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The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars. The Cold War
Cold War
split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States
United States
as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a leader with different titles over time, and a small committee called the Politburo. The Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and many organizations. It also controlled the other states in the Eastern Bloc, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
of the 1960s. In opposition stood the capitalist West, led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system. The First World nations of the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
were generally liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes throughout the Third World, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.[1][2] Some major Cold War frontlines such as Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. A small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement; it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD). Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, and their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The first phase of the Cold War
Cold War
began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States
United States
began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War) and creating the NATO
NATO
alliance. The Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
(1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and the outbreak of the Korean War (1950–53), the conflict expanded. The USSR and the USA competed for influence in Latin America
Latin America
and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
was stopped by the Soviets. The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
complicate relations within the communist sphere, while US allies, particularly France, demonstrated greater independence of action. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring
Prague Spring
liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, and the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
(1955–75) ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente
Détente
collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
(1983), and the "Able Archer" NATO
NATO
military exercises (1983). The United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", c. 1985) and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland. Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully (with the exception of the Romanian Revolution) overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the formal dissolution of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse of communist regimes in other countries such as Mongolia, Cambodia
Cambodia
and South Yemen. The United States
United States
remained as the world's only superpower. The Cold War
Cold War
and its events have left a significant legacy. It is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage (notably the internationally successful James Bond film franchise) and the threat of nuclear warfare.

Contents

1 Origins of the term 2 Background

2.1 Russian Revolution 2.2 Beginnings of World War II

3 End of World War II
World War II
(1945–1947)

3.1 Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe 3.2 Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and surrender of Japan 3.3 Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc 3.4 Preparing for a "new war"

4 Beginnings of the Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953)

4.1 Containment
Containment
and the Truman Doctrine 4.2 Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and Czechoslovak coup d'état 4.3 Cominform
Cominform
and the Tito–Stalin Split 4.4 Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
and airlift 4.5 Beginnings of NATO
NATO
and Radio Free Europe 4.6 Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and SEATO 4.7 Korean War

5 Crisis and escalation (1953–1962)

5.1 Khrushchev, Eisenhower and de-Stalinization 5.2 Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and Hungarian Revolution 5.3 Berlin ultimatum and European integration 5.4 Competition in the Third World 5.5 Sino-Soviet split 5.6 Space Race 5.7 Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
and the Bay of Pigs Invasion 5.8 Berlin Crisis of 1961 5.9 Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
and Khrushchev's ouster

6 Confrontation through détente (1962–1979)

6.1 French withdrawal from NATO 6.2 Invasion of Czechoslovakia 6.3 Brezhnev Doctrine 6.4 Third World
Third World
escalations 6.5 Sino-American rapprochement 6.6 Nixon, Brezhnev, and détente 6.7 Late 1970s deterioration of relations

7 "Second Cold War" (1979–1985)

7.1 Soviet War in Afghanistan 7.2 Reagan and Thatcher 7.3 Polish Solidarity movement and martial law 7.4 Soviet and US military and economic issues

8 Final years (1985–1991)

8.1 Gorbachev's reforms 8.2 Thaw in relations 8.3 Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
breaks away 8.4 Soviet republics break away 8.5 Soviet dissolution

9 Aftermath

9.1 In popular culture

10 Historiography 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References and further reading

13.1 Historiography and memory 13.2 Primary sources

14 External links

Origins of the term

Part of a series on the History of the Cold War

Origins of the Cold War

World War II (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) War conferences Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Iron Curtain

Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953)

Cold War
Cold War
(1953–1962)

Cold War
Cold War
(1962–1979)

Cold War
Cold War
(1979–1985)

Cold War
Cold War
(1985–1991)

Frozen conflicts

Timeline  · Conflicts Historiography

Main article: Cold war (general term) At the end of World War II, English writer George Orwell
George Orwell
used cold war, as a general term, in his essay "You and the Atomic Bomb", published 19 October 1945 in the British newspaper Tribune. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare, Orwell looked at James Burnham's predictions of a polarized world, writing:

Looking at the world as a whole, the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of slavery... James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications—that is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a state which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of "cold war" with its neighbours.[3]

In The Observer of 10 March 1946, Orwell wrote, "after the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a 'cold war' on Britain and the British Empire."[4] The first use of the term to describe the specific post-war geopolitical confrontation between the USSR and the United States
United States
came in a speech by Bernard Baruch, an influential advisor to Democratic presidents,[5] on 16 April 1947. The speech, written by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope,[6] proclaimed, "Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war."[7] Newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency with his book The Cold War; when asked in 1947 about the source of the term, Lippmann traced it to a French term from the 1930s, la guerre froide.[8] Background Main article: Origins of the Cold War Russian Revolution

Allied troops in Vladivostok, August 1918, during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War.

