Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, KSG (born 25
August 1944) is a British former newspaper publisher, author, and
convicted felon. He is a non-affiliated life peer.
Black controlled Hollinger International, once the world's
third-largest English-language newspaper empire, which published
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph (UK),
Chicago Sun-Times (U.S.), The Jerusalem Post
National Post (Canada), most of the leading newspapers in
Australia and Canada and hundreds of community newspapers in North
America, before controversy erupted over the sale of some of the
1 Early life and family
2.1 Corporate ownership through holding companies
2.2 Dominion pension dispute
2.3 Industrial holdings shifted to publishing
2.4 Growth and divestment of press holdings
2.5 Fate of Hollinger
2.6 Television host
4 Fraud conviction and Supreme Court review
Ontario Securities Commission
6 Canada Revenue Agency
7 Peerage controversy and citizenship
Order of Canada
Order of Canada and Queen's Privy Council for Canada
9 Books and other publications
10 Biographies and portrayal in popular culture
11 Notes and references
12 Further reading
13 External links
Early life and family
Black was born in Montreal, Quebec, to a well-to-do family originally
from Winnipeg, Manitoba. His father, George Montegu Black, Jr., a
Chartered Accountant, became the president of Canadian Breweries
Limited, an international brewing conglomerate that had earlier
Winnipeg Breweries. Conrad Black's mother was the former Jean
Elizabeth Riley, a daughter of Conrad Stephenson Riley, whose father
founded The Great-West Life Assurance Company, and a
great-granddaughter of an early co-owner of The Daily
Telegraph. His father was a shareholder in the Daily
Biographer George Toombs said of Black's motivations: "He was born
into a very large family of athletic, handsome people. He wasn't
particularly athletic or handsome like they were, so he developed a
different skill – wordplay, which he practiced a lot with his
father." Black has written that his father was "cultured [and]
humorous" and that his mother was a "natural, convivial, and
altogether virtuous person." Of his older brother George Montegu
Black III (Monte), Black has written that he was "one of the greatest
natural athletes I have known", and that though "generally more
sociable than I was, he was never a cad or even inconstant, or ever an
ungenerous friend or less than a gentleman.". The Black family
maintains a family plot at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in
Black's parents and brother are buried along with his good friend and
his wife's former husband, journalist, poet and broadcaster, George
Black was first educated at
Upper Canada College
Upper Canada College (UCC), during which
time, at age eight, he invested his life savings of $60 in one share
of General Motors. Six years later, he was expelled from UCC for
selling stolen exam papers. He then attended
Trinity College School
Trinity College School in
Port Hope, where he lasted less than a year, being expelled for
insubordinate behaviour. He did successfully complete the year as an
Black went on to a small, now defunct, private school in Toronto
called Thornton Hall, continuing on to post-secondary education at
Carleton University (History, 1965). He attended Toronto's Osgoode
Hall Law School of York University, but his studies ended after he
failed his first year exams. He completed a law degree at
Université Laval (Law, 1970), and in 1973 completed a Master of Arts
degree in History at McGill University.
Black's thesis, at McGill would become the first half of his first
book of Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis. Black had been granted
access to Duplessis' papers, housed in Duplessis' former residence in
Trois-Rivières, which included "figures from the famous Union
Nationale Caisse Electorale (the party war chest), a copy of the
Leader of the Opposition's tax returns, [and] gossip from bishops,"
as well as "historically significant letters from Cardinal
Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve and Paul-Emile Leger, Governor General
Field Marshal Alexander, Lord Beaverbrook, Canadian and French Prime
Ministers and Eminent Canadian and American finance ministers
side-by-side with hand-written, ungrammatical requests for jobs with
the Quebec Liquor Board, unpaid bills, the returns of his ministers
who were cheating on their taxes, a number of scribbled notes for
Assembly speeches, tidbits of political espionage, compromising
photographs, [and] a ledger listing the political contributions of
every tavern-keeper in the province." Black subsequently had the
principal items from the papers copied and microfilmed, and donated
copies to McGill, York, and Windsor universities.
Black's first marriage was in 1978 to Joanna Hishon of Montreal, who
worked as a secretary in his and his brother Montegu's brokerage
office. The couple had two sons and a daughter. They separated in
1991. Their divorce was finalized in 1992; that same year Black
married British-born journalist Barbara Amiel. Black described Amiel,
in the first volume of his autobiography as "beautiful, brilliant,
ideologically a robust spirit" and "chic, humorous and preternaturally
sexy". Courtroom evidence revealed that the couple exchanged over
11,000 emails. In a February 2011, public Valentine's Day greeting,
I have been persecuted and Barbara was under no obligation to share
fully in the life-enhancing and undoubtedly character-building
experience of sharing that fate with me completely. But she has, and
no one can know, and it is beyond my power adequately to express here,
what her constancy has meant to me. For more than four years before I
was sent to prison, she toiled with me against the heavy odds
generated by the legal and media onslaught. She endured an avalanche
of abuse directed at her (although she wasn't accused of anything) as
extravagant, flakey, apt to bolt, domineering, and what Kafka called
"nameless crimes". For the next 29 months, she led a lonely life in
Florida, in a climate that aggravated her medical problems. And once
or twice every week, she got up at 3 a.m. to drive over four hours to
"My family", Black wrote in 2009, "was divided between atheism and
agnosticism, and I followed rather unthinkingly and inactively in
those paths into my twenties." By his early thirties he "no longer had
any confidence in the non-existence of God." Thereafter, he
"approached Rome at a snail's pace," and began to study the writings
of Roman Catholic thinkers such as St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas,
Cardinal Newman, and Jacques Maritain. Having accepted the
possibility of miracles and thus of the Resurrection of Christ, Black
was received into the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church on 18 June 1986 by
Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, Archbishop of Toronto, at the
Cardinal's residence. He had a dispensation to receive the sacraments
of the Roman Catholic Church, from Cardinal Leger and Cardinal Carter,
starting in 1974.
