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Crete
Crete
(Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete
Crete
(Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011[update], the region had a population of 623,065. Crete
Crete
forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos
Knossos
lies in Crete.[1]

Contents

1 Name 2 Physical geography

2.1 Island morphology 2.2 Mountains and valleys 2.3 Gorges, rivers and lakes 2.4 Surrounding islands 2.5 Climate

3 Geography

3.1 Administration 3.2 Cities 3.3 Economy 3.4 Transport infrastructure 3.5 Development

4 History

4.1 Prehistoric Crete 4.2 Minoan civilisation 4.3 Mycenean civilisation 4.4 Archaic and Classical period 4.5 Roman rule 4.6 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– first period 4.7 Arab rule 4.8 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– second period 4.9 Venetian rule 4.10 Ottoman rule 4.11 Cretan State
Cretan State
1898–1908 4.12 Second World War

5 Tourism

5.1 Transportation 5.2 Holiday homes and immigration 5.3 Archaeological sites and museums

6 Fauna and flora

6.1 Fauna

6.1.1 Prehistoric fauna 6.1.2 Mammals 6.1.3 Birds 6.1.4 Reptiles and amphibians 6.1.5 Arthropods 6.1.6 Crustaceans and molluscs 6.1.7 Sealife

6.2 Flora 6.3 Environmentally protected areas

7 Mythology 8 Culture

8.1 Sports

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Name[edit] The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC,[2] repeated later in Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
records and the Bible
Bible
(Caphtor). It was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island.[3] The current name of Crete
Crete
is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words 𐀐𐀩𐀳, ke-re-te (*Krētes; later Greek: Κρῆτες, plural of Κρής),[4] and 𐀐𐀩𐀯𐀍, ke-re-si-jo (*Krēsijos; later Greek: Κρήσιος),[5] "Cretan".[6][7] In Ancient Greek, the name Crete
Crete
(Κρήτη) first appears in Homer's Odyssey.[8] Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian word *kursatta (cf. kursawar "island", kursattar "cutting, sliver").[9] In Latin, it became Creta. The original Arabic name of Crete
Crete
was Iqrīṭiš (Arabic: اقريطش‎ < (της) Κρήτης), but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq (modern Iraklion), both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ (Khandhax) or Χάνδακας (Khandhakas), which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete
Crete
was called Girit (كريت). Physical geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Greece

Lefka Ori

View of Psiloritis

Crete
Crete
is the largest island in Greece
Greece
and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. Island morphology[edit]

The palm beach of Vai

The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km (160 mi) from east to west, is 60 km (37 mi) at its widest point, and narrows to as little as 12 km (7.5 mi) (close to Ierapetra). Crete
Crete
covers an area of 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi), with a coastline of 1,046 km (650 mi); to the north, it broaches the Sea of Crete
Sea of Crete
(Greek: Κρητικό Πέλαγος); to the south, the Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
(Greek: Λιβυκό Πέλαγος); in the west, the Myrtoan Sea, and toward the east the Karpathian Sea. It lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. Mountains and valleys[edit] Crete
Crete
is mountainous, and its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains:

The White Mountains or Lefka Ori
Lefka Ori
2,454 m (8,051 ft) The Idi Range ( Psiloritis
Psiloritis
35°11′N 24°49′E / 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18; 24.82 2,456 m (8,058 ft) Kedros 1,777 m (5,830 ft) The Dikti
Dikti
Mountains 2,148 m (7,047 ft) Thripti 1,489 m (4,885 ft)

These mountains lavished Crete
Crete
with valleys, such as Amari valley, fertile plateaus, such as Lasithi
Lasithi
plateau, Omalos
Omalos
and Nidha; caves, such as Gourgouthakas, Diktaion, and Idaion (the birthplace of the ancient Greek god Zeus); and a number of gorges. Gorges, rivers and lakes[edit] The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead (at Kato Zakros, Sitia) and Richtis Gorge
Richtis Gorge
and (Richtis) waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia.[10][11][12][13] The rivers of Crete
Crete
include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, and Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas
Kournas
and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania
Chania
regional unit.[14] Lake Voulismeni
Lake Voulismeni
at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was formerly a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi.[15] Lakes that were created by dams also exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis dam, the lake of Potamos dam, and the lake of Mpramiana dam.

Ha Gorge

Samariá Gorge

Aradaina Gorge

Surrounding islands[edit] Main article: List of Greek islands A large number of islands, islets, and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by archaeologists and biologists. Some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes:

Gramvousa
Gramvousa
(Kissamos, Chania) the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi
Elafonisi
(Chania), which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island (Ierapetra, Lasithi), which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia
Paximadia
island (Agia Galini, Rethymno) where the god Apollo
Apollo
and the goddess Artemis
Artemis
were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga
Spinalonga
opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda
Elounda
(Agios Nikolaos, Lasithi) Dionysades
Dionysades
islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, Lasithi

Off the south coast, the island of Gavdos
Gavdos
is located 26 nautical miles (48 km) south of Hora Sfakion
Hora Sfakion
and is the southernmost point of Europe. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Greece Crete
Crete
straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African, mainly falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete
Crete
is primarily Mediterranean. The atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is fairly mild. Snowfall is common on the mountains between November and May, but rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a truly exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius (mid 80s to mid 90s Fahrenheit), with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s. The south coast, including the Mesara Plain
Mesara Plain
and Asterousia Mountains, falls in the North African
North African
climatic zone, and thus enjoys significantly more sunny days and high temperatures throughout the year. There, date palms bear fruit, and swallows remain year-round rather than migrate to Africa. The fertile region around Ierapetra, on the southeastern corner of the island, is renowned for its exceptional year-round agricultural production, with all kinds of summer vegetables and fruit produced in greenhouses throughout the winter.[16]. The western Crete
Crete
( Chania
Chania
province) is receiving more rain and is more erosive compared to the Eastern part of Crete[17]. Geography[edit] Crete
Crete
is the most populous island in Greece
Greece
with a population of more than 600,000 people. Approximately 42% live in Crete's main cities and towns whilst 45% live in rural areas.[18] Administration[edit]

Crete
Crete
Region Περιφέρεια Κρήτης

Administrative region of Greece

logo

Coordinates: 35°13′N 24°55′E / 35.21°N 24.91°E / 35.21; 24.91

Country  Greece

Capital Heraklion

Regional units

List

Chania Heraklion Rethymno Lasithi

Government

 • Regional governor Stavros Arnaoutakis (PASOK)

Area

 • Total 8,335.88 km2 (3,218.50 sq mi)

Population (2011)[19]

 • Total 623,065

 • Density 75/km2 (190/sq mi)

Time zone EET (UTC+2)

 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

ISO 3166 code GR-M

Website www.crete.gov.gr

Crete
Crete
with its nearby islands form the Crete
Crete
Region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης, Periféria Krítis), one of the 13 regions of Greece
Greece
which were established in the 1987 administrative reform.[20] With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, the powers and authority of the regions were redefined and extended. The region is based at Heraklion
Heraklion
and is divided into four regional units (pre-Kallikratis prefectures). From west to east these are: Chania, Rethymno, Heraklion, and Lasithi. These are further subdivided into 24 municipalities. The region's governor is, since 1 January 2011, Stavros Arnaoutakis, who was elected in the November 2010 local administration elections for the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. Cities[edit] Main article: Cities of Greece Heraklion
Heraklion
is the largest city and capital of Crete. The principal cities are:

