CORNWALL (/ˈkɔːrnwɔːlˌ -wəl/ , locally /ˈkɔːnwɔːl,
-wəl/ ; Cornish : Kernow ) is a ceremonial county and unitary
authority area of
England within the
United Kingdom . It is bordered
to the north and west by the
Celtic Sea , to the south by the English
Channel , and to the east by the county of
Devon , over the River
Cornwall has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of
3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi). The administrative centre , and only city
in Cornwall, is
Truro , although the town of Falmouth has the largest
Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of
the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian
batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the
Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by
Neolithic and then
Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the
Iron Age ) by
Brythons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring
Brittany . There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west
Exeter and few Roman remains have been found.
Cornwall was the home
of a division of the
Dumnonii tribe – whose tribal centre was in the
modern county of
Devon – known as the Cornovii , separated from the
Wales after the
Battle of Deorham , often coming into
conflict with the expanding kingdom of
Wessex before King
AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the high water
mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle
Ages, British language and culture was apparently shared by Brythons
trading across both sides of the Channel, evidenced by the
corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of
Cornouaille and the
Celtic Christianity common to both territories.
Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy,
becoming increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages and
expanding greatly during the 19th century when rich copper mines were
also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and
copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay
extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended
by the 1990s. Traditionally, fishing (particularly of pilchards ) and
agriculture (notably dairy products and vegetables) were the other
important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism
in the 20th century; however, Cornwall\'s economy struggled after the
decline of the mining and fishing industries. The area is noted for
its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its
attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish
language , and its very mild climate . Extensive stretches of
Cornwall's coastline, and
Bodmin Moor , are protected as an Area of
Outstanding Natural Beauty .
Cornwall is the homeland of the
Cornish people and is recognised as
one of the
Celtic nations , retaining a distinct cultural identity
that reflects its history . Some people question the present
constitutional status of
Cornwall , and a nationalist movement seeks
greater autonomy within the
United Kingdom in the form of a devolved
Cornish Assembly . On 24 April 2014 it was announced that
Cornish people will be granted minority status under the European
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities .
* 1 Toponymy
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistory, Roman and post-Roman periods
* 2.2 Conflict with
* 2.3 Breton–Norman period
* 2.4 Later medieval administration and society
Christianity in Cornwall
* 3.1 Celtic and Anglo-Saxon times
* 3.2 Middle Ages
* 3.3 From the Reformation to the Victorian period
* 4 Physical geography
* 4.1 Coastal areas
* 4.2 Inland areas
* 4.3 The Lizard Peninsula
* 4.4 Hills and high points
* 4.5 Ecology
* 4.6 Climate
* 5 Politics and administration
* 5.1 Local politics
* 5.2 Parliament and national politics
* 5.3 Self-rule movement
* 6 Cornish national identity
* 7 Settlements and communication
* 8 Flag
* 10 Economy
* 10.1 Tourism
* 10.2 Internet
* 10.3 Other industries
* 11 Demographics
* 12 Education system
* 13 Languages and dialects
* 13.2 English dialect
* 14 Culture
* 14.1 Visual arts
* 14.2 Music and festivals
* 14.3 Literature
* 14.3.1 Fiction
* 14.3.2 Poetry
* 14.3.3 Other literary works
* 14.4 Sports and games
Surfing and other water sports
* 14.5 Cuisine
* 15 See also
* 16 Notes
* 17 References
* 17.1 Citations
* 17.2 Sources
* 18 Further reading
* 19 External links
"Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon
England" (and Wales) based on the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle .
The modern English name
Cornwall derives from the concatenation of
two ancient demonyms from different linguistic traditions:
CORN- records the native Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii ("peninsula
people"). The Celtic word "kernou" ("horn" or "headland") is cognate
with the English word "horn" (both deriving from the
-WALL derives from the
Old English exonym w(e)alh , meaning
"foreigner" or "Roman" (i.e. a
Ravenna Cosmography (c. 700 AD) mentions a civitas named
Purocoronavis in the locality. This is most likely a corruption of
Duro-CORNOV-ium, meaning 'fort of the Cornovii people'. The exact
location of Durocornovium is disputed, with
Tintagel and Carn Brea
suggested as possible sites.
In later times,
Cornwall was known to the
Anglo-Saxons as "West
Wales" to distinguish it from "North Wales" (the modern nation of
Wales ). The name appears in the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 891 as On
Corn walum. In the
Domesday Book it was referred to as Cornualia and
in c. 1198 as Cornwal. Other names for the county include a
latinisation of the name as Cornubia (first appears in a
mid-9th-century deed purporting to be a copy of one dating from c.
705), and as Cornugallia in 1086.
History of Cornwall and
Timeline of Cornish history
PREHISTORY, ROMAN AND POST-ROMAN PERIODS
The present human history of
Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of
Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as
first inhabited in the
Mesolithic periods. It
continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then
Bronze Age people.
John T. Koch and others,
Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age
was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic
Bronze Age , in modern-day Ireland, England, France, Spain and
Portugal. During the British
Iron Age , Cornwall, like all of
Britain south of the
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth , was inhabited by a Celtic people
known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to
Brittany . The
Common Brittonic spoken at the
time eventually developed into several distinct tongues, including
The first account of
Cornwall comes from the 1st century BC Sicilian
Diodorus Siculus , supposedly quoting or paraphrasing
the 4th-century BCE geographer
Pytheas , who had sailed to Britain:
The inhabitants of that part of Britain called Belerion (or Land's
End) from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in
their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the
earth in which it is produced ... Here then the merchants buy the tin
from the natives and carry it over to
Gaul , and after travelling
overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on
horses to the mouth of the Rhône. Celtic tribes of Southern
The identity of these merchants is unknown. It has been theorised
that they were Phoenicians , but there is no evidence for this.
Professor Timothy Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on
the tin trade, states that "Diodorus never actually says that the
Phoenicians sailed to Cornwall. In fact, he says quite the opposite:
the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of
Cornwall, and its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by
local merchants, by sea and then over land through France, well
outside Phoenician control." (For further discussion of tin mining
see the section on the economy below.)
There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter
Devon and few Roman remains have been found. However, after 410,
Cornwall appears to have reverted to rule by Romano-Celtic chieftains
of the Cornovii tribe as part of
Dumnonia including one Marcus
Cunomorus with at least one significant power base at
Mark of Cornwall is a semi-historical figure known from Welsh
Matter of Britain , and in particular, the later
Norman-Breton medieval romance of
Tristan and Yseult where he is
regarded as a close kinsman of
King Arthur ; himself usually
considered to be born of the
Cornish people in folklore traditions
Geoffrey of Monmouth 's
Historia Regum Britanniae .
