JIM CORBETT NATIONAL PARK is the oldest national park in India and
was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the
The park has sub-Himalayan belt geographical and ecological characteristics. An ecotourism destination, it contains 488 different species of plants and a diverse variety of fauna . The increase in tourist activities, among other problems, continues to present a serious challenge to the park's ecological balance.
Corbett has been a haunt for tourists and wildlife lovers for a long time. Tourism activity is only allowed in selected areas of Corbett Tiger Reserve so that people get an opportunity to see its splendid landscape and the diverse wildlife. In recent years the number of people coming here has increased dramatically. Presently, every season more than 70,000 visitors come to the park.
Corbett National Park comprises 520.8 km2 (201.1 sq mi) area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions, grasslands and a large lake. The elevation ranges from 1,300 to 4,000 ft (400 to 1,220 m). Winter nights are cold but the days are bright and sunny. It rains from July to September.
Dense moist deciduous forest mainly consists of sal , haldu, peepal, rohini and mango trees . Forest covers almost 73% of the park, 10% of the area consists of grasslands. It houses around 110 tree species, 50 species of mammals, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species.
* 9 Challenges
* 9.1 Past * 9.2 Present * 9.3 Ecosystem Valuation
* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
Some areas of the park were formerly part of the princely state of
Tehri Garhwal . The forests were cleared to make the area less
Rohilla invaders. The
Efforts to save the forests of the region began in the 19th century under Major Ramsay, the British Officer who was in-charge of the area during those times. The first step in the protection of the area began in 1868 when the British forest department established control over the land and prohibited cultivation and the operation of cattle stations. In 1879 these forests were constituted into a reserve forest where restricted felling was permitted.
In the early 1900s, several Britishers, including E. R. Stevans and E. A. Smythies , suggested the setting up of a national park on this soil. The British administration considered the possibility of creating a game reserve there in 1907. It was only in the 1930s that the process of demarcation for such an area got underway, assisted by Jim Corbett, who knew the area well. A reserve area known as Hailey National Park covering 323.75 km2 (125.00 sq mi) was created in 1936, when Sir Malcolm Hailey was the Governor of United Provinces; and Asia's first national park came into existence. Hunting was not allowed in the reserve, only timber cutting for domestic purposes. Soon after the establishment of the reserve, rules prohibiting killing and capturing of mammals , reptiles and birds within its boundaries were passed.
The reserve was renamed in 1954–55 as
The park fared well during the 1930s under an elected administration.
But, during the
Second World War
Corbett National Park is one of the thirteen protected areas covered
World Wide Fund For Nature under their
Banks of the
The park is located between 29°25' and 29°39'N latitude and between
78°44' and 79°07'E longitude. The altitude of the region ranges
between 360 m (1,181 ft) and 1,040 m (3,412 ft). It has numerous
ravines , ridges , minor streams and small plateaus with varying
aspects and degrees of slope. The park encompasses the Patli Dun
valley formed by the
The present area of the reserve is 1,318.54 square kilometres (509.09
sq mi) including 520 square kilometres (200 sq mi) of core area and
797.72 square kilometres (308.00 sq mi) of buffer area. The core area
Jim Corbett National Park while the buffer contains reserve
forests (496.54 square kilometres (191.72 sq mi)) as well as the
The reserve, located partly along a valley between the Lesser Himalaya in the north and the Shivaliks in the south, has a sub-Himalayan belt structure. The upper tertiary rocks are exposed towards the base of the Shiwalik range and hard sandstone units form broad ridges. Characteristic longitudinal valleys, geographically termed Doons, or Duns can be seen formed along the narrow tectonic zones between lineaments.
The weather in the park is temperate compared to most other protected areas of India. The temperature may vary from 5 °C (41 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) during the winter and some mornings are foggy. Summer temperatures normally do not rise above 40 °C (104 °F). Rainfall ranges from light during the dry season to heavy during the monsoons .
A total of 488 different species of plants have been recorded in the
park. Tree density inside the reserve is higher in the areas of Sal
forests and lowest in the
Dense forest inside the park *
Grasslands at Jim Corbett National Park *
River at Corbett *
Landscape in the park at the dawn *
A winter morning at Corbett
Friendly tussle of tuskers at Dhikala grassland Siblings Love at Dhikala Grassland, Jim Corbett National Park
More than 586 species of resident and migratory birds have been categorised, including the crested serpent eagle , blossom-headed parakeet and the red junglefowl — ancestor of all domestic fowl . 33 species of reptiles , seven species of amphibians , seven species of fish and 36 species of dragonflies have also been recorded.