Heraklion
Heraklion
( Iraklion
Iraklion
or Candia) (173,993 inhabitants)[21] Chania
Chania
(Haniá) (108,642 inhabitants)[21] Rethymno
Rethymno
(34,300 inhabitants)[21] Ierapetra
Ierapetra
(23,707 inhabitants) Agios Nikolaos (19,462 inhabitants) Sitia
Sitia
(14,338 inhabitants)

Port of Heraklion

Chania

Rethymno

Economy[edit] Further information: Economy of Greece The economy of Crete
Crete
is predominantly based on services and tourism. However, agriculture also plays an important role and Crete
Crete
is one of the few Greek islands
Greek islands
that can support itself independently without a tourism industry.[22] The economy began to change visibly during the 1970s as tourism gained in importance. Although an emphasis remains on agriculture and stock breeding, because of the climate and terrain of the island, there has been a drop in manufacturing, and an observable expansion in its service industries (mainly tourism-related). All three sectors of the Cretan economy (agriculture/farming, processing-packaging, services), are directly connected and interdependent. The island has a per capita income much higher than the Greek average, whereas unemployment is at approximately 4%, one-sixth of that of the country overall. As in many regions of Greece, viticulture and olive groves are significant; oranges and citrons are also cultivated. Until recently there were restrictions on the import of bananas to Greece, therefore bananas were grown on the island, predominantly in greenhouses. Dairy products are important to the local economy and there are a number of speciality cheeses such as mizithra, anthotyros, and kefalotyri. Transport infrastructure[edit]

European route E75
European route E75
near Heraklion

The island has three significant airports, Nikos Kazantzakis
Nikos Kazantzakis
at Heraklion, the Daskalogiannis
Daskalogiannis
airport at Chania
Chania
and a smaller one in Sitia. The first two serve international routes, acting as the main gateways to the island for travellers. There is a long-standing plan to replace Heraklion
Heraklion
airport with a completely new airport at Kastelli, where there is presently an air force base. The island is well served by ferries, mostly from Athens, by ferry companies such as Minoan Lines
Minoan Lines
and ANEK Lines. Although the road network leads almost everywhere, there is a lack of modern highways, although this is gradually changing with the completion of the northern coastal spine highway.[23] Also, during the 1930s there was a narrow-gauge industrial railway in Heraklion, from Giofyros in the west side of the city to the port. There are now no railway lines on Crete. The government is planning the construction of a line from Chania
Chania
to Heraklion
Heraklion
via Rethymno.[24][25] Development[edit] Newspapers have reported that the Ministry of Mercantile Marine is ready to support the agreement between Greece, South Korea, Dubai Ports World and China
China
for the construction of a large international container port and free trade zone in southern Crete
Crete
near Tympaki; the plan is to expropriate 850 ha of land. The port would handle 2 million containers per year, but the project has not been universally welcomed because of its environmental, economic and cultural impact.[26] As of January 2013, the project has still not been confirmed, although there is mounting pressure to approve it, arising from Greece's difficult economic situation. There are plans for underwater cables going from mainland Greece
Greece
to Israel and Egypt
Egypt
passing by Crete
Crete
and Cyprus: EuroAfrica Interconnector and EuroAsia Interconnector.[27][28] They would connect Crete
Crete
electrically with mainland Greece, ending energy isolation of Crete. Now Hellenic Republic covers for Crete
Crete
electricity costs difference of around €300 million per year.[29] History[edit] Main article: History of Crete

Minoan rhyton in the form of a bull, Heraklion
Heraklion
Archaeological Museum

Minoan fresco from Knossos, Heraklion
Heraklion
Archaeological Museum

Palace of Knossos

Gerard Gierlinski, a Polish paleontologist, in 2002 discovered fossil footprints left by ancient human relatives 5,600,000 years ago.[30] Hominids settled in Crete
Crete
at least 130,000 years ago. In the later Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, under the Minoans, Crete
Crete
had a highly developed, literate civilisation. It has been ruled by various ancient Greek entities, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Crete, the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and the Ottoman Empire. After a brief period of autonomy (1897–1913) under a provisional Cretan government, it joined the Kingdom of Greece. It was occupied by Nazi Germany
Germany
during the Second World War. Prehistoric Crete[edit] Main article: Prehistoric Crete The first human settlement in Crete
Crete
dates before 130,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age.[31][32][33] Settlements dating to the aceramic Neolithic in the 7th millennium BC, used cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs as well as domesticated cereals and legumes; ancient Knossos
Knossos
was the site of one of these major Neolithic (then later Minoan) sites.[34] Other neolithic settlements include those at Kephala, Magasa, and Trapeza. Minoan civilisation[edit] Main article: Minoan civilisation Crete
Crete
was the centre of Europe's first advanced civilisation, the Minoan (c. 2700–1420 BC).[1] This civilisation wrote in the undeciphered script known as Linear A. Early Cretan history is replete with legends such as those of King Minos, Theseus
Theseus
and the Minotaur, passed on orally via poets such as Homer. The volcanic eruption of Thera
Thera
may have been the cause of the downfall of the Minoan civilisation. Mycenean civilisation[edit] Main article: Mycenaean Greece In 1420 BC, the Minoan civilisation
Minoan civilisation
was overrun by the Mycenean civilisation from mainland Greece. The oldest samples of writing in the Greek language, as identified by Michael Ventris, is the Linear B archive from Knossos, dated approximately to 1425–1375 BC.[35] Archaic and Classical period[edit] After the Bronze Age collapse, Crete
Crete
was settled by new waves of Greeks
Greeks
from the mainland. A number of city states developed in the Archaic period. There was very limited contact with mainland Greece, and Greek historiography shows little interest in Crete, so that there are very few literary sources. During the 6th to 4th centuries BC, Crete
Crete
was comparatively free from warfare. The Gortyn code
Gortyn code
(5th century BC) is evidence for how codified civil law established a balance between aristocratic power and civil rights. In the late 4th century BC, the aristocratic order began to collapse due to endemic infighting among the elite, and Crete's economy was weakened by prolonged wars between city states. During the 3rd century BC, Gortyn, Kydonia
Kydonia
(Chania), Lyttos and Polyrrhenia challenged the primacy of ancient Knossos. While the cities continued to prey upon one another, they invited into their feuds mainland powers like Macedon
Macedon
and its rivals Rhodes
Rhodes
and Ptolemaic Egypt. In 220 BC the island was tormented by a war between two opposing coalitions of cities. As a result, the Macedonian king Philip V gained hegemony over Crete
Crete
which lasted to the end of the Cretan War (205–200 BC), when the Rhodians opposed the rise of Macedon
Macedon
and the Romans started to interfere in Cretan affairs. In the 2nd century BC Ierapytna (Ierapetra) gained supremacy on eastern Crete. Roman rule[edit] Main article: Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica Crete
Crete
was involved in the Mithridatic Wars, initially repelling an attack by Roman general Marcus Antonius Creticus in 71 BC. Nevertheless, a ferocious three-year campaign soon followed under Quintus Caecilius Metellus, equipped with three legions and Crete
Crete
was finally conquered by Rome in 69 BC, earning for Metellus the title "Creticus". Gortyn
Gortyn
was made capital of the island, and Crete became a Roman province, along with Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
that was called Creta et Cyrenaica. When Diocletian redivided the Empire, Crete
Crete
was placed, along with Cyrene, under the diocese of Moesia, and later by Constantine I to the diocese of Macedonia. Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– first period[edit] Main article: Byzantine Crete