Archaeology supports ecclesiastical, literary and legendary evidence
for some relative economic stability and close cultural ties between
Westcountry , South Wales,
the fifth and sixth centuries.
CONFLICT WITH WESSEX
Battle of Deorham in 577 saw the separation of
therefore Cornwall) from Wales, following which the
came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of
Wessex . The
Annales Cambriae report that in 722 AD the Britons of
Cornwall won a
battle at "Hehil" . It seems likely that the enemy the Cornish fought
was a West Saxon force, as evidenced by the naming of
King Ine of
Wessex and his kinsman Nonna in reference to an earlier Battle of
Lining in 710.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle stated in 815 (adjusted date) "and in this
year king Ecgbryht raided in
Cornwall from east to west." and
thenceforth apparently held it as a ducatus or dukedom annexed to his
regnum or kingdom of Wessex, but not wholly incorporated with it. The
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that in 825 (adjusted date) a battle took
place between the Wealas (Cornish) and the Defnas (men of Devon) at
Gafulforda . In the same year Ecgbert, as a later document expresses
it, "disposed of their territory as it seemed fit to him, giving a
tenth part of it to God." In other words, he incorporated Cornwall
ecclesiastically with the West Saxon diocese of Sherborne , and
Eahlstan , his fighting bishop, who took part in the campaign,
with an extensive Cornish estate consisting of Callington and
Lawhitton , both in the Tamar valley, and
In 838, the Cornish and their Danish allies were defeated by Egbert
Battle of Hingston Down at Hengestesdune (probably Hingston
Down in Cornwall). In 875, the last recorded king of Cornwall,
Dumgarth , is said to have drowned. Around the 880s, Anglo-Saxons
Wessex had established modest land holdings in the eastern part
of Cornwall; notably
Alfred the Great who had acquired a few estates.
William of Malmesbury , writing around 1120, says that King Athelstan
England (924–939) fixed the boundary between English and Cornish
people at the east bank of the River Tamar.
Hundreds of Cornwall
One interpretation of the
Domesday Book is that by this time the
native Cornish landowning class had been almost completely
dispossessed and replaced by English landowners, particularly Harold
Godwinson himself. However, the
Bodmin manumissions show that two
leading Cornish figures nominally had Saxon names, but these were both
glossed with native Cornish names. Naming evidence cited by
Edith Ditmas suggests that many post-Conquest landowners
Cornwall were Breton allies of the Normans and further proposed
this period for the early composition of the
Tristan and Iseult cycle
by poets such as
Beroul from a pre-existing shared Brittonic oral
Soon after the Norman conquest most of the land was transferred to
the new Breton–Norman aristocracy, with the lion's share going to
Robert, Count of Mortain , half-brother of King William and the
largest landholder in
England after the king with his stronghold at
Trematon Castle near the mouth of the Tamar.
Dartmoor showed a very different type of settlement pattern from
that of Saxon
Wessex and places continued, even after 1066, to be
named in the Celtic Cornish tradition with
Saxon architecture being
LATER MEDIEVAL ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIETY
Subsequently, however, Norman absentee landlords became replaced by a
new Cornu-Norman elite including scholars such as Richard Rufus of
Cornwall . These families eventually became the new ruling class of
Cornwall (typically speaking Norman French, Breton-Cornish, Latin and
eventually English), many becoming involved in the operation of the
Stannary Parliament system, Earldom and eventually the Duchy. The
Cornish language continued to be spoken and it acquired a number of
characteristics establishing its identity as a separate language from
Cornish piracy was active during the Elizabethan era on the west
coast of Britain.
CHRISTIANITY IN CORNWALL
Christianity in Cornwall See also: List of Cornish
Many place names in
Cornwall are associated with Christian
missionaries described as coming from
Wales in the 5th
century AD and usually called saints (See
List of Cornish saints ).
The historicity of some of these missionaries is problematic. The
patron saint of
Wendron Parish Church, "Saint Wendrona" is another
example. and it has been pointed out by Canon Doble that it was
customary in the Middle Ages to ascribe such geographical origins to
saints. Some of these saints are not included in the early lists of
Saint Piran , after whom
Perranporth is named, is generally regarded
as the patron saint of Cornwall. However, in early Norman times it is
Saint Michael the Archangel was recognised as the patron
saint and is still recognised by the Anglican Church as the Protector
of Cornwall. The title has also been claimed for
Saint Petroc who was
patron of the Cornish diocese prior to the Normans.
CELTIC AND ANGLO-SAXON TIMES
St German's Priory Church (Norman) Dupath Well, one of
Cornwall's many holy wells dating from c.1510 The Church of St
Bodmin (late 15th century)
The church in
Cornwall until the time of
more or less orthodox practices, being completely separate from the
Anglo-Saxon church until then (and perhaps later). The See of Cornwall
continued until much later: Bishop Conan apparently in place
previously, but (re-?) consecrated in 931 AD by
Athelstan . However,
it is unclear whether he was the sole Bishop for
Cornwall or the
leading Bishop in the area. The situation in
Cornwall may have been
somewhat similar to
Wales where each major religious house
corresponded to a cantref (this has the same meaning as Cornish
keverang ) both being under the supervision of a Bishop. However, if
this was so the status of keverangow before the time of King Athelstan
is not recorded. However, it can be inferred from the districts
included at this period that the minimum number would be three:
Triggshire; Wivelshire; and the remaining area. Penwith, Kerrier,
Pydar and Powder meet at a central point (
Scorrier ) which some have
believed indicates a fourfold division imposed by
Athelstan on a
The whole of
Cornwall was in this period in the Archdeaconry of
Cornwall within the Diocese of Exeter. From 1267 the archdeacons had a
house at Glasney near Penryn. Their duties were to visit and inspect
each parish annually and to execute the bishop's orders. Archdeacon
Roland is recorded in the
Domesday Book of 1086 as having land
Cornwall but he was not Archdeacon of Cornwall, just an
archdeacon in the Diocese of Exeter. In the episcopate of William
Warelwast (1107–37) the first Archdeacon of
Cornwall was appointed
(possibly Hugo de Auco). Most of the parish churches in
Norman times were not in the larger settlements, and the medieval
towns which developed thereafter usually had only a chapel of ease
with the right of burial remaining at the ancient parish church. Over
a hundred holy wells exist in Cornwall, each associated with a
particular saint, though not always the same one as the dedication of
Various kinds of religious houses existed in mediaeval Cornwall
though none of them were nunneries; the benefices of the parishes were
in many cases appropriated to religious houses within
England or France.
FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE VICTORIAN PERIOD
In the 16th century there was some violent resistance to the
replacement of Catholicism with Protestantism in the Prayer Book
Rebellion . In 1548 the college at Glasney , a centre of learning and
study established by the Bishop of Exeter, had been closed and looted
(many manuscripts and documents were destroyed) which aroused
resentment among the Cornish. They, among other things, objected to
the English language
Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer , protesting that the
English language was still unknown to many at the time. The Prayer
Book Rebellion was a cultural and social disaster for Cornwall; the
reprisals taken by the forces of the Crown have been estimated to
account for 10–11% of the civilian population of Cornwall.
Culturally speaking, it saw the beginning of the slow decline of the
Cornish language .
From that time
Christianity in Cornwall was in the main within the
England and subject to the national events which affected it
in the next century and a half. Roman Catholicism never became
extinct, though openly practised by very few; there were some converts
to Puritanism, Anabaptism and Quakerism in certain areas though they
suffered intermittent persecution which more or less came to an end in
the reign of William and Mary. During the 18th century Cornish
Anglicanism was very much in the same state as Anglicanism in most of
England. Wesleyan Methodist missions began during
John Wesley 's
lifetime and had great success over a long period during which
Methodism itself divided into a number of sects and established a
definite separation from the Church of England. Poughill
From the early 19th to the mid-20th century
Methodism was the leading
Christianity in Cornwall but it is now in decline. The
England was in the majority from the reign of Queen
Elizabeth until the Methodist revival of the 19th century: before the
Wesleyan missions dissenters were very few in Cornwall. The county
remained within the Diocese of
Exeter until 1876 when the Anglican
Truro was created (the first Bishop was appointed in
1877). Roman Catholicism was virtually extinct in
Cornwall after the
17th century except for a few families such as the Arundells of
Lanherne . From the mid-19th century the church reestablished
episcopal sees in England, one of these being at
Plymouth . Since
then immigration to
Cornwall has brought more Roman Catholics into the
Geography of Cornwall and
Geology of Cornwall
Geology of Cornwall
Satellite image of
Cornwall forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island of
Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the
prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline
is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to
Cornwall has a border with only one other county,
Devon , which is formed almost entirely by the
River Tamar and (to the
north) by the
Marsland Valley .
The north and south coasts have different characteristics. The north
coast on the
Celtic Sea , part of the Atlantic Ocean, is more exposed
and therefore has a wilder nature. The prosaically named High Cliff,
St Gennys , is the highest sheer-drop cliff in
Cornwall at 223 metres (732 ft). However, there are also many
extensive stretches of fine golden sand which form the beaches that
are so important to the tourist industry, such as those at
Watergate Bay ,
Fistral Beach ,
Newquay , St Agnes , St Ives , and on the south coast Gyllyngvase
beach in Falmouth and the large beach at
Praa Sands further to the
south west. There are two river estuaries on the north coast: Hayle
Estuary and the estuary of the
River Camel , which provides Padstow
and Rock with a safe harbour. The seaside town of
Newlyn is a popular
holiday destination, as it is one of the last remaining traditional
Cornish fishing ports, with views reaching over Mount's Bay. St
Michael\'s Mount in
The south coast, dubbed the "Cornish Riviera", is more sheltered and
there are several broad estuaries offering safe anchorages, such as at
Fowey . Beaches on the south coast usually consist of
coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut
platform . Also on the south coast, the picturesque fishing village of
Polperro , at the mouth of the Pol River, and the fishing port of Looe
on the River
Looe are both popular with tourists.
The interior of the county consists of a roughly east–west spine of
infertile and exposed upland, with a series of granite intrusions,
Bodmin Moor , which contains the highest land within Cornwall.
From east to west, and with approximately descending altitude, these
Hensbarrow north of
St Austell ,
Carnmenellis to the
Camborne , and the
Penwith or Land\'s End peninsula. These
intrusions are the central part of the granite outcrops that form the
exposed parts of the
Cornubian batholith of south-west Britain, which
Dartmoor to the east in
Devon and the
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly to
the west, the latter now being partially submerged.
known for its beaches (Porthcurno beach illustrated) and rugged
The intrusion of the granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks
gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation, and this led
Cornwall being one of the most important mining areas in Europe
until the early 20th century. It is thought tin was mined here as
early as the
Bronze Age , and copper, lead, zinc and silver have all
been mined in
Cornwall . Alteration of the granite also gave rise to
extensive deposits of China Clay , especially in the area to the north
of St Austell, and the extraction of this remains an important
The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland.
Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions
for flora that like shade and a moist, mild climate. These areas lie
Devonian sandstone and slate . The north east of Cornwall
Carboniferous rocks known as the
Culm Measures . In places
these have been subjected to severe folding, as can be seen on the
north coast near
Crackington Haven and in several other locations.
THE LIZARD PENINSULA
The geology of the Lizard peninsula is unusual, in that it is
mainland Britain's only example of an ophiolite , a section of oceanic
crust now found on land. Much of the peninsula consists of the dark
green and red
Precambrian serpentinite , which forms spectacular
cliffs, notably at
Kynance Cove , and carved and polished serpentine
ornaments are sold in local gift shops. This ultramafic rock also
forms a very infertile soil which covers the flat and marshy heaths of
the interior of the peninsula. This is home to rare plants, such as
the Cornish Heath , which has been adopted as the county flower .
HILLS AND HIGH POINTS
List of hills of Cornwall
Flora and fauna of Cornwall
Cornwall has varied habitats including terrestrial and marine
ecosystems. One noted species in decline locally is the Reindeer
lichen , which species has been made a priority for protection under
the national UK
Biodiversity Action Plan . The red-billed
chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), once commonly seen
throughout Cornwall, experienced a severe decline in its population in
the 20th century.
Cornwall and Scilly into two vice-counties: West (1)
and East (2). The standard flora is by
F. H. Davey Flora of Cornwall
(1909). Davey was assisted by
A. O. Hume and he thanks Hume, his
companion on excursions in
Cornwall and Devon, and for help in the
compilation of that Flora, publication of which was financed by him.