While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 when the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
took power.[9] In 1919 Lenin
Lenin
stated that his new state was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement", and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon that should be used in order to keep the Soviet Union's enemies divided, beginning with the establishment of the Communist International, which called for revolutionary upheavals abroad.[10] Historian Max Beloff argues that the Soviets saw "no prospect of permanent peace", with the 1922 Soviet Constitution proclaiming:

Since the time of the formation of the soviet republics, the states of the world have divided into two camps: the camp of capitalism and the camp of socialism. There - in the camp of capitalism - national enmity and inequality, colonial slavery, and chauvinism, national oppression and pogroms, imperialist brutalities and wars. Here - in the camp of socialism - mutual confidence and peace, national freedom and equality, a dwelling together in peace and the brotherly collaboration of peoples.[11]

According to British historian Christopher Sutton:

In what some have called the First Cold War, from Britain’s intervention in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
in 1918 to its uneasy alliance with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
against the Axis powers in 1941, British distrust of the revolutionary and regicidal Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
resulted in domestic, foreign, and colonial policies aimed at resisting the spread of communism. This conflict after 1945 took on new battlefields, new weapons, new players, and a greater intensity, but it was still fundamentally a conflict against Soviet imperialism (real and imagined).[12]

The idea of long-term continuity is a minority scholarly view that has been challenged. Frank Ninkovich writes:

As for the two cold wars thesis, the chief problem is that the two periods are incommensurable. To be sure, they were joined together by enduring ideological hostility, but in the post- World War I
World War I
years Bolshevism was not a geopolitical menace. After World War II, in contrast, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was a superpower that combined ideological antagonism with the kind of geopolitical threat posed by Germany and Japan
Japan
in the Second World War. Even with more amicable relations in the 1920s, it is conceivable that post-1945 relations would have turned out much the same.[13]

Beginnings of World War II After signing the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop pact
and German–Soviet Frontier Treaty, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
forced the Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to allow it to station Soviet troops in their countries under pacts of "mutual assistance".[14][15][16] Finland rejected territorial demands, prompting a Soviet invasion in November 1939.[17] The resulting Winter War
Winter War
ended in March 1940 with Finnish concessions.[18] Britain and France, treating the Soviet attack on Finland
Finland
as tantamount to its entering the war on the side of the Germans, responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations.[16] In June 1940, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
forcibly annexed Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania,[15] and the disputed Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertza. But after the German Army invaded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in June 1941 and the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Allied powers formed an alliance of convenience. Britain signed a formal alliance and the United States
United States
made an informal agreement. In wartime, the United States supplied Britain, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other Allied nations through its Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
Program.[19] However, Stalin remained highly suspicious and he believed that the British and the Americans
Americans
had conspired to ensure that the Soviets bore the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany. According to this view, the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last minute and shape the peace settlement. Thus, Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers.[20] End of World War II
World War II
(1945–1947) Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe Further information: Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
and Yalta Conference

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, 1945.

The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look, and how borders would be drawn, following the war.[21] Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security.[21] Some scholars contend that all the Western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible, permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations.[22] Others note that the Atlantic powers were divided in their vision of the new post-war world. Roosevelt's goals – military victory in both Europe and Asia, the achievement of global American economic supremacy over the British Empire, and the creation of a world peace organization – were more global than Churchill's, which were mainly centered on securing control over the Mediterranean, ensuring the survival of the British Empire, and the independence of Central and Eastern European countries as a buffer between the Soviets and the United Kingdom.[23] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sought to dominate the internal affairs of countries that bordered it.[21][24] During the war, Stalin had created special training centers for communists from different countries so that they could set up secret police forces loyal to Moscow
Moscow
as soon as the Red Army took control. Soviet agents took control of the media, especially radio; they quickly harassed and then banned all independent civic institutions, from youth groups to schools, churches and rival political parties.[25] Stalin also sought continued peace with Britain and the United States, hoping to focus on internal reconstruction and economic growth.[26] In the American view, Stalin seemed a potential ally in accomplishing their goals, whereas in the British approach Stalin appeared as the greatest threat to the fulfillment of their agenda. With the Soviets already occupying most of Central and Eastern Europe, Stalin was at an advantage and the two western leaders vied for his favors. The differences between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate deals with the Soviets. In October 1944, Churchill traveled to Moscow
Moscow
and proposed the "percentages agreement" to divide the Balkans
Balkans
into respective spheres of influence, including giving Stalin predominance over Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria and Churchill carte blanche over Greece. At the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
of February 1945, Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin in regard of Asia
Asia
and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland
Poland
and the Reparations.[23] Roosevelt ultimately approved the percentage agreement,[27][28] but there was still apparently no firm consensus on the framework for a post-war settlement in Europe.[29]

Post-war Allied occupation zones in Germany.