Arkadi Monastery

Crete
Crete
was separated from Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
c. 297. It remained a province within the eastern half of the Roman Empire, usually referred to as the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire after the establishment of a second capital in Constantinople
Constantinople
by Constantine in 330 AD. Crete
Crete
was subjected to an attack by Vandals
Vandals
in 467, the great earthquakes of 365 and 415, a raid by Slavs
Slavs
in 623, Arab raids in 654 and the 670s, and again in the 8th century. Circa 732, the Emperor Leo III the Isaurian transferred the island from the jurisdiction of the Pope
Pope
to that of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[36] Arab rule[edit] Main article: Emirate of Crete

The Byzantines under the general Damian attack Crete
Crete
but are defeated by the Saracens, c. 828, as depicted by Ioannes Scylitzes (see Skylitzes Chronicle).

In the 820s, after 900 years as a Roman, and then Eastern Roman (Byzantine) island, Crete
Crete
was captured by Andalusian Muladis led by Abu Hafs,[37] who established the Emirate of Crete. The Byzantines launched a campaign that took most of the island back in 842 and 843 under Theoktistos. Further Byzantine campaigns in 911 and 949 failed. In 960/1, Nikephoros Phokas' campaign completely restored Crete
Crete
to the Byzantine Empire, after a century and a half of Arab control. Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– second period[edit] Main article: Byzantine Crete In 961, Nikephoros Phokas returned the island to Byzantine rule after expelling the Arabs.[38] In 1204, the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
seized and sacked the imperial capital of Constantinople. Crete
Crete
was initially granted to leading Crusader Boniface of Montferrat[38] in the partition of spoils that followed. However, Boniface sold his claim to the Republic of Venice,[38] whose forces made up the majority of the Crusade. Venice's rival the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
immediately seized the island and it was not until 1212 that Venice secured Crete
Crete
as a colony. Venetian rule[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Candia

Frangokastello
Frangokastello
was built by the Venetians in 1371–74

From 1212, during Venice's rule, which lasted more than four centuries, a Renaissance
Renaissance
swept through the island as is evident from the plethora of artistic works dating to that period. Known as The Cretan School
Cretan School
or Post-Byzantine Art, it is among the last flowerings of the artistic traditions of the fallen empire. The most notable representatives of this Cretan renaissance were the painter El Greco and the writers Nicholas Kalliakis
Nicholas Kalliakis
(1645–1707), Georgios Kalafatis (professor) (c. 1652–1720), Andreas Musalus
Andreas Musalus
(c. 1665–1721) and Vitsentzos Kornaros.[39][40][41] Under the rule of the Catholic
Catholic
Venetians, the city of Candia was reputed to be the best fortified city of the Eastern Mediterranean.[42] The three main forts were located at Gramvousa, Spinalonga, and Fortezza at Rethymnon. Other fortifications include the Kazarma fortress
Kazarma fortress
at Sitia. In 1492, Jews expelled from Spain settled on the island.[43] In 1574–77, Crete
Crete
was under the rule of Giacomo Foscarini as Proveditor General, Sindace and Inquistor. According to Starr's 1942 article, the rule of Giacomo Foscarini was a dark age for Jews and Greeks. Under his rule, non-Catholics had to pay high taxes with no allowances. In 1627, there were 800 Jews in the city of Candia, about seven percent of the city's population.[44] Marco Foscarini was the Doge of Venice during this time period. Ottoman rule[edit] Main articles: Ottoman Crete
Ottoman Crete
and Cretan Revolt (1866–1869)

Depiction of the Siege of Candia

Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
(blue) and Cretan Muslim/Turkish (red) ethnic makeup of the island in 1861

Kara Musa Pasha
Kara Musa Pasha
mosque, Rethymno

The Ottomans conquered Crete
Crete
in 1669, after the siege of Candia. Many Greek Cretans fled to other regions of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
after the Ottoman–Venetian Wars, some even prospering such as the family of Simone Stratigo
Simone Stratigo
(c. 1733 – c. 1824) who migrated to Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from Crete
Crete
in 1669.[45] Islamic
Islamic
presence on the island, aside from the interlude of the Arab occupation, was cemented by the Ottoman conquest. Most Cretan Muslims
Cretan Muslims
were local Greek converts who spoke Cretan Greek, but in the island's 19th-century political context they came to be viewed by the Christian population as Turks.[46] Contemporary estimates vary, but on the eve of the Greek War of Independence (1830), as much as 45% of the population of the island may have been Muslim.[47] A number of Sufi
Sufi
orders were widespread throughout the island, the Bektashi
Bektashi
order being the most prevalent, possessing at least five tekkes. Many among them were crypto-Christians who converted back to Christianity in subsequent years, while many Cretan Turks
Cretan Turks
fled Crete
Crete
because of the unrest, settling in Turkey, Rhodes, Syria, Libya and elsewhere. By 1900, 11% of the population was Muslim. Those remaining were relocated in 1924 Population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey. During Easter of 1770, a notable revolt against Ottoman rule, in Crete, was started by Daskalogiannis, a shipowner from Sfakia
Sfakia
who was promised support by Orlov's fleet which never arrived. Daskalogiannis eventually surrendered to the Ottoman authorities. Today, the airport at Chania
Chania
is named after him. Crete
Crete
was left out of the modern Greek state by the London Protocol of 1830, and soon it was yielded to Egypt
Egypt
by the Ottoman sultan. Egyptian rule was short-lived and sovereignty was returned to the Ottoman Empire by the Convention of London on 3 July 1840. Heraklion
Heraklion
was surrounded by high walls and bastions and extended westward and southward by the 17th century. The most opulent area of the city was the northeastern quadrant where all the elite were gathered together. The city had received another name under the rule of the Ottomans, "the deserted city".[42] The urban policy that the Ottoman applied to Candia was a two-pronged approach.[42] The first was the religious endowments. It made the Ottoman elite contribute to building and rehabilitating the ruined city. The other method was to boost the population and the urban revenue by selling off urban properties. According to Molly Greene (2001) there were numerous records of real-estate transactions during the Ottoman rule. In the deserted city, minorities received equal rights in purchasing property. Christians and Jews were also able to buy and sell in the real-estate market. The Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869 or Great Cretan Revolution (Greek: Κρητική Επανάσταση του 1866) was a three-year uprising against Ottoman rule, the third and largest in a series of revolts between the end of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in 1830 and the establishment of the independent Cretan State
Cretan State
in 1898. A particular event which caused strong reactions among the liberal circles of western Europe
Europe
was the Holocaust of Arkadi. The event occurred in November 1866, as a large Ottoman force besieged the Arkadi Monastery, which served as the headquarters of the rebellion. In addition to its 259 defenders, over 700 women and children had taken refuge in the monastery. After a few days of hard fighting, the Ottomans broke into the monastery. At that point, the abbot of the monastery set fire to the gunpowder stored in the monastery's vaults, causing the death of most of the rebels and the women and children sheltered there. Cretan State
Cretan State
1898–1908[edit] Main articles: Cretan State, Theriso
Theriso
revolt, and Candia massacre