Geography of Cornwall § Climate
Cornwall has a temperate
Oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification : Cfb) and has the mildest and sunniest climate in the
United Kingdom, as a result of its southerly latitude and the
influence of the
Gulf Stream . The average annual temperature in
Cornwall ranges from 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) on the
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly to 9.8
°C (49.6 °F) in the central uplands. Winters are amongst the warmest
in the country due to the southerly latitude and moderating effects of
the warm ocean currents, and frost and snow are very rare at the coast
and are also rare in the central upland areas. Summers are however not
as warm as in other parts of southern England. The surrounding sea and
its southwesterly position mean that Cornwall's weather can be
Cornwall is one of the sunniest areas in the UK, with over 1541 hours
of sunshine per year, with the highest average of 7.6 hours of
sunshine per day in July. The moist, mild air coming from the south
west brings higher amounts of rainfall than in eastern Great Britain,
at 1,051 to 1,290 mm (41.4 to 50.8 in) per year, however not as much
as in more northern areas of the west coast. The Isles of Scilly, for
example, where there are on average less than two days of air frost
per year, is the only area in the UK to be in the
USDA Hardiness zone
10. In Scilly there is on average less than one day of air temperature
exceeding 30 °C per year and it is in the AHS Heat Zone 1. Extreme
Cornwall are particularly rare; however, extreme
weather in the form of storms and floods is common.
POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION
Politics of Cornwall
Cornwall Council 's headquarters in
Truro From the 2010
Cornwall has had six parliamentary constituencies
With the exception of the
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly ,
Cornwall is governed by a
unitary authority ,
Cornwall Council , based in
Truro . The Crown
Court is based at the Courts of Justice in Truro. Magistrates' Courts
are found in
Truro (but at a different location to the Crown Court),
Penzance and Liskeard.
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly form part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall
and have, at times, been served by the same county administration.
Since 1890 they have been administered by their own unitary authority
, the Council of the Isles of Scilly. They are grouped with Cornwall
for other administrative purposes, such as the National Health Service
Devon and Cornwall Police .
Before reorganisation on 1 April 2009, council functions throughout
the rest of
Cornwall were organised on a two-tier basis, with a county
council and district councils for its six districts,
Caradon , Carrick
North Cornwall ,
Penwith , and
Restormel . While projected
to streamline services, cut red tape and save around £17 million a
year, the reorganisation was met with wide opposition, with a poll in
2008 giving a result of 89% disapproval from Cornish residents.
The first elections for the unitary authority were held on 4 June
2009. The council has 123 seats; the largest party (in 2017) is the
Tory Party, with 46 seats. The Liberal Democrats are the second
largest party, with 37 seats, with the Independents in third place
Before the creation of the unitary council, the former county council
had 82 seats, the majority of which were held by the Liberal
Democrats, elected at the 2005 county council elections . The six
former districts had a total of 249 council seats, and the groups with
greatest numbers of councillors were Liberal Democrats, Conservatives,
PARLIAMENT AND NATIONAL POLITICS
Following a review by the Boundary Commission for
effect at the 2010 general election ,
Cornwall is divided into six
county constituencies to elect MPs to the House of Commons of the
United Kingdom .
Before the 2010 boundary changes
Cornwall had five constituencies all
of which were won by Liberal Democrats in the 2005 general election .
At the 2010 general election Liberal Democrat candidates won three
constituencies and Conservative candidates won three constituencies
(see also 2010
United Kingdom general election result in
At the 2015 general election all six Cornish seats were won by
Conservative candidates. All these conservative MPs retained their
seats in the 2017 general election
Cornwall had 44 MPs – more than any other county –
reflecting the importance of tin to the Crown. Most of the increase
in numbers of MPs came between 1529 and 1584 after which there was no
change until 1832.
Cornish nationalists have organised into two political parties:
Mebyon Kernow, formed in 1951, and the
Cornish Nationalist Party . In
addition to the political parties, there are various interest groups
such as the Revived Cornish
Stannary Parliament and the Celtic League
. The Cornish Constitutional Convention was formed in 2000 as a
cross-party organisation including representatives from the private,
public and voluntary sectors to campaign for the creation of a Cornish
Assembly , along the lines of the National Assembly for
Northern Ireland Assembly and the
Scottish Parliament . Between 5
March 2000 and December 2001, the campaign collected the signatures of
41,650 Cornish residents endorsing the call for a devolved assembly,
along with 8,896 signatories from outside Cornwall. The resulting
petition was presented to the Prime Minister,
Tony Blair . The
Liberal Democrats recognise Cornwall's claims for greater autonomy, as
do the Liberal Party . "The new single council is also the
opportunity to gain more control over local issues from regional and
national Government bureaucrats – the first step on our way to a
Cornish Assembly." – The Liberal Democrat Manifesto for 2009
An additional political issue is the recognition of the Cornish
people as a minority.
CORNISH NATIONAL IDENTITY
Cornish nationalism The percentage of
respondents who gave "Cornish" as an answer to the National Identity
question in the 2011 census.
Cornwall is recognised by several organisations, including the
Cornish nationalist party
Mebyon Kernow , the
Celtic League and the
Celtic Congress , as one of the six Celtic nations,
Brittany , Ireland, the
Isle of Man
Isle of Man ,
Scotland and Wales.
Asturias and Galicia ,
Cornwall is also recognised as one
of the eight
Celtic nations by the
Isle of Man
Isle of Man Government and the
Welsh Government .
Cornwall is represented, as one of the Celtic
nations, at the
Festival Interceltique de Lorient , an annual
celebration of Celtic culture held in Brittany.
Cornwall Council consider Cornwall's unique cultural heritage and
distinctiveness to be one of the area's major assets. They see
Cornwall's language, landscape, Celtic identity, political history,
patterns of settlement, maritime tradition, industrial heritage, and
non-conformist tradition, to be among the features making up its
"distinctive" culture. However, it is uncertain how many of the
people living in
Cornwall consider themselves to be Cornish; results
from different surveys (including the national census) have varied. In
the 2001 census, 7 percent of people in
Cornwall identified themselves
as Cornish, rather than British or English. However, activists have
argued that this underestimated the true number as there was no
explicit "Cornish" option included in the official census form.
Subsequent surveys have suggested that as many as 44 percent identify
as Cornish. Many people in
Cornwall say that this issue would be
resolved if a Cornish option became available on the census. The
question and content recommendations for the 2011 Census provided an
explanation of the process of selecting an ethnic identity which is
relevant to the understanding of the often quoted figure of 37,000 who
claim Cornish identity.
On 24 April 2014 it was announced that
Cornish people would be
granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for
the Protection of National Minorities .
SETTLEMENTS AND COMMUNICATION
List of settlements in Cornwall by population , Transport
Cornwall , and
Media in Cornwall
Truro , Cornwall's
administrative centre and only city.
