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The Common Language Runtime
Common Language Runtime
(CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's .NET framework, manages the execution of .NET programs. A process known as just-in-time compilation converts compiled code into machine instructions which the computer's CPU
CPU
then executes.[1] The CLR provides additional services including memory management, type safety, exception handling, garbage collection, security and thread management. All programs written for the .NET framework, regardless of programming language, are executed by the CLR. All versions of the .NET framework
.NET framework
include CLR. CLR implements the Virtual Execution System (VES) as defined in the Common Language Infrastructure
Common Language Infrastructure
(CLI) standard, initially developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
itself. A public standard defines the Common Language Infrastructure specification.[2]

The CLR converts CIL (Common Intermediate Language) to native code.

Overview of the Common Language Runtime
Common Language Runtime
release history[1]

CLR version .NET version

1.0 1.0

1.1 1.1

2.0 2.0, 3.0, 3.5

4 4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7

Contents

1 Benefits 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Benefits[edit] The runtime provides the following features:

The ability to easily use components developed in other languages. Extensible types provided by a class library. Language features such as inheritance, interfaces, and overloading for object-oriented programming. Support for threads that allows creation of multithreaded, scalable applications. Support for structured exception handling. Support for custom attributes. Garbage collection. Use of delegates instead of function pointers for increased type safety and security. For more information about delegates, see Common Type System.

See also[edit]

Common Intermediate Language List of CLI languages Java virtual machine

References[edit]

^ a b " Common Language Runtime
Common Language Runtime
(CLR)". MSDN Library. Retrieved 14 November 2013.  ^ "ECMA C# and Common Language Infrastructure
Common Language Infrastructure
Standards". Visual Studio Developer Center. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 

External links[edit]

Functions of Common Language Runtime Components of Common Language Runtime Components of CLR Overview of the .NET Framework
.NET Framework
4.0 .NET Framework
.NET Framework
Conceptual Overview

v t e

.NET Framework

Version history .NET strategy

Architecture

Common Language Runtime
Common Language Runtime
(CLR) COM Interop Framework Class Library (FCL)

Components

ADO.NET

Entity Framework

ASP.NET

AJAX Core Dynamic Data MVC Razor

ClickOnce Dynamic Language Runtime Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Managed Extensibility Framework Microsoft
Microsoft
Silverlight Microsoft
Microsoft
XNA Parallel Extensions Windows Communication Foundation
Windows Communication Foundation
(WCF)

WCF Data Services

Windows Forms
Windows Forms
(WinForms) Windows Identity Foundation (WIF) Windows Presentation Foundation
Windows Presentation Foundation
(WPF) Windows Workflow Foundation
Windows Workflow Foundation
(WF) .NET Remoting

Tools

Decompilers

.NET Reflector dotPeek

Obfuscators

Dotfuscator SmartAssembly CodeArmor Turbo

Misc

CLR Profiler ILAsm .NET Compiler
Compiler
Platform Native Image Generator (NGen) XAMLPad

IDEs

Visual Studio

Blend Express

MonoDevelop SharpDevelop Xamarin
Xamarin
Studio

Organizations

.NET Foundation Microsoft Xamarin

Category List

v t e

Common Language Infrastructure

Architecture

Application domain Code Access Security Common Intermediate Language (CIL)

CIL instructions

Common Type System (CTS) Platform Invocation Services (P/Invoke) Virtual Execution System (VES)

Components

Assembly Delegate Global Assembly Cache (GAC) Manifest Metadata

Standard Libraries

Kernel Profile

Base Class Library (BCL) Runtime Infrastructure Library

Compact Profile

Network Library Reflection Library XML Library

Extended Array Library Extended Numerics Library Parallel Library Vararg Library

Implementations

Microsoft

.NET Framework .NET Compact Framework .NET Micro Framework Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure

Other

.NET Core Mono Portable.NET

Languages

Microsoft

C# Visual Basic .NET C++/CLI

Managed

F# Q# J# JScript .NET PowerShell

Other

Axum A# Boo Cobra IronScheme

IronLisp

IronPython IronRuby Nemerle Oxygene Phalanger P# Scala

Comparison

C# and Java C# and Visual Basic .NET Java and .NET platforms Visual Basic and Visual Basic .NET

Organizations

.NET Foundation DotGNU Microsoft Xamarin

Authority control

LCCN: sh2006004272 BNF:

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