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Revolutionaries at Theriso

Following the repeated uprisings by the Cretan people, who wanted to join Greece
Greece
in 1841, 1858, 1889, 1895 and 1897, the Great Powers decided to restore order by governing the island temporarily through a committee of four admirals. On 25 August 1898, a Turkish mob massacred hundreds of Cretan Greeks, the British Consul and 17 British soldiers.[clarification needed] As a result, the Turkish forces were expelled from the island by the Great Powers in November 1898. An autonomous Cretan State
Cretan State
was founded, under Ottoman suzerainty, symbolized by the white star in the red quadrant of the flag. It was garrisoned by an international military force, and its High Commissioner was Prince George of Greece, who took charge on 9 December 1898. Prince George was replaced as High Commissioner by Alexandros Zaimis in 1906. In 1908, taking advantage of domestic turmoil in Turkey
Turkey
as well as the timing of Zaimis's vacation away from the island, the Cretan deputies unilaterally declared union with Greece. This was not recognised internationally until 1 December 1913. Second World War[edit]

German paratroopers landing on Crete
Crete
during the Battle of Crete

Main articles: Battle of Crete
Battle of Crete
and Cretan resistance During World War II, the island was the scene of the famous Battle of Crete
Crete
in May 1941. The initial 11-day battle was bloody and left more than 11,000 soldiers and civilians killed or wounded. As a result of the fierce resistance from Allied forces and Cretan locals, Adolf Hitler forbade further large-scale paratroop operations. During the initial and subsequent occupation, German firing squads routinely executed male civilians in reprisal for the death of German soldiers; civilians were rounded up randomly in local villages for the mass killings, such as at the Massacre of Kondomari
Massacre of Kondomari
and the Viannos massacres. Two German generals were later tried and executed for their roles in the killing of 3,000 of the island's inhabitants.[48] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Greece

Matala beach

Crete
Crete
is one of the most popular holiday destinations in Greece. 15% of all arrivals in Greece
Greece
come through the city of Heraklion
Heraklion
(port and airport), while charter journeys to Heraklion
Heraklion
last year made up 20% of all charter flights in Greece.[citation needed] Overall, more than two million tourists visited Crete
Crete
last year,[when?] and this increase in tourism is reflected on the number of hotel beds, rising by 53% in the period between 1986 and 1991, when the rest of Greece
Greece
saw increases of only 25%. Today, the island's tourism infrastructure caters to all tastes, including a very wide range of accommodation; the island's facilities take in large luxury hotels with their complete facilities, swimming pools, sports and recreation, smaller family-owned apartments, camping facilities and others. Visitors reach the island via two international airports in Heraklion
Heraklion
and Chania
Chania
and a smaller airport in Sitia (international charter and domestic flights starting May 2012)[49] or by boat to the main ports of Heraklion, Chania, Rethimno, Agios Nikolaos and Sitia. Popular tourist attractions include the archaeological sites of the Minoan civilisation, the Venetian old city and port of Chania, the Venetian castle at Rethymno, the gorge of Samaria, the islands of Chrysi, Elafonisi, Gramvousa, Spinalonga
Spinalonga
and the Palm Beach of Vai, which is the largest natural palm forest in Europe. Transportation[edit] Crete
Crete
has an extensive bus system with regular services across the north of the island and from north to south. There are two regional bus stations in Heraklion. Bus routes and timetables can be found on KTEL website.[50] Holiday homes and immigration[edit] Crete's mild climate attracts interest from northern Europeans who want a holiday home or residence on the island. EU citizens have the right to freely buy property and reside with little formality.[51] A growing number of real estate companies cater to mainly British immigrants, followed by German, Dutch, Scandinavian and other European nationalities wishing to own a home in Crete. The British immigrants are concentrated in the western regional units of Chania
Chania
and Rethymno and to a lesser extent in Heraklion
Heraklion
and Lasithi.[24] Archaeological sites and museums[edit] Main article: List of museums in Greece
Greece
§ Crete There is a large number of archaeological sites which include the Minoan sites of Knossos, Malia (not to be confused with the town of the same name), Petras, and Phaistos, the classical site of Gortys, and the diverse archaeology of the island of Koufonisi
Koufonisi
which includes Minoan, Roman, and World War II
World War II
ruins. The latter, however, has restricted access for the last few years due to conservation concerns so it is best to check before heading to a port. There are a number of museums throughout Crete. The Heraklion Archaeological Museum displays most of the archaeological finds of the Minoan era and was reopened in 2014.[52]

View of Gortyn

Archaeological site of Phaistos

Fauna and flora[edit] Fauna[edit] Crete
Crete
is isolated from mainland Europe, Asia, and Africa, and this is reflected in the diversity of the fauna and flora. As a result, the fauna and flora of Crete
Crete
have many clues to the evolution of species. There are no animals that are dangerous to humans on the island of Crete
Crete
in contrast to other parts of Greece. Indeed, the ancient Greeks attributed the lack of large mammals such as bears, wolves, jackals, and poisonous snakes, to the labour of Hercules
Hercules
(who took a live Cretan bull
Cretan bull
to the Peloponnese). Hercules
Hercules
wanted to honor the birthplace of Zeus
Zeus
by removing all "harmful" and "poisonous" animals from Crete. Later, Cretans believed that the island was cleared of dangerous creatures by the Apostle Paul, who lived on the island of Crete
Crete
for two years, with his exorcisms and blessings. There is a Natural History Museum operating under the direction of the University of Crete
Crete
and two aquariums – Aquaworld in Hersonissos
Hersonissos
and Cretaquarium
Cretaquarium
in Gournes, displaying sea creatures common in Cretan waters. Prehistoric fauna[edit] Dwarf elephants, dwarf hippopotamus, dwarf mammoths, dwarf deer, and giant flightless owls were native to Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Crete.[53][54] Mammals[edit] Main article: Mammals of Greece Mammals of Crete
Crete
include the vulnerable kri-kri, Capra aegagrus cretica that can be seen in the national park of the Samaria Gorge
Samaria Gorge
and on Thodorou,[55] Dia and Agioi Pantes (islets off the north coast), the Cretan wildcat and the Cretan spiny mouse.[56][57][58][59] Other terrestrial mammals include subspecies of the Cretan marten, the Cretan weasel, the Cretan badger, the long-eared hedgehog, the edible dormouse and the Cretan shrew, an endemic mammal of Greece, which is threatened with extinction.[60] Bat species include: Blasius's horseshoe bat, the lesser horseshoe bat, the greater horseshoe bat, the lesser mouse-eared bat, Geoffroy's bat, the whiskered bat, Kuhl's pipistrelle, the common pipistrelle, Savi's pipistrelle, the serotine bat, the long-eared bat, Schreibers' bat and the European free-tailed bat.[61]

The Kri-kri
Kri-kri
(the Cretan ibex) lives in protected natural parks at the gorge of Samaria and the island of Agios Theodoros.