Cornwall's only city, and the home of the council headquarters , is
Truro . Nearby Falmouth is notable as a port. St Just in
the westernmost town in England, though the same claim has been made
Penzance , which is larger. St Ives and
Padstow are today small
vessel ports with a major tourism and leisure sector in their
Newquay on the north coast is famous for its beaches and is
a popular surfing destination, as is
Bude further north.
St Austell is
the county's largest town and more populous than the capital Truro; it
was the centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall.
Camborne form the largest urban area in Cornwall, and both towns were
significant as centres of the global tin mining industry in the 19th
century (nearby copper mines were also very productive during that
Cornwall borders the county of
Devon at the River Tamar. Major road
Cornwall and the rest of Great Britain are the A38 which
crosses the Tamar at
Plymouth via the
Tamar Bridge and the town of
Saltash , the
A39 road (Atlantic Highway) from
Barnstaple , passing
North Cornwall to end in Falmouth, and the A30 which crosses
the border south of Launceston crosses
Bodmin Moor and connects Bodmin
Torpoint Ferry links
Torpoint on the opposite
side of the
Hamoaze . A rail bridge, the
Royal Albert Bridge , built
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1859) provides the only other major
transport link. The major city of Plymouth, a large urban centre
closest to east
Cornwall is an important location for services such as
hospitals, department stores, road and rail transport, and cultural
Cornwall International Airport provides an airlink to the
rest of the UK,
Ireland and Europe.
Swansea , across the
Bristol Channel, have at some times
in the past been connected to
Cornwall by ferry, but these do not
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly are served by ferry (from Penzance) and by
aeroplane, having its own airport — St Mary\'s Airport . There are
regular flights between St Mary's and Land\'s End Airport , near St
Newquay Airport; during the summer season, a service also
exist between St Mary's and
Exeter International Airport , in Devon.
Main article: Saint Piran\'s Flag Souvenir flags outside a
Saint Piran's Flag is regarded by many as the national flag of
Cornwall, and an emblem of the Cornish people; and by others as the
county flag. The banner of
Saint Piran is a white cross on a black
background (in terms of heraldry 'sable, a cross argent'). Saint Piran
is supposed to have adopted these two colours from seeing the white
tin in the black coals and ashes during his supposed discovery of tin.
Davies Gilbert in 1826 described it as anciently the flag of St Piran
and the banner of Cornwall, and another history of 1880 said that:
"The white cross of St. Piran was the ancient banner of the Cornish
people." The Cornish flag is an exact reverse of the former Breton
national flag (black cross) and is known by the same name "Kroaz Du".
There are also claims that the patron saint of
Cornwall is Saint
Saint Petroc , but
Saint Piran is by far the most popular
of the three and his emblem is internationally recognised as the
flag of Cornwall. St Piran\'s Day (5 March) is celebrated by the
Cornish diaspora around the world.
For the heraldry of
Cornish corporate heraldry
Economy of Cornwall
Economy of Cornwall Falmouth Docks is the major
port of Cornwall, and one of the largest natural harbours in the world
Eden Project near St Austell, Cornwall's largest tourist
attraction in terms of visitor numbers
Cornwall is one of the poorest parts of the
United Kingdom in terms
of per capita GDP and average household incomes. At the same time,
parts of the county, especially on the coast, have high house prices,
driven up by demand from relatively wealthy retired people and
second-home owners. The GVA per head was 65% of the UK average for
2004. The GDP per head for
Cornwall and the
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly was 79.2%
of the EU-27 average for 2004, the UK per head average was 123.0%. In
2011, the latest available figures, Cornwall's (including the Isles of
Scilly) measure of wealth was 64% of the European average per capita.
Historically mining of tin (and later also of copper) was important
in the Cornish economy. The first reference to this appears to be by
Pytheas: see above.
Julius Caesar was the last classical writer to
mention the tin trade, which appears to have declined during the Roman
occupation. The tin trade revived in the Middle Ages and its
importance to the Kings of
England resulted in certain privileges
being granted to the tinners; the
Cornish Rebellion of 1497 is
attributed to grievances of the tin miners. In the mid-19th century,
however, the tin trade again fell into decline. Other primary
industries that have declined since the 1960s include china clay
production, fishing and farming.
Today, the Cornish economy depends heavily on its tourist industry,
which makes up around a quarter of the economy. The official measures
of deprivation and poverty at district and 'sub-ward' level show that
there is great variation in poverty and prosperity in
some areas among the poorest in
England and others among the top half
in prosperity. For example, the ranking of 32,482 sub-wards in England
in the index of multiple deprivation (2006) ranged from 819th (part of
Penzance East) to 30,899th (part of
Saltash Burraton in Caradon),
where the lower number represents the greater deprivation.
Cornwall is one of two UK areas designated as 'less developed
regions' which qualify for Cohesion Policy grants from the European
Union . It was granted
Objective 1 status by the European Commission
for 2000 to 2006, followed by further rounds of funding known as
'Convergence Funding' from 2007 to 2013 and 'Growth Programme' for
2014 to 2020.
Par railway station with a
British Rail Class 43 (HST)
British Rail to the
Cornish Main Line by the InterCity
Tourism is estimated to contribute up to 24% of Cornwall's gross
domestic product. In 2011 Tourism brought £1.85 billion into the
Cornish economy. Cornwall's unique culture, spectacular landscape and
mild climate make it a popular tourist destination, despite being
somewhat distant from the United Kingdom's main centres of population.
Surrounded on three sides by the
English Channel and
Celtic Sea ,
Cornwall has many miles of beaches and cliffs; the South West Coast
Path follows a complete circuit of both coasts. Other tourist
attractions include moorland, country gardens, museums, historic and
prehistoric sites, and wooded valleys. Five million tourists visit
Cornwall each year, mostly drawn from within the UK. Visitors to
Cornwall are served by the airport at
Newquay , whilst private jets,
charters and helicopters are also served by
nightsleeper and daily rail services run between Cornwall, London and
other regions of the UK.
Cornwall has a tourism-based seasonal economy
Porthtowan are popular destinations for surfers. In
recent years, the
Eden Project near
St Austell has been a major
financial success, drawing one in eight of Cornwall's visitors in
Cornwall is the landing point for one of the world's fastest
high-speed transatlantic fibre optic cables, making
important hub within Europe's Internet infrastructure. The Superfast
Cornwall project completed in 2015, and saw 95% of Cornish houses and
businesses connected to a fibre-based broadband network, with over 90%
of properties able to connect with speeds above 24Mbit/s.