Black would develop a close friendship with Carter and rely on him as
a spiritual advisor. On Carter's death, Black wrote: "In the 25 years
I knew him, his judgment and personality were always sober but never
solemn; and never, not at his most beleaguered and not on the verge of
death, did he show a trace of despair. He was intellectual but
practical, spiritual but not sanctimonious or utopian, proud but never
arrogant. He must have had faults, but I never detected any. He was a
great man, yet the salt of the earth."
In 2001, Black was invested as a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of
St. Gregory the Great, a Papal order of chivalry awarded by Pope John
Paul II and delivered by Cardinal Carter and Aloysius Cardinal
Ambrozic. He has written that his faith helped him endure his
imprisonment in the United States. Black is also a major
shareholder in The Catholic Herald, and was the vice-president of
Paul-Émile Cardinal Léger's charity from 1972 to 1990.
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Black became involved in a number of businesses, mainly publishing
newspapers starting when he was still in university. In 1966, Black
bought his first newspaper, the Eastern Townships Advertiser in
Quebec. Following the foundation as an investment vehicle of the
Ravelston Corporation by the Black family in 1969, Black, together
with friends David Radler, and Peter G. White, purchased and operated
Sherbrooke Record, the small English language daily in Sherbrooke,
Quebec. In 1971, the three formed Sterling Newspapers Limited, a
holding company that would acquire several other small Canadian
regional daily and weekly newspapers including the Prince Rupert Daily
News and the Summerside (Prince Edward Island) Journal-Pioneer.
Corporate ownership through holding companies
George Black died in June 1976, ten days after his wife, leaving
Conrad Black and his older brother, Montegu, a 22.4% stake in
Ravelston Corporation, which by then owned 61% voting control of Argus
Corporation, an influential holding company in Canada. Argus
controlled large stakes in five Canadian corporations: Hollinger
Mines, Standard Broadcasting, Dominion Stores,
Massey-Ferguson. Hollinger controlled Labrador Mining and
Exploration and had a large stake in Noranda Mines. Black succeeded
his father as a director of Dominion Stores and Standard Broadcasting,
owner of radio stations CFRB (Toronto), CJAD (Montreal) and television
station CJOH (Ottawa).
Conrad Black became a director of the Canadian
Imperial Bank of Commerce in 1977.
Through his father's position at Canadian Breweries, and his status as
a co-founder of Ravelston, Black gained early association with two of
Canada's most prominent businessmen: John A. "Bud" McDougald and E. P.
Taylor, the first two presidents of Argus. Following McDougald's death
in 1978, Black paid $18 million to McDougald's widow and her sister
for control of Ravelston and thereby, control of Toronto-based
Argus. Interviews with the two sisters in their retirement homes
in Florida were aired 21 September 1980 in the episode of the CBC's
The Canadian Establishment, entitled "Ten
Toronto Street". This
episode covered the period during which
Conrad Black became president
Argus Corporation following the death of McDougald. Black's new
associate, Nelson M. Davis became chairman. Patrick Watson, the host
and narrator of series interviewed the two widows in their Florida
retirement homes. Black recorded that the widows "understood and
approved every letter of every word of the agreement". Other
observers admired Black for marshaling enough investor support to win
control without committing a large block of personal assets. He
brought in new partners to replace Mrs. McDougal and her sister Mrs.
W. Eric Philips.
Some of the Argus assets were already troubled, and others did not fit
Black's long-term vision. Black resigned as Chairman of Massey
Ferguson company on 23 May 1980, after which Argus donated its shares
to the employees pension funds (both salaried and union).
Hollinger Mines was then turned into a holding company that initially
focused on resource-based businesses.
In 1981 Norcen Energy, one of his companies, acquired a minority
position in Ohio-based Hanna Mining Co. In a filing with the U.S.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), a disclosure was made to the
effect that Norcen took "an investment position" in Hanna. The filing
did not include a disclosure that Norcen's board planned to seek
majority control. Black subsequently was charged by the SEC with
filing misleading public statements. These charges were later
Dominion pension dispute
In 1984, the Dominion Stores Board of which Montegu Black was the
chairman, with the prior consent of the
Ontario Pension Commission,
withdrew over $56 million from the Dominion workers' pension plan
surplus which the management had generated. The company said it
considered the surplus the rightful property of the employer (Dominion
Stores Ltd.), as the shareholders would have to pay for any shortfall
if the assets had been less successfully invested. The Dominion Union
complained, a public outcry ensued, and the case went to court. The
Supreme Court of
Ontario ruled against the company, and ordered the
company to return the money to the pension fund, claiming that though
the most recent language in the plan suggested the employer had
ownership of the surplus, the original intention was to keep the
surplus in the plan to increase members' benefits. Eventually, the
pension dispute was settled in equal shares between the shareholders
and the plan members.
Industrial holdings shifted to publishing
Over time, Black focused formerly diverse activities of his companies
on newspaper publishing. Argus Corporation, was one of Canada's most
important conglomerates, though apart from Standard Broadcasting, it
had less than 25% of the stock of the companies in which it was
invested, and four fifths of its own stock did not vote. Black had
negotiated the acquisition of that stock from Power Corporation
chairman Paul G. Desmarais in 1979 to become, as put it a 'real
proprietor'. Black supervised the divesting of interests in
manufacturing, retailing, broadcasting and ultimately oil, gas and
mining. Canadian writer
John Ralston Saul
John Ralston Saul argued in 2008, "Lord Black
was never a real 'capitalist' because he never created wealth, only
dismantled wealth. His career has been largely about stripping
corporations. Destroying them." Journalist and writer George
Jonas, the former husband of Black's wife, Barbara Amiel, contends
that Hollinger made its "investors... billions [of dollars]".
Black bought Quebec City's Le Soleil, Le Droit of Ottawa, and Le
Quotidien of Chicoutimi from Jacques G. Francoeur.
Growth and divestment of press holdings
In 1986, Andrew Knight, then editor of The Economist, advised Black an
investment could be made in the ailing Telegraph Group (London, U.K.),
and Black was able to gain control of the Group for £30 million.
By this investment, Black made his first entry into British press
ownership. Five years later, he bought The Jerusalem Post, and by
1990, his companies ran over 400 newspaper titles in North America,
the majority of them small community papers. For a time from this date
he headed the third-largest newspaper group in the Western World.