Male Cretan ibex

Cretan Hound
Cretan Hound
or Kritikos Lagonikos, one of Europe's oldest hunting dog breeds

Birds[edit] A large variety of birds includes eagles (can be seen in Lasithi), swallows (throughout Crete
Crete
in the summer and all the year in the south of the island), pelicans (along the coast), and cranes (including Gavdos
Gavdos
and Gavdopoula). The Cretan mountains and gorges are refuges for the endangered lammergeier vulture. Bird species include: the golden eagle, Bonelli's eagle, the bearded vulture or lammergeier, the griffon vulture, Eleanora's falcon, peregrine falcon, lanner falcon, European kestrel, tawny owl, little owl, hooded crow, alpine chough, red-billed chough, and the hoopoe.[62][63] Reptiles and amphibians[edit] Tortoises can be seen throughout the island. Snakes can be found hiding under rocks. Toads and frogs reveal themselves when it rains. Reptiles include the aegean wall lizard, balkan green lizard, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, ocellated skink, snake-eyed skink, moorish gecko, turkish gecko, Kotschy's gecko, spur-thighed tortoise, and the stripe-necked terrapin.[61][64] There are four species of snake on the island and these are not dangerous to humans. The four species include the leopard snake (locally known as Ochendra), the Balkan whip snake
Balkan whip snake
(locally called Dendrogallia), the dice snake (called Nerofido in Greek), and the only venomous snake is the nocturnal cat snake which has evolved to deliver a weak venom at the back of its mouth to paralyse geckos and small lizards, and is not dangerous to humans.[61][65] Turtles include the green turtle and the loggerhead turtle which are both endangered species.[64] The loggerhead turtle nests and hatches on north-coast beaches around Rethymno
Rethymno
and Chania, and south-coast beaches along the gulf of Mesara.[66] Amphibians include the green toad, American toad, common tree frog, and the Cretan marsh frog.[61][64] Arthropods[edit] Crete
Crete
has an unusual variety of insects. Cicadas, known locally as Tzitzikia, make a distinctive repetitive tzi tzi sound that becomes louder and more frequent on hot summer days. Butterfly species include the swallowtail butterfly.[61] Moth species include the hummingbird moth.[67] There are several species of scorpion such as Euscorpius carpathicus whose venom is generally no more potent than a mosquito bite. Crustaceans and molluscs[edit] River crabs include the semi-terrestrial Potamon potamios
Potamon potamios
crab.[61] Edible snails are widespread and can cluster in the hundreds waiting for rainfall to reinvigorate them. Sealife[edit] Apart from terrestrial mammals, the seas around Crete
Crete
are rich in large marine mammals, a fact unknown to most Greeks
Greeks
at present, although reported since ancient times. Indeed, the Minoan frescoes depicting dolphins in Queen's Megaron at Knossos
Knossos
indicate that Minoans were well aware of and celebrated these creatures. Apart from the famous endangered Mediterranean monk seal, which lives in almost all the coasts of the country, Greece
Greece
hosts whales, sperm whales, dolphins and porpoises.[68] These are either permanent residents of the Mediterranean or just occasional visitors. The area south of Crete, known as the Greek Abyss, hosts many of them. Squid
Squid
and octopus can be found along the coast and sea turtles and hammerhead sharks swim in the sea around the coast. The Cretaquarium
Cretaquarium
and the Aquaworld Aquarium, are two of only three aquariums in the whole of Greece. They are located in Gournes
Gournes
and Hersonissos
Hersonissos
respectively. Examples of the local sealife can be seen there.[69][70] Some of the fish that can be seen in the waters around Crete
Crete
include: scorpion fish, dusky grouper, east Atlantic peacock wrasse, five-spotted wrasse, weever fish, common stingray, brown ray, mediterranean black goby, pearly razorfish, star-gazer, painted comber, damselfish, and the flying gurnard.[71]

The loggerhead sea turtle nests and hatches along the beaches of Rethymno
Rethymno
and Chania
Chania
and the gulf of Messara.

Flora[edit] Common wildflowers include: camomile, daisy, gladiolus, hyacinth, iris, poppy, cyclamen and tulip, among others.[72] There are more than 200 different species of wild orchid on the island and this includes 14 varieties of Ophrys
Ophrys
Cretica.[73] Crete
Crete
has a rich variety of indigenous herbs including common sage, rosemary, thyme, and oregano.[73][74] Rare herbs include the endemic Cretan dittany.[73][74] and ironwort, Sideritis syriaca, known as Malotira (Μαλοτήρα). Varieties of cactus include the edible prickly pear. Common trees on the island include the chestnut, cypress, oak, olive tree, pine, plane, and tamarisk.[74] Trees tend to be taller to the west of the island where water is more abundant.

Snake lily (Dracunculus vulgaris)

The Ophrys
Ophrys
Cretica orchid.

Environmentally protected areas[edit] There are a number of environmentally protected areas. One such area is located at the island of Elafonisi
Elafonisi
on the coast of southwestern Crete. Also, the palm forest of Vai in eastern Crete
Crete
and the Dionysades
Dionysades
(both in the municipality of Sitia, Lasithi), have diverse animal and plant life. Vai has a palm beach and is the largest natural palm forest in Europe. The island of Chrysi, 15 kilometres (9 miles) south of Ierapetra, has the largest naturally grown Juniperus macrocarpa forest in Europe. Samaria Gorge
Samaria Gorge
is a World Biosphere Reserve and Richtis Gorge
Richtis Gorge
is protected for its landscape diversity. Mythology[edit] Main article: Greek mythology

"Diktaean Cave"