Redruth Mine in 1890
Other industries are fishing , although this has been significantly
re-structured by EU fishing policies (the Southwest Handline
Fishermen's Association has started to revive the fishing industry),
and agriculture, which has also declined significantly. Mining of tin
and copper was also an industry, but today the derelict mine workings
survive only as a
World Heritage Site . However, the
of Mines , which was relocated to Penryn in 2004, is still a world
centre of excellence in the field of mining and applied geology and
the grant of World Heritage status has attracted funding for
conservation and heritage tourism.
China clay extraction has also
been an important industry in the
St Austell area, but this sector has
been in decline, and this, coupled with increased mechanisation, has
led to a decrease in employment in this sector, although the industry
still employs around 2,133 people in Cornwall, and generates over £80
Million to the local economy
Demography of Cornwall and List of settlements in
Cornwall by population Graph showing Cornwall's population from
1800 to 2000
Cornwall's population was 537,400 at the last census, with a
population density of 144 people per square kilometre, ranking it 40th
and 41st respectively among the 47 counties of England. Cornwall's
population was 95.7%
White British and has a relatively high level of
population growth. At 11.2% in the 1980s and 5.3% in the 1990s, it had
the fifth-highest population growth rate of the counties of England.
The natural change has been a small population decline, and the
population increase is due to inward migration into Cornwall.
According to the 1991 census, the population was 469,800.
Cornwall has a relatively high retired population, with 22.9% of
pensionable age, compared with 20.3% for the
United Kingdom as a
whole. This may be due to a combination of Cornwall's rural and
coastal geography increasing its popularity as a retirement location,
and outward migration of younger residents to more economically
List of schools in Cornwall
Cornwall has a comprehensive education system, with 31 state and
eight independent secondary schools. There are three further education
Penwith College ,
Cornwall College and Callywith
College which is due to open in September 2017. The Isles of Scilly
only has one school while the former
Restormel district has the
highest school population, and school year sizes are around 200, with
none above 270.
Higher education is provided by
Falmouth University , the University
Camborne School of Mines ), the Combined
Cornwall , and by
(which combined in 2008 to make
Penwith College ) and
LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS
Languages of Cornwall
English is the main language used in Cornwall, although the revived
Cornish language may be seen on road signs and is spoken fluently by a
small minority of people.
A welcome sign to
Penzance , in the English and Cornish
languages Main article:
Cornish language is a language from the Brythonic branch of the
Celtic language family, closely related to the other Brythonic
languages of Welsh and Breton , and less so to the Goidelic languages
of Irish , Scots Gaelic and Manx . The language continued to function
visibly as a community language in parts of
Cornwall until the late
18th century, and it was claimed in 2011 that the last native speaker
did not die until 1914.
There has been a revival of the language since
Henry Jenner 's
Handbook of the Cornish Language was published in 1904. A study in
2000 suggested that there were around 300 people who spoke Cornish
fluently. Cornish, however, had no legal status in the UK until 2002.
Nevertheless, the language is taught in about twelve primary schools,
and occasionally used in religious and civic ceremonies. In 2002
Cornish was officially recognised as a UK minority language and in
2005 it received limited Government funding. A Standard Written Form
was agreed in 2008.
Several Cornish mining words are used in English language mining
terminology, such as costean , gossan , gunnies , kibbal, kieve and
In the 2010–15 Parliament of the
United Kingdom , four Cornish MPs,
Andrew George , MP for St Ives ,
Dan Rogerson , MP for North Cornwall
Steve Gilbert , MP for
St Austell and
Newquay , and
Sarah Newton ,
Truro and Falmouth repeated their Parliamentary oaths in
West Country Dialects
Culture of Cornwall
The Tate Gallery at St Ives Artwork in the Barbara
Hepworth Museum in St Ives
Since the 19th century, Cornwall, with its unspoilt maritime scenery
and strong light, has sustained a vibrant visual art scene of
international renown. Artistic activity within
Cornwall was initially
centred on the art-colony of
Newlyn , most active at the turn of the
20th century. This
Newlyn School is associated with the names of
Stanhope Forbes , Elizabeth Forbes ,
Norman Garstin and Lamorna Birch
. Modernist writers such as
D. H. Lawrence and
Virginia Woolf lived
Cornwall between the wars, and
Ben Nicholson , the painter, having
visited in the 1920s came to live in St Ives with his then wife, the
Barbara Hepworth , at the outbreak of the second world war.
They were later joined by the Russian emigrant
Naum Gabo , and other
artists. These included
Peter Lanyon ,
Terry Frost ,
Patrick Heron ,
Bryan Wynter and
Roger Hilton . St Ives also houses the Leach Pottery,
Bernard Leach , and his followers championed Japanese inspired
studio pottery. Much of this modernist work can be seen in Tate St
Ives . The
Newlyn Society and
Penwith Society of Arts continue to be
active, and contemporary visual art is documented in a dedicated
MUSIC AND FESTIVALS
Music of Cornwall
Cornwall has a full and vibrant folk music tradition which has
survived into the present and is well known for its unusual folk
survivals such as Mummers Plays , the
Furry Dance in
Helston played by
Helston Town Band , and
Obby Oss in
Newlyn is home to a food and music festival which hosts live music,
cooking demonstrations, and displays of locally caught fish.
As in other former mining districts of Britain, male voice choirs and
Brass Bands , e.g. Brass on the Grass concerts during the summer at
Constantine , are still very popular in Cornwall:
Cornwall also has
around 40 brass bands, including the six-times National Champions of
Camborne Youth Band, and the bands of Lanner and St
Cornish players are regular participants in inter-Celtic festivals,
Cornwall itself has several lively inter-Celtic festivals such as
Perranporth 's Lowender Peran folk festival.
On a more modern note, contemporary musician Richard D. James (also
known as Aphex Twin) grew up in Cornwall, as did
Luke Vibert and Alex
Parks , winner of
Fame Academy 2003. Roger Taylor , the drummer from
the band Queen was also raised in the county, and currently lives not
far from Falmouth . The American singer-songwriter
Tori Amos now
resides predominantly in
North Cornwall not far from
Bude with her
family. The lutenist , lutarist, composer and festival director Ben
Salfield lives in
Cornwall's rich heritage and dramatic landscape have inspired writers
since at least the 19th century.
Arthur Quiller-Couch , author of many novels and works of
literary criticism, lived in Fowey: his novels are mainly set in
Daphne du Maurier lived at
Fowey and many of
her novels had Cornish settings, including Rebecca , Jamaica Inn ,
Frenchman\'s Creek ,
My Cousin Rachel , and
The House on the Strand .