At the Second Quebec Conference, a high-level military conference held in Quebec City, 12–16 September 1944, Churchill and Roosevelt reached agreement on a number of matters, including a plan for Germany, based on Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s original proposal. The memorandum drafted by Churchill provided for "eliminating the warmaking industries in the Ruhr and the Saar... looking forward to converting Germany into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character." However, it no longer included a plan to partition the country into several independent states.[30] On 10 May 1945, President Truman signed the U.S. occupation directive JCS 1067. The directive, which was in effect for over two years, and was enthusiastically supported by Stalin, directed the U.S. forces of occupation to "...take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany".[31] Some historians have argued that the Cold War
Cold War
began when the US negotiated a separate peace with Nazi SS General Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
in northern Italy. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was not allowed to participate and the dispute led to heated correspondence between Franklin Roosevelt and Stalin. General Wolff, a war criminal, appears to have been guaranteed immunity at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
by Office of Strategic Services (OSS) commander (and later CIA
CIA
director) Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
when they met in March 1945 . Wolff and his forces were being considered to help implement Operation Unthinkable, a secret plan to invade the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
which Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
advocated during this period.[32][33][34] In April 1945, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Harry S. Truman, who distrusted Stalin and turned for advice to an elite group of foreign policy intellectuals. Both Churchill and Truman opposed, among other things, the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government, the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile in London, whose relations with the Soviets had been severed.[35] Following the Allies' May 1945 victory, the Soviets effectively occupied Central and Eastern Europe,[29] while strong US and Western allied forces remained in Western Europe. In Germany and Austria, France, Britain, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States
United States
established zones of occupation and a loose framework for parceled four-power control.[36] The 1945 Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations
United Nations
(UN) for the maintenance of world peace, but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by individual members' ability to use veto power.[37] Accordingly, the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric, and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune.[38] Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and surrender of Japan Main articles: Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and Surrender of Japan

Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
at the Potsdam Conference, 1945.

At the Potsdam Conference, which started in late July after Germany's surrender, serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and the rest of Central and Eastern Europe.[39] Moreover, the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each other's hostile intentions and entrench their positions.[40] At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States
United States
possessed a powerful new weapon.[41] Stalin was aware that the Americans
Americans
were working on the atomic bomb and, given that the Soviets' own rival program was in place, he reacted to the news calmly. The Soviet leader said he was pleased by the news and expressed the hope that the weapon would be used against Japan.[41] One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference, the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Shortly after the attacks, Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan.[42] Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc Main article: Eastern Bloc

Post-war territorial changes in Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc, the so-called 'Iron Curtain'.

During the opening stages of World War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
by invading and then annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics, by agreement with Nazi Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. These included eastern Poland
Poland
(incorporated into two different SSRs),[43] Latvia
Latvia
(which became the Latvian SSR),[44][45] Estonia
Estonia
(which became the Estonian SSR),[44][45] Lithuania
Lithuania
(which became the Lithuanian SSR),[44][45] part of eastern Finland
Finland
(which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania
Romania
(which became the Moldavian SSR).[46][47] The Central and Eastern European territories liberated from the Nazis and occupied by the Soviet armed forces were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into satellite states,[48] such as:

People's Republic of Albania (11 January 1946)[49] People's Republic of Bulgaria
People's Republic of Bulgaria
(15 September 1946) People's Republic of Poland
Poland
(19 January 1947) People's Republic of Romania
Romania
(13 April 1948) Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
(9 May 1948)[50] Hungarian People's Republic
Hungarian People's Republic
(20 August 1949)[51] German Democratic Republic (7 October 1949)[52]

The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and the Soviet secret police in order to suppress both real and potential opposition.[53] In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria
Manchuria
in the last month of the war, and it went on to occupy the large swathe of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel.[54] As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), led by Lavrentiy Beriya, supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance.[55] When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc, Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power, put on trial, imprisoned, and in several instances, executed.[56] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
was concerned that, given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war, and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
was unreliable, there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe.[57] After World War II, US officials guided Western European leaders in establishing their own secret security force to prevent subversion in the Western bloc, which evolved into Operation Gladio.[58] Preparing for a "new war" Further information: X Article § The Long Telegram, Iron Curtain, and Restatement of Policy on Germany

Remains of the "iron curtain" in Czech Republic.