Control of Australia's leading newspapers, the Sydney Morning Herald,
Melbourne Age, and Australian Financial Review, albeit in a minority
stockholding, was acquired in 1992. Initially in association with
Kerry Packer and future Prime Minister Malcolm
Turnbull. In 1994 Black and Radler bought Chicago's second newspaper,
Hollinger had bought a 23% stake in the Southam newspaper chain in
1992 from TORSTAR, publisher of the
Toronto Star. Black and Radler
Chicago Sun-Times in 1994. Hollinger International shares
were listed on New York Stock Exchange in 1996, at which time the
company boosted its stake in Southam to a control position.
Becoming a public company trading in the U.S. has been called "a
fateful move, exposing Black's empire to America's more rigorous
regulatory regime and its more aggressive institutional
Under Black, Hollinger launched the
National Post in
Toronto in 1998.
This newspaper was sold throughout the country in direct competition
with the Globe and Mail. From 1999 to 2000 Hollinger International
sold several newspapers in five deals worth a total of CDA $3 billion,
a total that included millions of dollars in "non-compete agreements"
for Hollinger insiders.
Fate of Hollinger
Tweedy, Browne opposed the payment of
non-compete fees to Hollinger Management in connection with the sales
and requested a special committee look into the compensation of
management the day before the annual meeting in May 2003. Black
agreed citing such fees were standard procedure in the newspaper
industry, had been requested by buyers and had been properly
disclosed. The special committee and its counsel, former Chairman of
the SEC Richard Breeden, discovered that
David Radler had misled the
Hollinger directors, including Black about the extent of his own
participation in some of the related party transactions to sell
otherwise unclaimed community newspapers in the US and also that two
of the smaller transactions involving non-compete payments had not
been signed by the vendors. Breeden involved the US Attorney in
Chicago, and Radler, after about 18 months, would promise to plead
guilty to one count of fraud and to provide evidence against Black and
others in exchange for a light sentence in Canada.
Black made an agreement with Breeden, shortly after the unsigned
status of the two non-compete agreements came to light, by which he
would remain as Chairman, but temporarily vacate the position of Chief
Executive, pending verification that he, Black, had known nothing of
these problems, which were handled by the company's counsel, and
occurred in Radler's American Publishing division. Black and
Breeden were in negotiations, sponsored by Henry A. Kissinger, who was
a Director of Hollinger, when the special committee, without warning,
sued Black and others civilly. Black counter-sued, and included a
libel suit in Canada. The libel settlement was by far the largest in
The Hollinger group of companies was effectively dismantled as a
result of the cascade of criminal and civil lawsuits that followed, in
relation to sales of papers and intellectual property to third
parties, most alleging misrepresentation and some alleging false or
deliberately misleading accounts having been presented. The costs
incurred by Hollinger International through the investigation of Black
and his associates climbed to US$200 million. Black claims a
significant portion of the sums paid by Hollinger International went
to Richard Breeden. Black himself incurred high legal fees.
Black resigned from the board of Hollinger in 2005, many of Hollinger
International's assets ended up being sold at prices significantly
lower than those contemplated by incomplete talks while Black was with
the company. By the early 2000s, it was clear that Black had
accurately anticipated the decline in profitability of print media
assets and sought to divest those types of assets held by Hollinger
before their value was irrevocably diminished. The criminal sanctions
on Black not overturned were for removing 13 boxes of paper from his
office a few days before he had to move offices, and under the gaze of
security cameras he has installed, and for receiving US $285,000 as a
non-compete payment that was approved by the independent director and
publicly disclosed, but where the company secretary had neglected, in
what the trial judge considered to be a clerical oversight, to have
signed by the parties.
Black co-hosted a weekly talk show, The Zoomer, which premiered 7
October 2013 on
VisionTV in Canada, He did this for two years,
and interviewed Donald Trump, Nigel Farage, Boris Johnson, and Justin
Trudeau who went on respectively to be President of the United States,
leader of UKIP, British Foreign Secretary, and Prime Minister of
Canada. From January 2015 through 2016, Black hosted Conversations
with Conrad, a series on
VisionTV in which Black conducted long-form
one-on-one interviews with notable figures such as apart those
mentioned above Margaret Atwood, Brian Mulroney, Rick Mercer, Barry
Humphries and Michael Coren.
Born to a wealthy family, Black acquired the family home and 7 acres
(2.8 ha) of land in Toronto's exclusive Bridle Path neighbourhood
after his parents' deaths in 1976. Black and first wife Joanna Hishon
maintained homes in Palm Beach,
Toronto and London. After he married
Barbara Amiel, he acquired a luxury Park Avenue apartment in New York.
When the latter was sold in 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice
seized net proceeds of $8.5 million, pending resolution of court
actions. His London townhouse in
Kensington sold in 2005 for about
US$25 million. His Palm Beach mansion was listed for sale in
2004 at $36 million. In late April 2011 this Florida property was
also sold by Black for approximately $30 million (USD). The Black
family estate was sold in March 2016, for a reported price of CAD$16.5
million, but on a sale-lease-back of up to nine years, with an
option to buy back, and the Blacks continue to live there. Black has
disclosed his intention to remain and perhaps reacquire. He has
returned to the UK part-time.
According to biographer Tom Bower, "They flaunted their wealth."
Black's critics suggested that it was Black's second wife, Amiel, who
pushed him towards a life of opulence. Black has always denied that he
spent more than his income and position justified. He has called
claims that his wife charged personal expenses to a corporate account,
including US$2,463 (£1,272) for handbags, $2,785 for opera tickets,
and $140 for Amiel's "jogging attire" fiction and has pointed out
that they were never alleged at trial.
Black was ranked 238th wealthiest in Britain by the Sunday Times Rich
List (2003), with an estimated wealth of £136m. Having departed
the country, he was dropped from the 2004 list.