Crete
Crete
has a rich mythology mostly connected with the ancient Greek Gods but also connected with the Minoan civilisation. According to Greek Mythology, The Diktaean Cave at Mount Dikti
Dikti
was the birthplace of the god Zeus. The Paximadia
Paximadia
islands were the birthplace of the goddess Artemis
Artemis
and the god Apollo. Their mother, the goddess Leto, was worshipped at Phaistos. The goddess Athena
Athena
bathed in Lake Voulismeni. The ancient Greek god Zeus
Zeus
launched a lightning bolt at a giant lizard that was threatening Crete. The lizard immediately turned to stone and became the island of Dia. The island can be seen from Knossos
Knossos
and it has the shape of a giant lizard. The islets of Lefkai were the result of a musical contest between the Sirens and the Muses. The Muses
Muses
were so anguished to have lost that they plucked the feathers from the wings of their rivals; the Sirens turned white and fell into the sea at Aptera ("featherless") where they formed the islands in the bay that were called Lefkai (the islands of Souda
Souda
and Leon).[75] Hercules, in one of his labors, took the Cretan bull
Cretan bull
to the Peloponnese. Europa and Zeus
Zeus
made love at Gortys
Gortys
and conceived the kings of Crete, Rhadamanthys, Sarpedon, and Minos. The labyrinth of the Palace of Knossos
Knossos
was the setting for the myth of Theseus
Theseus
and the Minotaur
Minotaur
in which the Minotaur
Minotaur
was slain by Theseus. Icarus
Icarus
and Daedalus
Daedalus
were captives of King Minos
Minos
and crafted wings to escape. After his death King Minos
Minos
became a judge of the dead in Hades, while Rhadamanthys
Rhadamanthys
became the ruler of the Elysian fields. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Greece See also: Cretan School, Cretan literature, Music of Crete, and Cretan cuisine Crete
Crete
has its own distinctive Mantinades poetry. The island is known for its Mantinades-based music (typically performed with the Cretan lyra and the laouto) and has many indigenous dances, the most noted of which is the Pentozali. Cretan authors have made important contributions to Greek Literature throughout the modern period; major names include Vikentios Kornaros, creator of the 17th-century epic romance Erotokritos
Erotokritos
(Greek Ερωτόκριτος), and, in the 20th century, Nikos Kazantzakis. In the Renaissance, Crete
Crete
was the home of the Cretan School
Cretan School
of icon painting, which influenced El Greco
El Greco
and through him subsequent European painting. Crete
Crete
is also famous for its traditional cuisine. The nutritional value of the Cretan cuisine
Cretan cuisine
was discovered by the American epidemiologist Ancel Keys
Ancel Keys
in the 1960, being later often mentioned by epidemiologists as one of the best examples of the Mediterranean diet.[76] Cretans are fiercely proud of their island and customs, and men often don elements of traditional dress in everyday life: knee-high black riding boots (stivania), vráka breeches tucked into the boots at the knee, black shirt and black headdress consisting of a fishnet-weave kerchief worn wrapped around the head or draped on the shoulders (sariki). Men often grow large mustaches as a mark of masculinity. Cretan society is well known for notorious family and clan vendettas which persist on the island to date.[77][78] Cretans also have a tradition of keeping firearms at home, a tradition lasting from the era of resistance against the Ottoman Empire. Nearly every rural household on Crete
Crete
has at least one unregistered gun.[77] Guns are subject to strict regulation from the Greek government, and in recent years a great deal of effort to control firearms in Crete
Crete
has been undertaken by the Greek police.

Dancers from Sfakia.

Old man from Crete
Crete
dressed in the typical black shirt.

Dakos, traditional Cretan salad.

Sports[edit] Crete
Crete
has many football clubs playing in the local leagues. During the 2011–12 season, OFI Crete, which plays at Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium (Iraklion), and Ergotelis F.C., which plays at the Pankritio Stadium (Iraklion) were both members of the Greek Superleague. During the 2012–13 season, OFI Crete, which plays at Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium (Iraklion), and Platanias
Platanias
F.C., which plays at the Perivolia Municipal Stadium, near Chania, are both members of the Greek Superleague. Notable people[edit] Main page: Category:People from Crete

Domenikos Theotokopoulos
Domenikos Theotokopoulos
(El Greco)

Eleftherios Venizelos

Notable people from Crete
Crete
include:

Christians

Nikos Kazantzakis, author, born in Heraklion Odysseas Elytis, poet, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1979, born in Heraklion[79] Vitsentzos Kornaros, Renaissance
Renaissance
author from Sitia, who lived in Heraklion
Heraklion
(then Candia) Domenikos Theotokopoulos
Domenikos Theotokopoulos
(El Greco), Renaissance
Renaissance
artist, born in Heraklion Nikos Xilouris, famous composer and singer. Psarantonis, Cretan folk singer and Cretan lyra
Cretan lyra
player and brother of Nikos Xilouris. Nana Mouskouri, singer, born in Chania Eleftherios Venizelos, former Greek Prime Minister, born in Chania Prefecture Daskalogiannis, leader of the Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
in Crete
Crete
in 1770 Michalis Kourmoulis, leader of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
from Messara. Eleni Daniilidou, tennis player, born in Chania Louis Tikas, Greek-American labor union leader Nick Dandolos, a.k.a. Nick the Greek, professional gambler and high roller Joseph Sifakis, a computer scientist, laureate of the 2007 Turing Award, born in Heraklion
Heraklion
in 1946 Constantinos Daskalakis, Associate Professor at MIT's Electrical Engineering and Computer Science department. George Karniadakis, Professor of Applied Mathematics at Brown University; also Research Scientist at MIT John Aniston
John Aniston
(Giannis Anastasakis), Greek-American actor, father of Jennifer Aniston George Psychoundakis, a shepherd, a war hero and an author.

Muslims

The island had a Muslim community until 1923. They all left with the Population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey.

Ahmed Resmî Efendi: 18th-century Ottoman statesman, diplomat and author (notably of two sefâretnâme). Turkey's first ever ambassador in Berlin[80] (during Frederick the Great's reign). He was born into a Muslim family of Greek descent in the Cretan town of Rethymno
Rethymno
in the year 1700.[81][82][83][84] Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi: Turkey's third ambassador in Berlin
Berlin
and arguably the first Turkish author to have written in novelistic form. Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki
Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki
– founder of the Husainid Dynasty, which ruled Tunisia
Tunisia
until 1957. Salacıoğlu (1750 Hanya
Hanya
– 1825 Kandiye): One of the most important 18th-century poets of Turkish folk literature. Giritli Sırrı Pasha: Ottoman administrator, Leyla Saz's husband and a notable man of letters in his own right. Vedat Tek: Representative figure of the First National Architecture Movement in Turkish architecture, son of Leyla Saz and Giritli Sırrı Pasha. Paul Mulla (alias Mollazade Mehmed Ali): born Muslim, converted to Christianity and becoming a Roman Catholic
Catholic
bishop and author. Tahmiscizade Mehmed Macid: Memorialst Rahmizâde Bahaeddin Bediz: The first Turkish photographer by profession. The thousands of photographs he took, based as of 1895 successively in Crete, İzmir, İstanbul
İstanbul
and Ankara
Ankara
(as Head of the Photography Department of Turkish Historical Society), have immense historical value. Salih Zeki: Turkish photographer in Chania[85] Ali Nayip Zade: Associate of Eleftherios Venizelos, Prefect of Drama and Kavala, Adrianople, and Lasithi. Ismail Fazil Pasha: (1856–1921) descended from the rooted Cebecioğlu family of Söke
Söke
who had settled in Crete.[86] He has been the first Minister of Public Works in the government of Grand National Assembly in 1920. He was the father of Ali Fuad and Mehmed Ali. Mehmet Atıf Ateşdağlı: (1876–1947) Turkish officer. Mustafa Ertuğrul Aker: (1892–1961) Turkish officer who sank HMS Ben-my-Chree. Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, alias Halikarnas Balıkçısı
Halikarnas Balıkçısı
(The Fisherman of Halicarnassus), writer, although born in Crete
Crete
and has often let himself be cited as Cretan, descends from a family of Ottoman aristocracy with roots in Afyonkarahisar. His father had been an Ottoman High Commissioner in Crete
Crete
and later ambassador in Athens. *Likewise, as stated above, Mustafa Naili Pasha
Mustafa Naili Pasha
was Albanian/Egyptian.[87] Bülent Arınç
Bülent Arınç
(born. 25 May 1948) has been a Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
Turkey
since 2009. He is of Cretan Muslim
Cretan Muslim
heritage with his ancestors arriving to Turkey
Turkey
as Cretan refugees during the time of Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Hamid II[88] and is fluent in Cretan Greek.[89] Arınç is a proponent of wanting to reconvert the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
into a mosque, which has caused diplomatic protestations from Greece.[90]