In February 1946, George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets, and became the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for the duration of the Cold War.[59] That September, the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram, sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov; it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war".[60] On 6 September 1946, James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan
Morgenthau Plan
(a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely.[61] As Byrnes admitted a month later, "The nub of our program was to win the German people ... it was a battle between us and Russia over minds ..."[62] A few weeks after the release of this "Long Telegram", former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri.[63] The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets, whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic".[48][64] Only a week later, on 13 March Stalin responded vigorously to the speech, saying that Churchill could be compared to Hitler insofar as he advocated the racial superiority of English-speaking nations so that they could satisfy their hunger for world domination, and that such a declaration was "a call for war on the U.S.S.R." The Soviet leader also dismissed the accusation that the USSR was exerting increasing control over the countries lying in its sphere. He argued that there was nothing surprising in "the fact that the Soviet Union, anxious for its future safety, [was] trying to see to it that governments loyal in their attitude to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries".[65][66] 1 Beginnings of the Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953) Main article: Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953) Containment
Containment
and the Truman Doctrine Main articles: Containment
Containment
and Truman Doctrine

European military alliances

European economic alliances

By 1947, US president Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
was outraged by the Soviet Union's perceived resistance to American demands in Iran, Turkey and Greece, as well as their rejection of the Baruch Plan on nuclear weapons.[67] In February 1947, the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Kingdom of Greece in its civil war against Communist-led insurgents.[68] The US government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment,[69] the goal of which was to stop the spread of Communism. Truman delivered a speech that called for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine, which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian regimes.[69] American policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence even though Stalin had told the Communist Party to cooperate with the British-backed government.[70] (The insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia against Stalin's wishes.)[71][72] Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, but ultimately persisted thereafter.[73][74] Moderate and conservative parties in Europe, as well as social democrats, gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance,[75] while European and American Communists, financed by the KGB
KGB
and involved in its intelligence operations,[76] adhered to Moscow's line, although dissent began to appear after 1956. Other critiques of the consensus policy came from anti- Vietnam
Vietnam
War activists, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
and the anti-nuclear movement.[77] Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and Czechoslovak coup d'état Main articles: Marshall Plan, Western Bloc, and 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

The labeling used on Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
aid to Western Europe;

Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East
Near East
showing countries that received Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid received per nation;

Construction in West Berlin
West Berlin
under Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
aid.

In early 1947, France, Britain and the United States
United States
unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets.[78] In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States
United States
enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union.[78] Under the plan, which President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
signed on 3 April 1948, the US government gave to Western European countries over $13 billion (equivalent to $189.39 billion in 2016) to rebuild the economy of Europe. Later, the program led to the creation of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation. The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power, such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections.[79] The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery.[80] One month later, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, creating a unified Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), and the National Security Council (NSC). These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War.[81] Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries to escape Soviet control, and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe.[82] Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nations from receiving Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
aid.[82] The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall Plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with central and eastern Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan
Molotov Plan
(later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance).[71] Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany; his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union.[83] In early 1948, following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements", Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état in Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures.[84][85] The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point, set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
in the United States
United States
Congress.[86] The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
and the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe, Greece, and Turkey. With the US assistance, the Greek military won its civil war.[81] Under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide De Gasperi
the Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful Communist-Socialist alliance in the elections of 1948.[87] At the same time there was increased intelligence and espionage activity, Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
defections and diplomatic expulsions.[88] Cominform
Cominform
and the Tito–Stalin Split Main articles: Cominform
Cominform
and Tito–Stalin Split In September 1947, the Soviets created Cominform, the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc.[82] Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June, when the Tito–Stalin Split
Tito–Stalin Split
obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia, which remained communist but adopted a non-aligned position.[89] Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
and airlift Main article: Berlin Blockade

C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade.

The United States
United States
and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (1 January 1947, later "Trizonia" with the addition of France's zone, April 1949).[90] As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 1948, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States
United States
announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system.[91] In addition, in accordance with the Marshall Plan, they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy, including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
currency to replace the old Reichsmark
Reichsmark
currency that the Soviets had debased.[92] Shortly thereafter, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
(24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949), one of the first major crises of the Cold War, preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin.[93] The United States, Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift", supplying West Berlin
West Berlin
with food and other provisions.[94] The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections (as they had done in the 1946 elections),[90] which were held on 5 December 1948 and produced a turnout of 86.3% and an overwhelming victory for the non-communist parties.[95] The results effectively divided the city into East and West versions of its former self. 300,000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue,[96] and US Air Force pilot Gail Halvorsen
Gail Halvorsen
created "Operation Vittles", which supplied candy to German children.[97] In May 1949, Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade.[55][98] In 1952, Stalin repeatedly proposed a plan to unify East and West Germany under a single government chosen in elections supervised by the United Nations
United Nations
if the new Germany were to stay out of Western military alliances, but this proposal was turned down by the Western powers. Some sources dispute the sincerity of the proposal.[99] Beginnings of NATO
NATO
and Radio Free Europe Main articles: NATO, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and Eastern Bloc media and propaganda

President Truman signs the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
with guests in the Oval Office.