Black is a former Steering Committee member of the Bilderberg
Fraud conviction and Supreme Court review
Main article: Black v. United States
Conrad Moffat Black
Mail fraud, obstruction of justice
Initially sentenced to 6½ years imprisonment. Reduced to 42 months
following appeal and re-sentencing and after the sentence had largely
Served 29 months before being granted bail pending a Supreme Court
ordered remand of the remaining counts which the high court vacated to
the circuit of appeals for consideration of its errors, as the Supreme
Court declared the statute under Black was convicted to be, as his
appeal claimed, unconstitutional. Reported to the Federal
Correctional Institution, Miami on 6 September 2011 to serve an
additional 7 months as a result of re-sentencing. He was released
on 4 May 2012, and returned to Canada. It was conceded by the court
that he had been a constructive influence in both prisons where he was
Surrendered 3 March 2008 11:52 am
Coleman Federal Correctional Complex (inmate number 18330-424)
Black was convicted on four counts in U.S. District Court in Chicago
on 13 July 2007. He was sentenced to serve 6½ years in federal prison
and to pay Hollinger $6.1 million, in addition to a fine of
US$125,000. Appeals resulted in all the criminal fraud charges being
dropped, resulting only in an obstruction of justice charge, and civil
penalties from the SEC. In November 2014, settlements were reached
resolving all claims. As a result of the initial verdict, he was fined
$125,000 and sentenced to 6½ years in prison, serving a total of 37
months after two fraud charges were overturned by the 7th Circuit
Court of Appeals, leaving one fraud charge and one obstruction of
justice charge, and the improper receipt of $285,000, which was
disclosed and approved but incompletely documented, and civil. The 6½
year sentence was reduced to 42 months. The $6.1 million fine to
the SEC was reduced to $4.1 million in 2013.
Black was initially found guilty of diverting funds for personal
benefit from money due to Hollinger International, and of other
irregularities. The alleged embezzlement occurred when the company
sold certain publishing assets. He was also found guilty of one charge
of obstruction of justice.
Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States heard an appeal of his case on
8 December 2009 and rendered a decision in June 2010. Black's
application for bail was rejected by both the Supreme Court and the
U.S. District Court judge who sentenced him.
On 24 June 2010, the US Supreme Court ruled 8–0 with one recusal,
and it told the 7th Circuit to review all four of Black's convictions
(including the obstruction of justice charge) and that the definition
Honest services fraud used in Judge St. Eve (the trial judge)'s
charge to the jury in Black's case was too broad, "unconstitutionally
vague", ruling the law could apply only to cases where bribes and
kickbacks had changed hands and ordered the US 7th Circuit Court of
Appeals in Chicago to review three fraud convictions against Black in
light of the Supreme Court's new definition. As ordered, the Court
reviewed Black's case and determined whether his fraud convictions
stood or if there should be a new trial. The Supreme Court upheld
the jailed former media baron's obstruction-of-justice conviction, for
which he was serving a concurrent 6½-year sentence.
Black's lawyers filed an application for bail pending the appeals
court's review. Prosecutors contested Black's bail request, saying
in court papers that Black's trial jury had proof that Black committed
7th Circuit Court of Appeals
7th Circuit Court of Appeals granted bail on 19 July
2010 under which Black was released pending retrial on a
$2 million unsecured bond put up by conservative philanthropist
Roger Hertog and ordered to remain on bail in the continental
United States until at least 16 August, when his bail hearing was to
resume, and the date by which Black and the
prosecution were ordered by the Court of Appeals to submit written
arguments for that court's review of his case. Black's bail,
iniitally, pending trial, had been $38 million USD.
Until 21 July 2010, Black was incarcerated at the Federal
Correctional Institution (Low Security) in Sumter County, Florida,
a part of the Coleman Federal Correctional Complex.[n 1]
Following his release, Black wrote a column for Canada's National Post
on his time in prison. Black described U.S. inmates as an "ostracized,
voiceless legion of the walking dead". Black was to appear once
again in a Chicago court on 16 August to provide full and detailed
financial information to the judge, who would then consider his
request to be allowed to return to Canada while on bail.
Black's legal representatives, led by eminent Supreme Court Barrister
Miguel Estrada, advised the court they would not provide the requisite
accounting[why?] and would thus not be interested in petitioning the
court further on the matter. Black was under no compulsion to make
this disclosure as he had initiated the appeal for a bail variation of
his own volition. His next court appearance, where he might reapply
for permission to return to Canada, was set for 20 September 2010.
On 28 October 2010, the US
7th Circuit Court of Appeals
7th Circuit Court of Appeals confirmed the
dismissal of two of the three vacated fraud accounts and retained one
and the obstruction count. The court ruled that he must be
On 17 December 2010, Black lost an appeal as to fact and law on his
remaining convictions for fraud and obstruction of justice. The three
judge panel did not explain its reasoning. On 31 May 2011, the Supreme
Court of the United States declined to hear an appeal from the circuit
court's decision, also without comment. The re-sentencing on the
two remaining counts by the original trial judge occurred on 24 June
2011. Black's lawyers recommended he be sentenced to the 29 months
he had already served (aka "time served") while the prosecution argued
for Black to complete his original 6½ year sentence. The probation
officer's report recommended a sentence of between 33 and 41
months. At the hearing, Judge St. Eve re-sentenced Black to a
reduced term of 42 months and a fine of $125,000, returning him to
prison on 6 September 2011 to serve the remaining seven months of
his sentence, allowing for a reduction for good conduct, for which the
trial judge commended him.
On 30 June 2011, Black published an article for the National Review
Online that provided his scathing view of the legal case, detailing it
as a miscarriage of justice and an "unaccountable and often lawless
prosecution". Seth Lipsky, in an opinion piece for the Wall Street
Journal that ran on 28 June 2011, called the verdict against Black
"head-scratching", noting that Black was found not guilty of the most
serious charges brought against him. Lipsky asked why Black was denied
a retrial by jury as to whether he had committed pecuniary fraud after
the Supreme Court unanimously found that Judge St. Eve's instructions
to the jury were "incorrect", which led to two of the three fraud
counts ultimately being vacated. In the end, one fraud conviction and
a count of obstruction were allowed to stand.
Black did not return to the Federal Correctional Institution in
Coleman, Florida. On 6 September 2011, he was sent to a different
Florida federal correction facility, this one in Miami. He was
released from prison on 4 May 2012. Although he became a citizen of
the United Kingdom in 2001 and became a British peer, he chose to live
in his native Canada after his prison term was completed. He was
granted a one-year temporary resident permit to live in Canada in
March 2012 when he was still serving his sentence.