Bengal tigers, although plentiful, are not easily spotted due to the
abundance of foliage - camouflage - in the reserve. Thick jungle, the
Leopards are found in hilly areas but may also venture into the low
land jungles. Small cats in the park include the jungle cat , fishing
cat and leopard cat . Other mammals include barking deer , sambar
deer , hog deer and chital , sloth and Himalayan black bears , Indian
grey mongoose , otters , yellow-throated martens ,
In the summer, Indian elephants can be seen in herds of several
Spotted deer at Corbett *
Tigress at Corbett National Park *
Tawny fish owl *
Golden jackal *
Little green bee-eaters at Corbett National Park *
Pallas's fish eagle
Early-morning encounter with a sambar deer in Jim Corbett National Park, on a guided elephant tour from the Dhikala tourist lodge. Young elephant bull charging a jeep
Though the main focus is protection of wildlife, the reserve management has also encouraged ecotourism . In 1993, a training course covering natural history , visitor management and park interpretation was introduced to train nature guides . A second course followed in 1995 which recruited more guides for the same purpose. This allowed the staff of the reserve, previously preoccupied with guiding the visitors, to carry out management activities uninterrupted. Additionally, the Indian government has organised workshops on ecotourism in Corbett National Park and Garhwal region to ensure that the local citizens profit from tourism while the park remains protected.
patil & Joshi (1997) consider summer (April–June) to be the best season for Indian tourists to visit the park while recommending the winter months (November–January) for foreign tourists. According to Riley jeeps can be rented for park trips from Ramnagar. * TREKS: tourists are not allowed to walk inside the park, but only to go trekking around the park in the company of a guide. The winter season is cold, so tourists should make proper arrangements for their clothing, if they are traveling in the winter season. * WALKING SAFARIS are possible in the buffer zone areas - and very rewarding with Corbett having a very healthy and lush, rich buffer zone around; look for lodges around with trained staff for the same. * KALAGARH DAM is dam located in the south-west of the wildlife sanctuary. This is one of the best places for a bird watching tour. Lots of migratory waterfowl comes here in the winters. * CORBETT FALLS is a 20 m (66 ft) water fall situated 25 km (16 mi) from Ramnagar, and 4 km (2.5 mi) from Kaladhungi, on the Kaladhungi–Ramnagar highway. The water falls is surrounded by dense forests and pin drop silence. * GARJIYA DEVI TEMPLE is sacred to Garjiya Devi and is mostly visited by the traveller during the Kartik Poornima (November – December). It is a prominent temple located on the bank of river Kosi, amidst the hilly terrains of Uttarakhand, nearby Garjiya village, at a distance of 14 km. from Ramnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
Corbett National Park is situated in Ramanagar in the district of
AREA: 521 km2
ROUTE: The town of Ramnagar is the headquarters of Corbett Tiger Reserve. There are overnight trains available from Delhi to Ramnagar. Also, there are trains from Varanasi via Lucknow and Allahabad via Kanpur to Ramnagar. Reaching Ramnagar, one can hire a taxi to reach the park and Dhikala.
Ramnagar is also well connected by road with Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Nainital, Ranikhet, Haridwar, Dehradun and New Delhi. One can also drive from Delhi (295 km) via Gajraula, Moradabad, Kashipur to reach Ramnagar. A direct train to Ramnagar runs from New Delhi. Alternatively, one can come up to Haldwani/Kashipur /Kathgodam and come to Ramnagar by road.
BEST TIME TO VISIT: Mid-November to Mid-June.
An elephant herd at Jim Corbett National Park
A major incident in the history of the reserve followed the construction of a dam at the Kalagarh river and the submerging of 80 km2 (31 sq mi) of prime low lying riverine area. The consequences ranged from local extinction of swamp deer to a massive reduction in hog deer population. The reservoir formed due to the submerging of land has also led to an increase in aquatic fauna and has additionally served as a habitat for winter migrants.