Britain, France, the United States, Canada and other eight western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
of April 1949, establishing the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO).[55] That August, the first Soviet atomic device was detonated in Semipalatinsk, Kazakh SSR.[71] Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948,[91][100] the US, Britain and France
France
spearheaded the establishment of West Germany
West Germany
from the three Western zones of occupation in April 1949.[101] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October.[39] Media in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was an organ of the state, completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party, with radio and television organizations being state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organizations, mostly by the local communist party.[102] Soviet propaganda used Marxist philosophy to attack capitalism, claiming labor exploitation and war-mongering imperialism were inherent in the system.[103] Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Voice of America
Voice of America
to Central and Eastern Europe,[104] a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the communist system in the Eastern Bloc.[105] Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station, an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press.[105] Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War
Cold War
strategy, especially those who believed that the Cold War
Cold War
would eventually be fought by political rather than military means, such as George F. Kennan.[106] American policymakers, including Kennan and John Foster Dulles, acknowledged that the Cold War
Cold War
was in its essence a war of ideas.[106] The United States, acting through the CIA, funded a long list of projects to counter the communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world.[107] The CIA
CIA
also covertly sponsored a domestic propaganda campaign called Crusade for Freedom.[108] In the early 1950s, the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and, in 1955, secured its full membership of NATO.[39] In May 1953, Beria, by then in a government post, had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO.[109] Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and SEATO Main articles: Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
and Southeast Asia
Asia
Treaty Organization

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in Moscow, December 1949.

In 1949, Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United States-backed Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) Nationalist Government in China, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China.[110] According to Norwegian historian Odd Arne Westad, the communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-Shek made, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China. Moreover, his party was weakened during the war against Japan. Meanwhile, the communists told different groups, such as the peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and they cloaked themselves under the cover of Chinese nationalism.[111] Chiang and his KMT government retreated to the island of Taiwan. Confronted with the communist revolution in China
China
and the end of the American atomic monopoly in 1949, the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand its containment policy.[71] In NSC 68, a secret 1950 document,[112] the National Security Council proposed to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense.[71] United States
United States
officials moved thereafter to expand containment into Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements, often led by communist parties financed by the USSR, fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia
Asia
and elsewhere.[113] In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"), the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand
Thailand
and the Philippines
Philippines
(notably ANZUS
ANZUS
in 1951 and SEATO in 1954), thereby guaranteeing the United States
United States
a number of long-term military bases.[39] Korean War Main article: Korean War

U.S. Marines
U.S. Marines
engaged in street fighting during the liberation of Seoul, September 1950.

One of the more significant impacts of containment was the outbreak of the Korean War. In June 1950, Kim Il-sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea.[114] Stalin approved and sent advisers to plan the North Korean invasion.[115] To Stalin's surprise,[71] the UN Security Council backed the defense of South Korea, though the Soviets were then boycotting meetings in protest that Taiwan
Taiwan
and not Communist China
China
held a permanent seat on the Council.[116] A UN force of personnel from South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Canada, Colombia, Australia, France, South Africa, the Philippines, the Netherlands, Belgium, New Zealand
New Zealand
and other countries joined to stop the invasion.[117]

General Douglas MacArthur, UN Command CiC (seated), observes the naval shelling of Incheon
Incheon
from the USS Mt. McKinley, 15 September 1950.

Among other effects, the Korean War
Korean War
galvanised NATO
NATO
to develop a military structure.[118] Public opinion in countries involved, such as Great Britain, was divided for and against the war. Many feared an escalation into a general war with Communist China, and even nuclear war. The strong opposition to the war often strained Anglo-American relations. For these reasons British officials sought a speedy end to the conflict, hoping to unite Korea under United Nations
United Nations
auspices and withdrawal of all foreign forces.[119] Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952, Stalin insisted that they continue fighting, and the Armistice was approved only in July 1953, after Stalin's death.[39] North Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized, totalitarian dictatorship – which continues to date – according himself unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality.[120][121] In the South, the American-backed strongman Syngman Rhee
Syngman Rhee
ran a significantly less brutal but deeply corrupt and authoritarian regime.[122] After Rhee was overthrown in 1960, South Korea
South Korea
fell within a year under a period of military rule that lasted until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in the late 1980s. Crisis and escalation (1953–1962) Main article: Cold War
Cold War
(1953–1962)

NATO
NATO
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
troop strengths in Europe in 1959.