Upon his release from prison, Black was deported to Canada. Black
has been barred from entering the United States for 30 years though
that could be appealed at any time. He has expressed no interest in
returning to the United States.
Black's motion that the last remaining counts of conviction be vacated
due to prosecutorial misconduct and his claim that he had been denied
the right to have the defense counsel of his choice were denied in
February 2013, along with his request for an evidentiary hearing.
Black continues to maintain his innocence, and has likened the United
States justice system to that of North Korea. Black has publicly
stated that he is proud to have been "sent to prison for crimes I
would never dream of committing, for having fought it out as well as
anyone could, and for making the best I could of a bad situation.
Ontario Securities Commission
In July 2013, the
Ontario Securities Commission restarted its case
against Black and two other former Hollinger executives, John Boultbee
and Peter Atkinson. The regulator sought to have them banned from
trading in the province's capital markets or sitting on a public board
of directors. The case alleged violations of the Securities Act
(Ontario). The case had been postponed pending the exhaustion of
Black's appeals of his U.S. fraud convictions. The securities case
alleges that Black and his two fellow directors created a scheme was
to use the sale of several Hollinger newspapers in order to "divert
certain proceeds from [Hollinger International] to themselves through
contrived 'non-competition' payments".
Black applied to have the proceedings dismissed on the grounds that he
was already voluntarily refraining from being an officer or director
Ontario corporation and undertaken to ask the approval of the
OSC if he ever desired to become a director or officer of an Ontario
public company. In February 2015 the OSC placed a permanent ban on
Black being a director or officer of a publicly traded company in
Ontario, but declined to restrict his right to trade. Black referred
to the case in his column in the
National Post on March 8, 2015,
stating that the OSC did not come to the subject with clean hands,
having "vaporized" hundreds of millions of dollars of shareholder's
equity in 2005 when it blocked Black's bid to privatize Hollinger
Inc., pushing that company into bankruptcy and a total loss for the
Canada Revenue Agency
In early 2014, the
Tax Court of Canada ruled that Black owed the
Canadian government taxes on $5.1-million of income accrued in
In mid-May 2016, it was revealed that the CRA had intervened to
prevent the sale and lease-back, with a buy-back option, of Black's
home on Park Lane Circle. After discussion, the sale-lease back
proceeded and Black provided other assets as security pending the
settlement or adjudication of the CRA claim.
Peerage controversy and citizenship
Main article: Black v Chrétien
In 2001, British Prime Minister
Tony Blair advised Queen Elizabeth II
to confer on Black a life peerage with the title of Baron Black of
Crossharbour.[n 2] He would sit as a conservative peer, and his
name had been put forward by the then-Conservative leader William
Hague. Canadian Prime Minister
Jean Chrétien advised the Queen not to
appoint Black a peer, citing the Nickle Resolution of 1919 and a long
history since then of objections to Canadian citizens accepting
British peerages. Black at the time held both Canadian and British
citizenship. Black pointed out that the Nickle Resolution referred to
Canadian resident citizens, not dual citizens living in the U.K and
was not binding, but when Prime Minister Blair said the Queen would
prefer not to choose between the conflicting recommendations of two
prime ministers of countries of which she was the monarch, Black asked
that the matter be deferred. He litigated in Canada, claiming that
Chrétien had no jurisdiction to create a class of citizen in another
country, consisting of one person (as there were other dual citizens
in the House of Lords), ineligible to receive an honour in that
country for services deemed to have been rendered in that country,
because of the personal objections of the Canadian Prime Minister of
the day. Later in 2001, after the
Ontario Superior Court and Court of
Appeal had ruled that they had no jurisdiction in this area, Black
renounced his Canadian citizenship, remaining a United Kingdom
citizen, which allowed him to accept the peerage without further
Black sat as a life peer on the Conservative benches until 2007, when
he withdrew from the conservative group of peers following his
conviction in the United States. He is currently a non-affiliated
peer. In an interview with BBC reporter
Jeremy Paxman in 2012, Black
stated that he could return to the
House of Lords
House of Lords as a voting member.
Comparing himself to Nelson Mandela, Black said a criminal conviction
does not prohibit him from sitting, since the
House of Lords
House of Lords has no
restriction on such a case. He has been on leave of absence from
House of Lords
House of Lords since June 2012.
In an interview with
Peter Mansbridge in May 2012, Black said he would
consider applying for Canadian citizenship "within a few years", when
he hoped the matter would no longer be controversial and he could
"make an application like any other person who has been a temporary
resident. It is not clear when or if he would be accepted, but has
been a temporary for over five years with a full work permit.
Order of Canada
Order of Canada and Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Black was appointed an Officer of the
Order of Canada
Order of Canada in 1990. In
2011, after Black returned to prison due to the failure of his appeal,
Rideau Hall, the seat of the Chancellery of Honours, confirmed that
the honour accorded to Black was under review by the order's Advisory
Council, which has the power to recommend "the termination of a
person's appointment to the
Order of Canada
Order of Canada if the person has been
convicted of a criminal offence."
Once the review process started, Black submitted a written application
in defence of keeping his place in the Order of Canada, but failed in
his efforts to persuade the Advisory Council he should appear before
them to defend his case orally. Black took the matter to the Federal
Court of Canada, which ruled that the council had no obligation to
change its regular review process (which allows for written
submissions only) simply to accommodate Black. Black attempted to
appeal the court's decision without success.
In an October 2012 interview, Black intimated that he would rather
resign from the order than be removed: "I would not wait for giving
these junior officials the evidently almost aphrodisiacal pleasure of
throwing me out. I would withdraw," he told CBC's Susan Ormiston. "In
fact, I wouldn't be interested in serving."
The Governor General of Canada, David Johnston, announced Black's
removal from the
Order of Canada
Order of Canada and his expulsion from the Queen's
Privy Council for Canada in January 2014. Johnston had been
recommended to do so by the Advisory Council of the Order of Canada
and the Canadian Prime Minister. As a result, Lord Black may
also no longer employ the post-nominal initials OC and PC.