She is also noted for writing Vanishing Cornwall.
the inspiration for The Birds , one of her terrifying series of short
stories, made famous as a film by
Alfred Hitchcock . Remains of
Tintagel Castle , reputedly
King Arthur 's birthplace
Cornwall is the setting of the trilogy by
Monica Furlong ,
Wise Child, Juniper, and Colman, as well as part of Charles Kingsley's
Hereward the Wake .
Conan Doyle 's The Adventure of the Devil\'s Foot featuring Sherlock
Holmes is set in Cornwall.
Winston Graham 's series
Poldark , Kate
Adam Loveday series,
Susan Cooper 's novels Over Sea,
Under Stone and Greenwitch, and
Mary Wesley 's
The Camomile Lawn are
all set in Cornwall. Writing under the pseudonym of Alexander Kent,
Douglas Reeman sets parts of his
Richard Bolitho and Adam Bolitho
series in the
Cornwall of the late 18th and the early 19th centuries,
particularly in Falmouth.
Hammond Innes 's novel, The Killer Mine;
Charles de Lint 's novel
The Little Country; and Chapters 24 and 25 of
J. K. Rowling 's Harry
Potter and the Deathly Hallows take place in
Cornwall (the Harry
Potter story at Shell Cottage, which is on the beach outside the
fictional village of Tinworth in Cornwall).
David Cornwell, who writes espionage novels under the name John le
Carré , lives and writes in Cornwall. Nobel Prize-winning novelist
William Golding was born in
St Columb Minor in 1911, and returned to
Truro from 1985 until his death in 1993. D. H. Lawrence
spent a short time living in Cornwall.
Rosamunde Pilcher grew up in
Cornwall, and several of her books take place there.
'For The Fallen' plaque with
The Rumps promontory beyond
Poet Laureate Sir
John Betjeman was famously fond of
Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in
the churchyard at St Enodoc\'s Church, Trebetherick . Charles Causley
, the poet, was born in Launceston and is perhaps the best known of
Jack Clemo and the scholar
A. L. Rowse were also
notable Cornishmen known for their poetry; The Rev. R. S. Hawker of
Morwenstow wrote some poetry which was very popular in the Victorian
period. The Scottish poet
W. S. Graham lived in West
1944 until his death in 1986.
Laurence Binyon wrote "For the Fallen" (first published in
1914) while sitting on the cliffs between
Pentire Point and The Rumps
and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. The
plaque bears the inscription "FOR THE FALLEN / Composed on these
cliffs, 1914". The plaque also bears below this the fourth stanza
(sometimes referred to as "The Ode" ) of the poem: They shall grow
not old, as we that are left grow old Age shall not weary them, nor
the years condemn At the going down of the sun and in the morning We
will remember them
Other Literary Works
Cornwall produced a substantial number of passion plays such as the
Ordinalia during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide
valuable information about the Cornish language. See also Cornish
Colin Wilson , best known for his debut work The
Outsider (1956) and for
The Mind Parasites (1967), lived in Gorran
Haven , a small village on the southern Cornish coast. The writer D.
M. Thomas was born in
Redruth but lived and worked in Australia and
the United States before returning to his native Cornwall. He has
written novels, poetry, and other works, including translations from
Thomas Hardy 's drama The Queen of
Cornwall (1923) is a version of
the Tristan story; the second act of
Richard Wagner 's opera Tristan
und Isolde takes place in Cornwall, as do
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan 's
operettas The Pirates of
Ruddigore . A level of Tomb
Raider: Legend , a game dealing with Arthurian Legend, takes place in
Cornwall at a museum above King Arthur's tomb.
The fairy tale
Jack the Giant Killer takes place in Cornwall.
SPORTS AND GAMES
Sport in Cornwall
Cornish wrestling The
logo of the Penryn based
English Shinty Association
As its population is comparatively small, and largely rural,
Cornwall's contribution to British national sport in the United
Kingdom has been limited; the county's greatest successes have come
in fencing. In 2014, half of the men's GB team fenced for Truro
Fencing Club, and 3
Truro fencers appeared at the 2012 Olympics.
Truro, all of the towns and some villages have football clubs
belonging to the
Cornwall County Football Association , and the
Cornwall County Cricket Club plays as one of the minor counties of
English cricket . Viewed as an "important identifier of ethnic
affiliation", rugby union has become a sport strongly tied to notions
of Cornishness. and since the 20th century, rugby union in Cornwall
has emerged as one of the most popular spectator and team sports in
Cornwall (perhaps the most popular), with professional Cornish rugby
footballers being described as a "formidable force", "naturally
independent, both in thought and deed, yet paradoxically staunch
English patriots whose top players have represented
England with pride
and passion". In 1985, sports journalist
Alan Gibson made a direct
connection between love of rugby in
Cornwall and the ancient parish
games of hurling and wrestling that existed for centuries before rugby
officially began. Among Cornwall's native sports are a distinctive
form of Celtic wrestling related to Breton wrestling, and Cornish
hurling , a kind of mediaeval football played with a silver ball
(distinct from Irish
Cornish Wrestling is Cornwall's oldest
sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to
Victoria, Australia and
Grass Valley, California following
the miners and gold rushes .
Cornish hurling now takes place at St.
Columb Major , St Ives , and less frequently at
also one of the few places in
England where shinty is played; Cornwall
Shinty Club was set up in 2012 after the sport was extinct for
centuries in the county.
English Shinty Association is based in Penryn
Surfing And Other Water Sports
The world pilot gig rowing championships take place annually in
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly . Cornwall's north coast is known as a
centre for surfing
Due to its long coastline, various maritime sports are popular in
Cornwall, notably sailing and surfing . International events in both
are held in Cornwall.
Cornwall hosted the Inter-Celtic Watersports
Festival in 2006.
Surfing in particular is very popular, as locations
Newquay offer some of the best surf in the UK. Pilot
gig rowing has been popular for many years and the World championships
takes place annually on the
Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly . On 2 September 2007, 300
Polzeath beach set a new world record for the highest
number of surfers riding the same wave as part of the Global Surf
Challenge and part of a project called Earthwave to raise awareness
about global warming .