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and de-Stalinization In 1953, changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.[123] Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
was inaugurated president that January. During the last 18 months of the Truman administration, the American defense budget had quadrupled, and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War
Cold War
effectively.[71] After the death of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria
Lavrentiy Beria
and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkov
Georgy Malenkov
and Vyacheslav Molotov. On 25 February 1956, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes.[124] As part of a campaign of de-Stalinization, he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past.[81] On 18 November 1956, while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
used his famous "Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you" expression, shocking everyone present.[125] He later claimed that he had not been talking about nuclear war, but rather about the historically determined victory of communism over capitalism.[126] In 1961, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
declared that even if the USSR was behind the West, within a decade its housing shortage would disappear, consumer goods would be abundant, and within two decades, the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main".[127] Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy, calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime.[81] Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation", threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression. Possessing nuclear superiority, for example, allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis.[71] US plans for nuclear war in the late 1950s included the "systematic destruction" of 1200 major urban centers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
and China, including Moscow, East Berlin and Beijing, with their civilian populations among the primary targets.[128] Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and Hungarian Revolution Main articles: Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence, after the Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
of 1961.

While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions, the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce.[129] The Soviets, who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949,[130] established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.[39]

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956

March of protesters in Budapest, on 25 October;

A destroyed Soviet T-34-85 tank in Budapest.

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi.[131] In response to a popular uprising,[132] the new regime formally disbanded the secret police, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and pledged to re-establish free elections. The Soviet Army
Soviet Army
invaded.[133] Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union,[134] and approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos.[135] Hungarian leader Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
and others were executed following secret trials.[136] From 1957 through 1961, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States, capable of wiping out any American or European city. However, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
rejected Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war, and declared his new goal was to be "peaceful coexistence".[137] This formulation modified the Stalin-era Soviet stance, where international class conflict meant the two opposing camps were on an inevitable collision course where communism would triumph through global war; now, peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own,[138] as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities,[139] which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle.[140] The events in Hungary produced ideological fractures within the communist parties of the world, particularly in Western Europe, with great decline in membership as many in both western and communist countries felt disillusioned by the brutal Soviet response.[141] The communist parties in the West would never recover from the effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their membership, a fact that was immediately recognized by some, such as the Yugoslavian politician Milovan Đilas who shortly after the revolution was crushed said that "The wound which the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism can never be completely healed".[141] America's pronouncements concentrated on American strength abroad and the success of liberal capitalism.[142] However, by the late 1960s, the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over, with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology.[143] Berlin ultimatum and European integration Main articles: Berlin Crisis of 1961
Berlin Crisis of 1961
§ Berlin ultimatum, and European integration During November 1958, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving the United States, Great Britain, and France
France
a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans. Khrushchev
Khrushchev
earlier explained to Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
that "Berlin is the testicles of the West. Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin."[144] NATO
NATO
formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev
Khrushchev
withdrew it in return for a Geneva
Geneva
conference on the German question.[145] More broadly, one hallmark of the 1950s was the beginning of European integration—a fundamental by-product of the Cold War
Cold War
that Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically, economically, and militarily, but which later administrations viewed ambivalently, fearful that an independent Europe would forge a separate détente with the Soviet Union, which would use this to exacerbate Western disunity.[146] Competition in the Third World Main articles: Decolonization
Decolonization
§  Decolonization
Decolonization
after 1945, Wars of national liberation, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, and Congo Crisis

Western colonial empires in Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
all collapsed in the years after 1945

Nationalist movements in some countries and regions, notably Guatemala, Indonesia and Indochina
Indochina
were often allied with communist groups, or perceived in the West to be allied with communists.[81] In this context, the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World
Third World
as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s;[147] additionally, the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology.[148] Both sides were selling armaments to gain influence.[149]

1961 Soviet postage stamp demanding freedom for African nations.

1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba, prime minister of the Republic of the Congo.