Books and other publications
Black has written an autobiography and three substantial biographies
of controversial 20th-century figures, plus a full-scale history of
Duplessis: Black re-worked his 1973 Master's thesis on Maurice
Duplessis into a rehabilatory biographical re-examination of the
controversial long-serving Quebec premier, published in 1977. It was
condensed, updated and republished in 1998 as 'Render Unto Caesar'.
A Life in Progress: An autobiography, published in 1993.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Champion of Freedom: Black completed a
1,280-page biography which was published in 2003.
What Might Have Been: A 2004 essay of speculative history
depicting the latter half of the 20th century as it might have
unfolded had Japan not bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, edited by Andrew
Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full: Black's 1,152-page 2007
Richard Nixon examined Nixon's career and legacy outside
the immense controversy that engulfed his presidency.
Rise to Greatness: The History of Canada From the Vikings to the
Present (2014) Spanning 874 to 2014, and beginning from Canada's first
inhabitants and the early explorers, this masterful history challenges
our perception of our history and Canada's role in the world. The
publisher's marketing material for the first volume says, "The first
of three volumes, spanning from the year 1000 to 1867, and beginning
with Canada's first inhabitants and the early explorers, this
masterful history challenges our perception of our history and
Canada's role in the world, taking on sweeping themes and vividly
recounting the story of Canada's development from colony to dominion
Flight of the Eagle: A strategic history of the United States with an
introductory note by Henry E. Kissinger. Examines the rise of the
world's supreme power, its recent decline, and its ultimate strengths
and future, and the contributions of leading figures.
Backward Glances: People and Events From Inside and Out Published in
2016. A collection of Black's columns, articles, reviews and essays
published in several countries over 45 years.
Selected Columns/Articles in Newspapers and Magazines
Black continues to contribute regular features to the National Post,
the newspaper he founded in 1998 and sold in 2001. In an article
there, Black indicated that his next book will describe how his
business empire was destroyed while court-protected managers enriched
themselves and eradicated shareholder value. He says, "The judiciary
and regulators in both countries are complicit in these events. They
will have much to answer for. This is the real story, and I will
publish it soon." This came to pass in his book "A Matter of
In the November 2008 issue of Spear's magazine, Black wrote a diary
piece from prison detailing 'the putrification of the US justice
system' and how 'the bloom is off my long-notorious affection for
On 5 March 2009, Black contributed a piece to the online version of
the conservative magazine
National Review (NRO). Called Roosevelt and
the Revisionists and based on his earlier biography of Roosevelt, it
argued that FDR's New Deal was intended to save capitalism, and
deserved conservative support. In her 9 March critique of this piece
on NRO, author
Amity Shlaes observed, "I will be co-hosting, with Dean
Thomas Cooley of NYU/Stern, a Second Look conference on March 30 to
permit scholars to present the multiple studies that suggest the New
Deal and Great Depression are worth taking a look at from every angle.
The great shame here is that Conrad would have added much to this
event, and yet he cannot attend."
A Matter of Principle: Published in 2011, Black described
his indictment and the trial, the subsequent conviction, imprisonment
and the appeal. Woven throughout the book, Black did not hide his
contempt toward the prosecutors, and the people and media who he
perceived betrayed him and harbored bias against him. Black reserved
the most indignation toward the prosecutors who he believed mounted a
campaign to destroy him. The book also discussed his views on
politics, corporate governance, and the U.S. justice system and its
need of reform.
In a rebuttal, to "A Matter of Principle", Black's defence
Edward Greenspan said "Conrad's flawed account of his own
trial is a reminder of how seldom an accused person actually grasps
what is going on in court". In particular, Greenspan vigorously
rebuked Black's repeating the allegation of 'extortion' described in
an article written by
Mark Steyn for Maclean's.
Biographies and portrayal in popular culture
The book "The Establishment Man", sub-titled "A Portrait of Power", by
Peter C.Newman, detailing Black's early career, was published in 1982
by McClelland and Stewart; ISBN 0-7710-6786-0
The documentary film Citizen Black, which premiered at the 2004
Montreal and Cambridge film festivals, traces Black's life and
filmmaker Debbie Melnyk's attempts in 2003 to interview Black, and her
eventual interview. US prosecutors subpoenaed unused footage of a
2003 shareholders meeting for use in Black's trial.
Albert Schultz portrayed Black in the 2006 CTV movie
Shades of Black.
Tom Bower's biography Conrad and Lady Black: Dancing on the Edge
(ISBN 0007232349) was published in 2006 by Harper Collins. It was
republished in August 2007 with an additional chapter reporting on the
trial and its outcomes.
A book, Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour, was published in
2007 by ECW press and written by George Tombs;
Canadian artist George Walker published the wordless novel The Life
and Times of
Conrad Black in 2013.
Notes and references
^ Prior to being granted bail, his scheduled release date was 30
^ With, not part of the main title, the territorial designation, of
Crossharbour in the
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. This entitles him
to the standard official style of "Lord Black".
^ "Profile". Thepeerage.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2011.
Retrieved 7 November 2011.
^ a b "Lord Black of Crossharbour profile". Parliament of the United
Kingdom. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
^ Financial Post: "
Conrad Black moves to end Hollinger CCAA"
^ a b c Clark, Andrew: "At some level, he's still asking the same
question as he was when he was seven or eight – who am I?", The
Guardian, 16 March 2007.
^ a b c d e f g Black, C. (1993). A Life in Progress. Key Porter
Books; ISBN 1-55013-520-1.
^ "Remembering my older brother Mario Monte", National Post, 22
^ "Mount Pleasant Group". www.mountpleasantgroup.com.
^ "Headline Maker". TIME. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
^ a b Bower, Tom: Conrad & Lady Black – Dancing on the Edge
(London: HarperPress, 2006),
^ a b "Conrad Black: Timeline", cbc.ca; updated 5 June 2008.
^ a b Newman, P. (1983). The Establishment Man. Seal Books;
^ "The Peerage". The Peerage. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
^ "Nineteen years with my perfect Valentine" Archived 29 January 2013
at Archive.is, National Post, 12 February 2011.