Two villages situated on the southern boundary were shifted to the
There were 109 cases of poaching recorded in 1988–89. This figure dropped to 12 reported cases in 1997–98 .
In 1985 David Hunt , a British ornithologist and birdwatching tour guide, was killed by a tiger in the park.
A bull elephant at Jim Corbett National Park
The habitat of the reserve faces threats from invasive species such
as the exotic weeds
The villages surrounding the park are at least 15–20 years old and no new villages have come up in the recent past. The increasing population growth rate and the density of population within 1 km (0.62 mi) to 2 km (1.24 mi) from the park present a challenge to the management of the reserve. Incidents of killing cattle by tigers and leopards have led to acts of retaliation by the local population in some cases. The Indian government has approved the construction of a 12 km (7.5 mi) stone masonry wall on the southern boundary of the reserve where it comes in direct contact with agricultural fields.
In April 2008, the National Conservation Tiger Authority (NCTA) expressed serious concern that protection systems have weakened, and poachers have infiltrated into this park. Monitoring of wild animals in the prescribed format has not been followed despite advisories and observations made during field visits. Also the monthly monitoring report of field evidence relating to tigers has not been received since 2006. NCTA said that in the "absence of ongoing monitoring protocol in a standardised manner, it would be impossible to forecast and keep track of untoward happenings in the area targeted by poachers." A cement road has been built through the park against a Supreme Court order. The road has become a thoroughfare between Kalagarh and Ramnagar . Constantly increasing vehicle traffic on this road is affecting the wildlife of crucial ranges like Jhirna, Kotirau and Dhara. Additionally, the Kalagarh irrigation colony that takes up about 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) of the park is yet to be vacated despite a 2007 Supreme Court order.
As of 10 February 2014, nine local villagers are reported to have been killed by tigers originating from Jim Corbett National Park wildlife sanctuary opened a new zone for tourists stretched across 521 km2
An economic assessment study of Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve estimated its annual flow benefits to be 14.7 billion (1.14 lakh / hectare). Important ecosystem services included gene-pool protection (10.65 billion), provisioning of water to downstream districts of Uttar Pradesh (1.61 billion), water purification services to the city of New Delhi (550 million), employment for local communities (82 million), provision of habitat and refugia for wildlife (274 million) and sequestration of carbon (214 million).
* Indian wildlife portal on
* ^ Sinha, B. C., Thapliyal, M. and K. Moghe. "An Assessment of
Tourism in Corbett National Park".
* Riley, Laura; William Riley (2005). Nature's Strongholds: The
* Singh, Ashok; Reddy, V. S.; Singh, J. S. "Analysis of woody
vegetation of Corbett National Park, India". Vegetatio. 120 (1 /
September 1995): 69–79.
* Tiwari, P. C.; Joshi, Bhagwati, eds. (January 1997).
* "Corbett National Park (
UNEP (2003). "World Database on Protected Areas, India, Corbett
UNEP WCMC . Archived from the original on 24 December
2007. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
* Drayton, F. (2004). "
* Corbett, Jim (January 1985). Man-Eaters of Kumaon. Buccaneer Books, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89966-574-0 .
* Corbett, Jim; Nayak, Prashanto Kumar (July 2004). Oxford India Illustrated Corbett. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-566874-2 .
* Durga Charan Kala (1979). Jim Corbett of Kumaon. Ravi Dayal Publishers. * Martin Booth (1986). Carpet Sahib: A Life of Jim Corbett. Constable. ISBN 978-0-09-467400-4 . * Miriam Davidson (1988). Convictions of the Heart: Jim Corbett and the Sanctuary Movement. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1034-4 . * Werling, T. (1998). Jim Corbett: Master of the Jungle. Safari Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-57157-104-5 . * Jaleel, J. A. (2001). Under the Shadow of Man-eaters: The Life and Legend of Jim Corbett of Kumaon. Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-2020-2 . * Khati, A. S. (2003). Jim Corbett of India: Life & Legend of a Messiah. Pelican Creations International. ISBN 978-81-86738-10-8 . * Johnsingh, A. J. T. (2004). On Jim Corbett\'s Trail and Other Tales from Tree-tops. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-7824-081-7 . * Gupta, Reeta Dutta (2006). Jim Corbett : The Hunter Conservationist. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0893-7 .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for