See also[edit]

Cretan Greek Cretan lyra List of islands of Greece List of novels set in Crete List of rulers of Crete Cretan wine Mantinades Cretan Turks Syncretism

References[edit]

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and the Balkans: Identities, Perceptions and Cultural Encounters Since the Enlightenment; William Yale, The Near East: A modern history Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1958) ^ William Yale, The Near East: A modern history by (Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, 1958) ^ "Some Noteworthy War Criminals" Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Source: History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War, United Nations War Crimes Commission. London: HMSO, 1948, p. 526, updated 29 Jan 2007 by Stuart Stein (University of the West of England), accessed 22 Jan 2010 ^ Charter flights to Sitia
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ExploreCrete.com ^ Van der Geer, A.A.E., Dermitzakis, M., De Vos, J., 2006. Crete before the Cretans: the reign of dwarfs. Pharos 13, 121–132. Athens: Netherlands
Netherlands
Institute.PDF ^ Crete: 10 Fun Facts and Interesting Insights [1] ^ Αναρτήθηκε από admin. "ΤΟΠΙΟ: Θοδωρού, η άγνωστη νησίδα του Βενετικού ναυτικού οχυρού, των κρι-κρι και η απαγόρευση προσέγγισης". To-pio.blogspot.gr. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Thodorou
Thodorou
Islands off Platanias
Platanias
ExploreCrete.com ^ Cretan Ibex, by Alexandros Roniotis CretanBeaches.com ^ Cretan wildcat CretanBeaches.com ^ Cretan spiny mouse
Cretan spiny mouse
CretanBeaches.com ^ Terrestrial mammals of Crete
Crete
CretanBeaches.com ^ a b c d e f Wildlife on Crete
Crete
IntoCrete.com ^ Birds of Crete
Crete
We-love-crete.com ^ Checklist and Guide to the Birds of Crete
Crete
Cretewww.com ^ a b c Native Reptiles of Crete
Crete
at Aquaworld Aquaworld Aquarium. ^ The Snakes of Crete
Crete
by John McClaren CreteGazette.com ^ Crete
Crete
p. 69, by Victoria Kyriakopoulos ^ Feeding time for a hummingbird moth PictureNation.co.uk ^ Marine mammals of Crete
Crete
Archived 7 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. CretanBeaches.com ^ Cretaquarium
Cretaquarium
Archived 26 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Cretaquarium.gr ^ Great Britons in Crete, John Bryce McLaren Archived 19 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. BritsinCrete.net ^ Fish from Crete
Crete
at Aquaworld Aquaworld Aquarium ^ Fielding, J. and Turland, N. "Flowers of Crete", Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ISBN 978-1842460795, 2008 ^ a b c Crete
Crete
p.68 by Victoria Kyriakopoulos ^ a b c The Flora of Crete
Crete
ExploreCrete.com ^ Caroline M. Galt, "A marble fragment at Mount Holyoke College from the Cretan city of Aptera", Art and Archaeology
Archaeology
6 (1920:150). ^ António José Marques da Silva, La diète méditerranéenne. Discours et pratiques alimentaires en Méditerranée (vol. 2), L'Harmattan, Paris, 2015 ISBN 978-2-343-06151-1, pp. 49–51 ^ a b Brian Murphy: Vendetta Victims: People, A Village – Crete's `Cycle Of Blood' Survives The Centuries at The Seattle Times, 14 January 1999. ^ Aris Tsantiropoulos: "Collective Memory and Blood Feud: The Case of Mountainous Crete" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012.  (254 KB), Crimes and Misdemeanours 2/1 (2008), University of Crete. ^ Odysseas Elytis
Odysseas Elytis
by Alexandros Roniotis, CretanBeaches.com. ^ "Tuerkische Botschafter in Berlin" (in German). Turkish Embassy, Berlin. Archived from List of Ambassadors the original Check url= value (help) on 2 June 2001.  ^ Houtsma, Martinus T. (1987). E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913 – 1936, Volume 9. Brill. p. 1145. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. RESMI, AHMAD Ottoman statesman and historian. Ahmad b. Ibrahim, known as Resmi, belonged to Rethymo (turk. Resmo; hence his epithet) in Crete
Crete
and was of Greek descent (cf. J. v. Hammer, GOR, viii. 202). He was born in III (1700) and came in 1146 (1733) to Stambul where he was educated, married a daughter of the Ke is Efendi  ^ Müller-Bahlke, Thomas J. (2003). Zeichen und Wunder: Geheimnisse des Schriftenschranks in der Kunst- und Naturalienkammer der Franckeschen Stiftungen : kulturhistorische und philologische Untersuchungen. Franckesche Stiftungen. p. 58. ISBN 978-3-931479-46-6. Ahmed Resmi Efendi (1700–1783). Der osmanische Staatsmann und Geschichtsschreiber griechischer Herkunft. Translation “Ahmed Resmi Efendi (1700–1783). The Ottoman statesman and historian of Greek origin"  ^ European studies review (1977). European studies review, Volumes 7–8. Sage Publications. p. 170. Resmi Ahmad (−83) was originally of Greek descent. He entered Ottoman service in 1733 and after holding a number of posts in local administration, was sent on missions to Vienna (1758) and Berlin
Berlin
(1763–4). He later held a number of important offices in central government. In addition, Resmi Ahmad was a contemporary historian of some distinction.  ^ Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb (1954). Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill. p. 294. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. Ahmad b. Ibrahim, known as Resmi came from Rethymno
Rethymno
(Turk. Resmo; hence his epithet?) in Crete and was of Greek descent (cf. Hammer- Purgstall, viii, 202). He was born in 1112/ 1700 and came in 1 146/1733 to Istanbul,  ^ "Salih Zeki". Anopolis72000.blogspot.com.  ^ "Interview with Ayşe Cebesoy Sarıalp, Ali Fuat Pasha's niece". Aksiyon.com.tr. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011.  ^ Yeni Giritliler Archived 19 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Article on the rising interest in Cretan heritage (in Turkish) ^ "Arınç Ahmediye köyünde çocuklarla Rumca konuştu" [Arınç spoke Greek with the children in the village of Ahmediye]. Milliyet (in Turkish). Turkey. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ Bülent Arınç
Bülent Arınç
anadili Rumca konuşurken [ Bülent Arınç
Bülent Arınç
talking to native speakers of Greek] (video) (in Turkish and Greek). You Tube. 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ " Greece
Greece
angered over Turkish Deputy PM's Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
remarks". Hurriyet Daily News. Turkey. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 

Sources[edit]

Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. (1987). "Εισαγωγικό Σημείωμα ("Introduction")". In Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. Crete, History and Civilization (in Greek). I. Vikelea Library, Association of Regional Associations of Regional Municipalities. pp. XI–XX. 