^ "How I woke up from spiritual slumber and inched at a snail's pace
to Rome", The Catholic Herald, 11 September 2009.
^ "A dear, wise, constant friend", Catholic Education Resource Centre,
12 April 2003.
^ a b "Conrad Black: I have found serenity through Catholicism in
jail", The Daily Telegraph. 10 September 2009.
^ a b c Black, C. (2011). A Matter of Principle. McCelland &
Stewart; ISBN 978-0-7710-1670-7.
^ a b c Francis, D. (1986). Controlling Interest – Who Owns
Canada. Macmillan of Canada; ISBN 0-7715-9744-4.
^ "Innovation: CIBC Annual Report 1999" (PDF). Cibc.com. Retrieved 5
^ Newman 1982
^ Patrick Watson (21 September 1980), "Ten
Toronto Street", National
Film Board, The Establishment, Ottawa, Ontario access-date=
requires url= (help)
^ Argus Corporation#cite note-:0-2
^ a b Olive, David "A
Conrad Black timeline",
Toronto Star, 11 March
2007; retrieved 9 June 2008.
^ "Gale Directory of Company Histories: M. A. Hanna Company". ...in
1981, Canadian financier
Conrad Black of Norcen Energy Resources,
Ltd., initiated a year-long takeover battle. Black's purchase of a
large block of Hanna stock in October 1981 quickly captured the
attention of Hanna chairman Robert F. Anderson and other members of
the board. After a relatively brief, but heated federal hearing, Black
and Hanna made a standstill agreement that gave Black 20 percent of
Hanna in exchange for $90 million. Black became a director, and the
last descendant of an M. A. Hanna & Company partner, George M.
Humphrey II, resigned from his position as senior vice president by
^ "Canadian Labour Congress: Dominion Food Stores". Adjustment.ca.
Retrieved 18 June 2010.
^ Gessell, Paul "Saul's Ottawa 'Truths'" Archived 12 October 2008 at
the Wayback Machine., The Ottawa Citizen, 18 September 2008.
^ "Conrad Black, a cheese-eating Labrador and countless vituperative
flights of fancy", National Post, 24 June 2010.
^ Jacques Francœur
^ BBC News "Conrad Black: Where did it all go wrong", bbc.co.uk, 27
^ Jason Kirby; John Intini. "The Black Trial: The deal breakers".
Maclean's. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013.
^ a b c Stein, Adrian and Olga. "Auto da fe".
David Radler begins prison sentence" – via The Globe and
^ "Black to receive 'substantial' libel settlement".
^ Beasley, M.S., Frank A Buckless, S.M. Glover, and D.F. Prawitt
(2015). Auditing Cases: Instructor Resource Manual, 6th Edition. Upper
Saddle River, NJ (PDF). Pearson. Retrieved 5 May 2016. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "Corporate Scandals: Black shadows", The Economist, 15 March 2007.
Conrad Black defence costs top $100 million". 22 November
^ a b "Auto Da Fé: Conrad Black, Corporate Governance, and the End of
Economic Man", Books in Canada, December 2006.
Conrad Black to host talkshow on Canadian TV". London: The
Telegraph. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
Conrad Black begins his foray as a TV talk show host". Toronto
Star. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
^ "theZoomer: Television For Boomers With Zip! Conversations With
Conrad premieres with Boris Johnson". Thezoomertv.com. Retrieved 3
^ United States Department of Justice. "Press Release" Archived 28 May
2008 at the Wayback Machine., usdoj.gov, 15 December 2005.
^ Timmons, Heather: "
Conrad Black sells London townhouse",
International Herald Tribune, 20 May 2005.
^ CBC News: "
Conrad Black charged ...", CBC News. 17 November 2005.
^ Taekema, Dan (22 March 2016). "Conrad Black's mansion sells for
bargain price — relatively". thestar.com. The
Retrieved 9 October 2016.
^ Takema, Dan (15 March 2016). "
Conrad Black sells mansion, stays
put". thestar.com. The
Toronto Star. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
^ Hosking, Patrick; Wighton, David. "The
Sunday Times Rich List 2003".
The Times. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
^ Hosking, Patrick; Wighton, David. "The
Sunday Times Rich List 2004".
The Times. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
^ "Former Steering Committee Members". Bilderberg Meetings. Archived
from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
Conrad Black gets bail, review of case". Ctv.ca. Archived from the
original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
Conrad Black to report back to prison in September", Globe and
Mail, 11 July 2011; accessed 3 April 2016.
^ a b "Black sent back to jail for 13 months", Globe and Mail, 24 June
^ Alamenciak, Tim (29 April 2012). "
Conrad Black set to be released
from prison this week".
Toronto Star. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
^ Ameet Sachdev "Appeals court upholds Conrad Black's conviction on
fraud, obstruction charges but guilty verdicts on two other fraud
counts are vacated", Chicago Tribune, 29 October 2010.
Conrad Black fined and banned by US", bbc.com, 16 August 2013;
accessed 3 April 2016.
Conrad Black convicted of fraud", bbc.co.uk, 13 July 2007.
^ McQuillen, William. "Conrad Black: Conviction Questioned by High
Court", Bloomberg.com, 8 December 2009.
Conrad Black denied bail",
Toronto Star, 15 July 2009.
^ Alberts, Sheldon. "Court sets aside appeals court ruling in Conrad
Black case". www.nationalpost.com.
^ a b "
Conrad Black seeks bail", Globe and Mail, 7 July 2010.
^ "Top stories from Canada and around the world". News.ca.msn.com.
Retrieved 3 April 2016.
Conrad Black sued for $71 million in back taxes",
Toronto Star, 15
^ a b c "Black to be released but can't come to Canada",
21 July 2010.
Conrad Black granted bail",
Toronto Star, 19 July 2010.
^ "Court clears Black for release", Globe and Mail, 22 July 2010.
^ "Black can't return to Canada yet", Globe and Mail, 23 July 2010.
^ "Court to hear
Conrad Black case Aug. 16", Vancouver Sun, 26 July
Conrad Black likely stuck in the U.S.", ctv.ca, 27 July 2010.