Cornwall has a strong culinary heritage. Surrounded on three sides by
the sea amid fertile fishing grounds,
Cornwall naturally has fresh
seafood readily available;
Newlyn is the largest fishing port in the
UK by value of fish landed, and is known for its wide range of
restaurants. Television chef
Rick Stein has long operated a fish
Padstow for this reason, and
Jamie Oliver chose to open
his second restaurant, Fifteen , in
Watergate Bay near
MasterChef host and founder of Smiths of Smithfield,
John Torode , in
2007 purchased Seiners in
Perranporth . One famous local fish dish is
Stargazy pie , a fish-based pie in which the heads of the fish stick
through the piecrust, as though "star-gazing". The pie is cooked as
part of traditional celebrations for Tom Bawcock\'s Eve , but is not
generally eaten at any other time. A Cornish pasty
Cornwall is perhaps best known though for its pasties , a savoury
dish made with pastry. Today's pasties usually contain a filling of
beef steak, onion, potato and swede with salt and white pepper, but
historically pasties had a variety of different fillings. "Turmut,
'tates and mate" (i.e. "Turnip, potatoes and meat", turnip being the
Cornish and Scottish term for swede, itself an abbreviation of
'Swedish Turnip', the British term for rutabaga ) describes a filling
once very common. For instance, the licky pasty contained mostly
leeks, and the herb pasty contained watercress, parsley, and shallots.
Pasties are often locally referred to as oggies. Historically,
pasties were also often made with sweet fillings such as jam, apple
and blackberry, plums or cherries. The wet climate and relatively
poor soil of
Cornwall make it unsuitable for growing many arable
crops. However, it is ideal for growing the rich grass required for
dairying, leading to the production of Cornwall's other famous export,
clotted cream . This forms the basis for many local specialities
including Cornish fudge and Cornish ice cream . Cornish clotted cream
Protected Geographical Status under EU law, and cannot be made
anywhere else. Its principal manufacturer is A. E. Rodda border:solid
* Geography portal
* Europe portal
United Kingdom portal
Outline of Cornwall – overview of the wide range of topics
covered by this subject
Eilert Ekwall who studied the place-names of
England in the
1930s and 40s gives the following forms: Cornubia in Vita Melori
Middle Welsh Cerniu; Welsh Cernyw; Cornish: Kernow; (on) Cornwalum ASC
891; Cornwealum ASC(E) 997; "The Brit name goes back to *Cornavia
probably derived from the tribal name Cornovii. OE Cornwealas means
'the Welsh in Cornwall' this folk-name later became the name of the
* ^ "
Wales " is derived from the Proto-Germanic word
meaning "Romanised foreigner"; through
Old English welisċ, wælisċ,
wilisċ, meaning "Romano-British "; to
Modern English Welsh. The same
etymology applies to
Cornwall and to
Wallonia in Belgium.
* ^ The cult of St Petroc was the most important in the Diocese of
Cornwall since he was the founder of the monastery of
Bodmin the most
important in the diocese and, with St Germans, the seat of the
bishops. He was the patron of the diocese and of Bodmin.
* ^ Britain's only other example of an ophiolite, the Shetland
ophiolite, is older, and linked to the Grampian
* ^ The
Bodmin hurl is held whenever the ceremony of beating the
bounds takes place: each occasion must be five years or more after the
* ^ "Cornwall: definition of
Cornwall in Oxford dictionary
(American English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2 November
* ^ International Hydrographic Organization
* ^ "Population Estimates for UK,
England and Wales,
Northern Ireland, Mid-2016".
Office for National Statistics . 22 June
2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
* ^ "UK Standard Area Measurements (SAM)" (ZIP). National
Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. July 2007.
Retrieved 1 April 2009.
* ^ Office for National Statistics, Key Figures for 2011 Census:
* ^ "Data from the 2011 Census (Office for National Statistics)".
Cornwall Council. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
Retrieved 15 November 2013.
* ^ A B Stenton, F. M. (1947) Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford:
Clarendon Press; p. 337
* ^ http://www.cornishassembly.org/
* ^ A B "
Cornish people granted minority status within UK". BBC. 24
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* ^ "Cornwall". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
* ^ "Horn". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
* ^ Payton, Philip (2004). Cornwall: a history (revised ed.).
Cornwall Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-904880-00-2 .
* ^ Charles Thomas . (1986). Celtic Britain. (Ancient Peoples &
Places Series.) London: Thames & Hudson
* ^ Ekwall, E., The Concise Dictionary of English Place-names, 2nd
ed., 1940, p. 117a.
* ^ A B Watts, Victor (2010). The Cambridge Dictionary of English
Place-names (1st paperback ed.).
Cambridge University Press . p. 158.
ISBN 978-0-521-16855-7 .
* ^ Payton (2004), p. 50.
* ^ "Kingdoms of British
Celts – Cornubia". The History Files.
Retrieved 1 December 2007.
* ^ Deacon, Bernard (2007). A Concise History of Cornwall.
Wales Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7083-2032-7 .
* ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p.
69. ISBN 978-0-14-028475-1 .
* ^ Cunliffe, Karl, Guerra, McEvoy, Bradley; Oppenheimer, Rrvik,
Isaac, Parsons, Koch, Freeman and Wodtko (2010). Celtic from the West:
Alternative Perspectives from Archaeology, Genetics, Language and
Literature. Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications. p. 384. ISBN
978-1-84217-410-4 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2009). "A Race Apart: Insularity and
Connectivity". Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. The Prehistoric
Society. 75: 55–64.
* ^ Payton (2004), p. 40.
* ^ Halliday (1959), p. 51.
* ^ Halliday (1959), p. 52.
* ^ Champion, Timothy. "The appropriation of the Phoenicians in
British imperial ideology". Nations and Nationalism. 7 (4): 451–465.
doi :10.1111/1469-8219.00027 .
* ^ "AD 500 – Tintagel". Archaeology.co.uk. 24 May 2007.
Retrieved 24 November 2013.
* ^ "Medieval Sourcebook: The
Annales Cambriae 447–954 (The
Annals of Wales)". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
* ^ Weatherhill, Craig Cornovia; p. 10
* ^ "The Foundation of the Kingdom of England".
Third-millennium-library.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
* ^ Annales Cambriae
* ^ Keynes, Simon; Lapidge, Michael (tr.) (1983), Alfred the Great:
Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources, London,
Penguin Books, p. 175; cf. ibid, p. 89
* ^ Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin
Manumissions by Heather Rose Jones
* ^ "Welsh Journals Online". Welshjournals.llgc.org.uk. Retrieved 2
* ^ EMR Ditmas,
Tristan and Iseult Twelfth Century Romance by
Beroul retold from Norman French 1969
* ^ Williams, Ann & Martin, G. H. (2002) (tr.) Domesday Book: a
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