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at Oxford Bibliographies Online: Classics. Official Greek National Tourism Organisation website Interactive Virtual Tour of Crete

v t e

Crete

People

Minos Epimenides Nearchus Georgios Chortatzis Vitsentzos Kornaros Marcus Musurus El Greco Cyril Lucaris Dimitrios Kallergis Eleftherios Venizelos Nikos Kazantzakis Konstantinos Mitsotakis Sfakians

History

Ancient Crete Minoan period Mycenaean period Classical and Hellenistic period Creta et Cyrenaica First Byzantine period Emirate of Crete Second Byzantine period Kingdom of Candia Revolt of Saint Titus Cretan War (1645–69) Ottoman Crete Greek War of Independence Cretan Revolt (1866–69) Cretan State Theriso
Theriso
revolt Battle of Crete Cretan resistance

Major cities

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Gorges

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Imbros
Gorge Kotsifos Gorge Kourtaliotiko Gorge Milona Gorge Richtis Gorge Samariá Gorge Sarakina Gorge

Landmarks

Ancient

Archanes Gortyn Gournia Knossos Kydonia Lato Malia Phaistos Polyrrhenia Tylissos Zakros

Museums

Archaeological Museum of Chania Cretaquarium Heraklion
Heraklion
Archaeological Museum Nautical Museum of Crete St. Mark Basilica (Museum of Visual Arts)

Religious

Agia Triada Monastery Agios Minas Cathedral Agios Titos, Heraklion Arkadi Monastery Gouverneto Monastery Küçük Hasan Pasha Mosque Moni Toplou St. Catherine, Heraklion St. Peter of Dominicans, Heraklion

Fortresses

Aptera Firkas Fortezza of Rethymno Frangokastello Gramvousa Kazarma Koules Spinalonga

Natural

Cave of Zeus Lasithi
Lasithi
Plateau Lefka Ori Matala Messara Plain Mirabello Bay Mount Ida Psychro Cave Vai

Other

Elounda Sfakia Souda

Culture

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Cretan School
(icon painting) Cretan literature Cretan lyra Cuisine (wine) Kri-kri Mantinada Minotaur Music

v t e

Cretan islands

Chania regional unit

Major islands

Agioi Theodoroi (Agios Theodoros Mikros Agios Theodoros) Elafonisi Gavdos Gavdopoula Gramvousa, Agria Gramvousa, Imeri Pondikonisi Souda

Islets and rocks

Agioi Apostoloi Agios Nikolaos Ammoudi tous Volakous Arnaouti Artemis Gaidouronisi Karga Katonisi Koursaroi Lazaretta Leon/Nisi Loutro Palaiosouda/Marathi Petalida/Xera Petalouda Pontikaki Praso Kissamou Prasonisi Gavdou Schistonisi/Trachyli Treis Volakous Valenti

Rethymno regional unit

Major islands

Paximadia
Paximadia
(Megalo Paximadi Mikro Paximadi)

Islets and rocks

Aspros Volakas Diapori Mavros
Mavros
Volakas Peristeri Prasonisi

Heraklion regional unit

Major islands

Dia

Islets and rocks

Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Glaronisi/Petalidi Mavronisi Megalonisi/Makronisi Mikronisi/Agios Pavlos Nisoplaka Papadoplaka Paximadi Psarocharako Thetis Trafos

Lasithi regional unit

Major islands

Agioi Pantes Chrysi/Gaidouronisi Dionysades
Dionysades
(Dragonada Gianysada Paximada Paximadaki) Elasa Koufonisi/Lefki Kyriamadi Mikronisi Strongyli Trachilos

Islets and rocks

Agia Eirini Agios Nikolaos/Mochlos Agriomandra Avgo Daskaleia Fotia Grandes Io Kalydon/Spinalonga Karavi Kavaloi Katergo Kolokythas/Vryonisi Konida Kymo/Koumeli Makroulo Marmaro Mavros Mavros
Mavros
Vrachos Megatzedes Mikronisi Nikolos/Nikolonisi/Agios Antonios Paximadaki/Prasonisi Siteias Peristerovrachoi Ftena Trachylia/Pinakl Prasonisi Prosfora Pseira Psyllos Sideros/Strongylo Vryonisi/Prasonisi

v t e

History of Crete

Minoan period Mycenean period Classical and Hellenistic period Roman period First Byzantine period Arab period Second Byzantine period Venetian period

Revolt of Saint Titus

Cretan War Ottoman period

Great Cretan Revolution

Cretan State World War II

Battle of Crete Resistance

v t e

Administrative division of the Crete
Crete
Region

Area 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi) Population 623,065 (as of 2011) Municipalities 24 (since 2011) Capital Heraklion

Regional unit of Chania

Apokoronas Chania Gavdos Kantanos-Selino Kissamos Platanias Sfakia

Regional unit of Heraklion

Archanes-Asterousia Faistos Gortyna Heraklion Hersonissos Malevizi Minoa Pediada Viannos

Regional unit of Lasithi

Agios Nikolaos Ierapetra Oropedio Lasithiou Siteia

Regional unit of Rethymno

Agios Vasileios Amari Anogeia Mylopotamos Rethymno

Regional governor Stavros Arnaoutakis (reelected 2014) Decentralized Administration Crete

v t e

Administrative regions of Greece

Attica Central Greece Central Macedonia Crete Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Epirus Ionian Islands Northern Aegean Peloponnese Southern Aegean Thessaly Western Greece Western Macedonia

v t e

Geographic regions of Greece

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v t e

Aegean Sea

General

Countries

 Greece  Turkey

Other

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Aegean Islands

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Dodecanese

Agathonisi Arkoi Armathia Alimia Astakida Astypalaia Çatalada Chamili Farmakonisi Gaidaros Gyali Halki Imia/Kardak Kalolimnos Kalymnos Kandelioussa Kara Ada Karpathos Kasos Kinaros Kos Küçük Tavşan Adası Leipsoi
Leipsoi
(Lipsi) Leros Levitha
Levitha
(Lebynthos) Nimos Nisyros Pacheia Patmos Platy Pserimos Rhodes Salih Ada Saria Symi Syrna Telendos Tilos Zaforas

North Aegean

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Saronic

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Sporades

Adelfoi Islets Agios Georgios Skopelou Alonnisos Argos
Argos
Skiathou Dasia Erinia Gioura Grammeza Kyra Panagia Lekhoussa Peristera Piperi Psathoura Repi Sarakino Skandili Skantzoura Skiathos Skopelos Skyropoula Skyros Tsoungria Valaxa

Cretan

Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Agioi Apostoloi Agioi Pantes Agioi Theodoroi Agios Nikolaos Anavatis Arnaouti Aspros Volakas Avgo Crete Daskaleia Dia Diapori Dionysades Elasa Ftena Trachylia Glaronisi Gramvousa Grandes Kalydon (Spinalonga) Karavi Karga Katergo Kavallos Kefali Kolokythas Koursaroi Kyriamadi Lazaretta Leon Mavros Mavros
Mavros
Volakas Megatzedes Mochlos Nikolos Palaiosouda Peristeri Peristerovrachoi Petalida Petalouda Pontikaki Pontikonisi Praso (Prasonisi) Prosfora Pseira Sideros Souda Valenti Vryonisi

Other

Antikythera Euboea Kythira Makronisos

v t e

Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

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Geography

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City states

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Politics

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Military

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People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

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Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

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mythological figures

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Sacred places

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Temples

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Athena
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237254468 GND: 40737

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