^ a b
Conrad Black profile, Federal Bureau of Prisons; retrieved 6
^ Agence France-Presse (26 January 2009). "Eight injured in riot at
Conrad Black's Prison". Canada.com. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
^ Joyce, Julian. "Black times ahead for fallen peer", bbc.co.uk, 4
March 2008; retrieved 6 January 2010.
^ "Conrad Black: My prison education". Fullcomment.nationalpost.com.
Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 3 April
^ ""Black 'enlightened' by prison time", ca.msn.com, accessed 3 April
Conrad Black drops bid to return to Canada – Need to know,
Macleans.ca; 6 August 2010; accessed 26 March 2016.
^ "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. CONRAD M. BLACK,
PETER Y. ATKINSON, JOHN A. BOULTBEE, and MARK S. KIPNIS" (PDF).
Financialpostbusiness.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 3 April
^ "U.S. Supreme Court rejects Conrad Black's appeal", Globe and Mail,
31 May 2011.
Conrad Black sentencing set for June 24", Chicago Sun-Times, 13
Conrad Black go back to jail?", Globe and Mail, 23 June 2011.
Conrad Black to report back to prison in September", Globe and
Mail, 11 July 2011.
^ Conrad Black, "I stand before the court", NationalReview.com, 30
^ Seth Lipsky, "A head-scratching verdict against Conrad Black", The
Wall Street Journal, 28 June 2011.
^ Kwan, Amanda (2 September 2011). "Black won't return to Florida
Toronto Star. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
^ D'Aliesio, Renata (4 May 2012). "
Conrad Black released from Florida
prison". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ Chase, Steven (2 May 2012). "Just how special is Lord Black's
residency permit?". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 4 May
^ Staff (4 May 2012). "
Conrad Black returns to
Toronto after serving
jail time in U.S." National Post. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
^ Waldie, Paul (25 October 2012). "Securities violations cost Conrad
Black $6.1-million". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 25 October
Conrad Black loses bid to void guilty verdict".
Toronto Star. 20
February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
Conrad Black lashes out in feisty interview". Ctvnews.ca. Retrieved
3 April 2016.
^ "Conrad Black: Of that OSC ruling..." 7 March 2015.
^ "OSC slaps permanent ban on Conrad Black". Thestar.com. Retrieved 3
Conrad Black owes $5.1-million in back taxes, court rules". Globe
and Mail. Toronto. 21 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
^ "Conrad Black's
Toronto mansion sells for $14-million". 30 June
^ "No. 56379". The London Gazette. 5 November 2001.
Conrad Black to renounce Canadian citizenship".
^ Tu Thanh Ha. "
Conrad Black says he could still sit in the U.K. House
of Lords". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
Conrad Black stripped of two honours by his native Canada". The
Guardian. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
^ Campion-Smith, Bruce (14 September 2011). "
Conrad Black could be
stripped of Order of Canada".
Toronto Star. Retrieved 15 September
Conrad Black loses
Order of Canada
Order of Canada hearing bid -- federal court
won't interfere". The Star. Toronto, ON. 25 October 2012.
^ Jones, Allison (2 November 2012). "
Conrad Black keeps fighting to
make personal plea to keep Order of Canada".
Toronto Star. Retrieved 2
^ Pagliaro, Jennifer (26 October 2012). "
Conrad Black will resign
Order of Canada
Order of Canada rather than have it terminated".
Retrieved 26 October 2012.
^ "Termination of Appointment to the Order of Canada". Retrieved 31
Conrad Black stripped of Order of Canada". CBC News. 31 January
2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
Conrad Black stripped of the Order of Canada". Globe and Mail.
Toronto. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
^ ISBN 0-7710-1530-5
^ ISBN 978-1-55013-520-6
^ ISBN 978-1-58648-184-1
^ Janeway, Michael (21 December 2003). "The Lord of Springwood". The
New York Times.
^ ISBN 978-0-7538-1873-2
^ ISBN 978-1-58648-519-1
^ "Books Briefly Noted". The New Yorker. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 18
^ Black, Conrad. "Jail Diary" Archived 19 December 2008 at the Wayback
Machine., Spear's, November 2008.
^ Black, Conrad (2011). A Matter of Principle. Toronto, Ontario:
McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-1670-7.
^ Johnson, Paul. "Apologia pro vita sua", The Spectator, 17 November
^ Bell, Douglas (16 September 2011). "
Conrad Black comes out zinging".
Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
^ Greenspan, Edward (30 September 2011). "The Case for the Defence".
Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 January
2012. (subscription required)
^ Steyn, Mark (30 July 2007). "The Black Trial: The human drama the
jury didn't see". Maclean's. Archived from the original on 3 April
2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
^ ""Citizen Black": An entertaining documentary". Post-gazette.com. 17
February 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
^ Wisniewski, Mary (23 November 2006). "Prosecutors to see 'Citizen
Black' footage". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
Edge, Marc. Asper nation: Canada's most dangerous media company
(2007), pp 70–97
Newman, Peter C. The Establishment Man: A Portrait of Power
(McClelland and Stewart, 1982); ISBN 0-7710-6786-0
Siklos, Richard. Shades of Black: Conrad Black--his Rise and Fall
(McClelland & Stewart Limited, 2004)
Skurka, Steven. Tilted: The Trials of
Conrad Black (Dundurn, 2011)
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Conrad Black
Conrad Black on Twitter
Appearances on C-SPAN
Conrad Black on IMDb
Works by or about
Conrad Black in libraries (
Conrad Black collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
Conrad Black collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post
Conrad Black collected news and commentary". The New York
SEC – Breeden Report Complete 512-page copy of the Report of
Investigation by the
Special Committee of the board of directors of
Hollinger International Inc.
The United States vs.
Conrad Black collected coverage in Macleans.ca
Lord Black of Crossharbour: The Life and Times of Conrad Black,
CBC.ca, documentary originally aired 24 March 2005
"Conrad Black's apologia for Richard Nixon": a review in the TLS by
Anthony Holden, 8 August 2007
Conrad Black's full-length jail diary
An interview with
Conrad Black from Coleman Federal Correction
Complex, May 2010
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