The United States
United States
made use of the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) to do away with a string of unfriendly Third World
Third World
governments and to support allied ones.[81] In 1953, President Eisenhower's CIA implemented Operation Ajax, a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh. The popularly elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
told the United States
United States
that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards communism."[150][151][152][153] The pro-Western shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, assumed control as an autocratic monarch.[154] The shah's policies included the banning of the communist Tudeh Party of Iran and general suppression of political dissent by SAVAK, the shah's domestic security and intelligence agency. In Guatemala, a CIA-backed military coup ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Árbenz
Jacobo Árbenz
in 1954.[155] The post-Arbenz government—a military junta headed by Carlos Castillo Armas—repealed a progressive land reform law, returned nationalized property belonging to the United Fruit Company, set up a National Committee of Defense Against Communism, and decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism
Communism
at the request of the United States.[156] The non-aligned Indonesian government of Sukarno
Sukarno
was faced with a major threat to its legitimacy beginning in 1956, when several regional commanders began to demand autonomy from Jakarta. After mediation failed, Sukarno
Sukarno
took action to remove the dissident commanders. In February 1958, dissident military commanders in Central Sumatera (Colonel Ahmad Hussein) and North Sulawesi (Colonel Ventje Sumual) declared the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia- Permesta Movement aimed at overthrowing the Sukarno
Sukarno
regime. They were joined by many civilian politicians from the Masyumi Party, such as Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, who were opposed to the growing influence of the communist Partai Komunis Indonesia party. Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received arms, funding, and other covert aid from the CIA
CIA
until Allen Lawrence Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon in April 1958. The central government responded by launching airborne and seaborne military invasions of rebel strongholds Padang
Padang
and Manado. By the end of 1958, the rebels were militarily defeated, and the last remaining rebel guerilla bands surrendered by August 1961.[157] In the Republic of the Congo, newly independent from Belgium
Belgium
since June 1960, the CIA-cultivated President Joseph Kasa-Vubu
Joseph Kasa-Vubu
ordered the dismissal of the democratically elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September; Lumumba called for Kasa-Vubu's dismissal instead.[158] In the ensuing Congo Crisis, the CIA-backed Colonel Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko
quickly mobilized his forces to seize power through a military coup d'état.[158]

An animated map shows the order of independence of the African nations, 1950–2011.

In British Guiana, the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan
Cheddi Jagan
won the position of chief minister in a colonially administered election in 1953, but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution.[159] Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party, the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in 1955, engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues.[160] Jagan again won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961; despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time, the United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified, supported, and brought into office.[161] Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Viet Minh
Viet Minh
rebels at the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam. In the Geneva Conference, peace accords were signed, leaving Vietnam
Vietnam
divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam
Vietnam
and a pro-Western administration in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
at the 17th parallel north. Between 1954 and 1961, Eisenhower's United States
United States
sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it.[71] Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Latin America
rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. In 1955, at the Bandung Conference
Bandung Conference
in Indonesia, dozens of Third World
Third World
governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War.[162] The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
in 1961.[81] Meanwhile, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India
India
and other key neutral states. Independence movements in the Third World
Third World
transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia
Asia
and Latin America.[71] Sino-Soviet split Main article: Sino-Soviet split

A map showing the relations of the communist states after the Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
as of 1980:   The USSR and pro-Soviet communist states    China
China
and pro-Chinese communist states   Neutral communist nations ( North Korea
North Korea
and Yugoslavia)   Non-communist states

The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning the Sino-Soviet split. Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev
Khrushchev
attacked him after his death in 1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge.[163] For his part, Khrushchev, disturbed by Mao's glib attitude toward nuclear war, referred to the Chinese leader as a "lunatic on a throne".[164] After this, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance, but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal.[163] The Chinese-Soviet animosity spilled out in an intra-communist propaganda war.[165] Further on, the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China
China
for leadership of the global communist movement.[166] Historian Lorenz M. Lüthi argues:

The Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
was one of the key events of the Cold War, equal in importance to the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Second Vietnam
Vietnam
War, and Sino-American rapprochement. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War
Cold War
in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War
Vietnam War
in particular.[167]

Space Race Main article: Space Race

The United States
United States
reached the moon in 1969.

On the nuclear weapons front, the United States
United States
and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other.[39] In August 1957, the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)[168] and in October, launched the first Earth satellite, Sputnik 1.[169] The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings, which astronaut Frank Borman
Frank Borman
later described as "just a battle in the Cold War."[170] Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
and the Bay of Pigs Invasion Main articles: Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
and Bay of Pigs Invasion

Che Guevara
Che Guevara
(left) and Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
(right) in 1961.

In Cuba, the 26th of July Movement
26th of July Movement
seized power in 1 January 1959, toppling President Fulgencio Batista, whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration.[171] Diplomatic relations between Cuba
Cuba
and the United States
United States
continued for some time after Batista's fall, but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Cuba's young revolutionary leader Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
during the latter's trip to Washington in April, leaving Vice President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
to conduct the meeting in his place.[172] Cuba
Cuba
began negotiating arms purchases from the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
in March 1960.[173] In January 1961, just prior to leaving office, Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. In April 1961, the administration of newly elected American President John F. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Santa Clara Province—a failure that publicly humiliated the United States.[174] Castro responded by publicly embracing Marxism–Leninism, and the Soviet Union pledged to provide further support.[174] Berlin Crisis of 1961 Main articles: Berlin Crisis of 1961, Berlin Wall, and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection

Soviet and American tanks face each other at Checkpoint Charlie, during the Berlin Crisis of 1961.

