 16 13

See also

Outline of Croatia Index of Croatia-related articles

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal Croatia
Croatia
portal European Union
European Union
portal NATO
NATO
portal

Notes

^ In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority languages of Croatia:

Czech: Chorvatská republika French: République de Croatie German: Republik Kroatien Hungarian: Horvát Köztársaság Italian: Repubblica di Croazia Rusyn: Републіка Хорватія Serbian: Република Хрватска Slovak: Chorvátska republika Slovene: Republika Hrvaška Ukrainian: Респу́бліка Хорва́тія

References

^ a b "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ Frank H. Columbus (2005). Progress in Multiple Sclerosis Research. New York: Nova Publishers. p. 42. ISBN 1-59454-284-8. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Croats
Croats
came from the Pannonian lowlands in the 6th century down the Kupa
Kupa
river valley, settling the eastern outskirts of Gorski Kotar.  ^ Croatia
Croatia
Company Laws and Regulations Handbook. Washington, DC: International Business Publications, USA. 2008. p. 19. ISBN 1-4330-6967-9. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Croats
Croats
are believed to be a Slavic people who migrated from Ukraine
Ukraine
and settled in present-day Croatia
Croatia
during the 6th century.  ^ DK Eyewitness Travel Guide Eastern and Central Europe. New York: DK Eyewitness Travel. 2015. p. 431. ISBN 978-1-46542-704-5. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Slav tribes, including the Croats, settled in South Eastern Europe
Europe
from early 6th century onwards.  ^ "EU population up to almost 512 million at 1 January 2017 - Europa EU". Eurostat. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.  ^ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 – Croatia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ "First Results". Retrieved 21 July 2017.  ^ a b "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ "Hrvatski sabor - Povijest". Retrieved 10 March 2018.  ^ Alemko Gluhak (1993). Hrvatski etimološki rječnik [Croatian Etymological Dictionary] (in Croatian). August Cesarec. ISBN 953-162-000-8.  ^ Marc L. Greenberg (April 1996). "The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia" (PDF). University of Kansas. Retrieved 14 October 2011.  ^ Fučić, Branko (September 1971). "Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi" [The Oldest Croatian Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian). Old Church Slavonic Institute. 21: 227–254. Retrieved 14 October 2011.  ^ Mužić 2007, p. 27. ^ a b Mužić 2007, pp. 195–198. ^ Igor Salopek (December 2010). " Krapina
Krapina
Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information". Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica. Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture. 8 (2): 197–202. ISSN 1334-4366. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ Tihomila Težak-Gregl (April 2008). "Study of the Neolithic
Neolithic
and Eneolithic as reflected in articles published over the 50 years of the journal Opuscula archaeologica". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 30 (1): 93–122. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ Jacqueline Balen (December 2005). "The Kostolac horizon at Vučedol". Opvscvla Archaeologica Radovi Arheološkog zavoda. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeological Department. 29 (1): 25–40. ISSN 0473-0992. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ Tihomila Težak-Gregl (December 2003). "Prilog poznavanju neolitičkih obrednih predmeta u neolitiku sjeverne Hrvatske" [A Contribution to Understanding Neolithic
Neolithic
Ritual Objects in the Northern Croatia
Croatia
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Croatia
by population

100,000+

Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb

35,000+

Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar

10,000+

Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja

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Inhabited islands of Croatia

Biševo Brač Čiovo Cres Drvenik Mali Drvenik Veli Dugi Otok Hvar Ilovik Ist Iž Kaprije Koločep Kornat Korčula Krapanj Krk Lastovo Lopud Lošinj Male Srakane Mljet Molat Murter Olib Ošljak Pag Pašman Premuda Prvić Rab Rava Rivanj Sestrunj Silba Šipan Šolta Susak Ugljan Unije Vele Srakane Vir Vis Vrgada Žirje Zlarin Zverinac

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Protected areas of Croatia

National parks

Brijuni Kornati Krka Mljet Northern Velebit Paklenica Plitvice Lakes Risnjak

Nature parks

Biokovo Kopačevo Marsh Lastovo Lonjsko polje Medvednica Papuk Telašćica Učka Velebit Lake Vrana Žumberak-Samoborsko gorje

International membership and history

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Member states of the European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark
Denmark
(details) Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland
Poland
(details) Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(details)

Future enlargement of the European Union

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization

History

North Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations Enlargement

Structure

Council Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples

Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization Agreement

People

Secretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander Transformation

Members

Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States

Multilateral relations

Atlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for Peace

Portal

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World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE)

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan

Partners for Cooperation

Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia

Bodies and posts

Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

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Republics and autonomous provinces of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina Croatia Macedonia Montenegro Serbia

Vojvodina Kosovo

Slovenia

Croatia
Croatia
portal Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
portal NATO
NATO
portal European Union
European Union
portal Europe
Europe
portal Geography portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152376980 LCCN: n81035140 ISNI: 0000 0001 2112 0050 GND: 4073841-3 SUDOC: 154019917 BNF: cb12363401c (data) HDS: 3

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