The Berlin Crisis of 1961
Berlin Crisis of 1961
was the last major incident in the Cold War regarding the status of Berlin and post– World War II
World War II
Germany. By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.[175] However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II
World War II
powers governed movement.[176] The emigration resulted in a massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany
West Germany
of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany
West Germany
by 1961.[177] That June, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
issued a new ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin.[178] The request was rebuffed, and on 13 August, East Germany
East Germany
erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively closing the loophole.[179] Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
and Khrushchev's ouster Main articles: Cuban Project
Cuban Project
and Cuban Missile Crisis

Aerial photograph of a Soviet missile site in Cuba, taken by a US spy aircraft, 1 November 1962.

Continuing to seek ways to oust Castro following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Kennedy and his administration experimented with various ways of covertly facilitating the overthrow of the Cuban government. Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project, devised under the Kennedy administration in 1961. In February 1962, Khrushchev
Khrushchev
learned of the American plans regarding Cuba: a "Cuban project"—approved by the CIA
CIA
and stipulating the overthrow of the Cuban government in October, possibly involving the American military—and yet one more Kennedy-ordered operation to assassinate Castro.[180] Preparations to install Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba
Cuba
were undertaken in response.[180] Alarmed, Kennedy considered various reactions, and ultimately responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba
Cuba
with a naval blockade and presented an ultimatum to the Soviets. Khrushchev
Khrushchev
backed down from a confrontation, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
removed the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba
Cuba
again.[181] Castro later admitted that "I would have agreed to the use of nuclear weapons. ... we took it for granted that it would become a nuclear war anyway, and that we were going to disappear."[182] The Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
(October–November 1962) brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before.[183] The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations,[129] although the Cold War's first arms control agreement, the Antarctic Treaty, had come into force in 1961.[184] In 1964, Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him, but allowed him a peaceful retirement.[185] Accused of rudeness and incompetence, he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war.[185] Khrushchev
Khrushchev
had become an international embarrassment when he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall, a public humiliation for Marxism–Leninism.[185] Confrontation through détente (1962–1979) Main article: Cold War
Cold War
(1962–1979)

NATO
NATO
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
troop strengths in Europe in 1973.

United States
United States
Navy F-4 Phantom II
F-4 Phantom II
intercepts a Soviet Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-95
D aircraft in the early 1970s.

In the course of the 1960s and 1970s, Cold War
Cold War
participants struggled to adjust to a new, more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs.[81] From the beginning of the post-war period, Western Europe and Japan
Japan
rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 1960s, with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States, while Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies stagnated.[81][186] As a result of the 1973 oil crisis, combined with the growing influence of Third World
Third World
alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement, less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower.[113] Meanwhile, Moscow
Moscow
was forced to turn its attention inward to deal with the Soviet Union's deep-seated domestic economic problems.[81] During this period, Soviet leaders such as Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
embraced the notion of détente.[81] French withdrawal from NATO Main article: NATO
NATO
§ French withdrawal The unity of NATO
NATO
was breached early in its history, with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France
France
from 1958 onwards. De Gaulle protested at the United States' strong role in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
on 17 September 1958, he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France
France
on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom, and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France, most notably French Algeria, where France
France
was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO
NATO
assistance.[187] Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory, de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO
NATO
troops from French soil.[188] Invasion of Czechoslovakia Main articles: Prague Spring
Prague Spring
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia

The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was one of the biggest military operations on European soil since World War II

In 1968, a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
called the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations, which described increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of movement, along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods, the possibility of a multiparty government, limiting the power of the secret police[189][190] and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.[191]

Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
and Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in Washington, 1973; this was a high-water mark in détente between the USSR and the US.

In answer to the Prague Spring, on 20 August 1968, the Soviet Army, together with most of their Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
allies, invaded Czechoslovakia.[192] The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration, including an estimated 70,000 Czechs and Slovaks initially fleeing, with the total eventually reaching 300,000.[193] The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia, Romania, China, and from Western European communist parties.[194] Brezhnev Doctrine Main article: Brezhnev Doctrine In September 1968, during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine, in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
with capitalism. During the speech, Brezhnev stated:[191]

When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries.

The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism–Leninism in states like Poland, Hungary and East Germany, which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe.[195]

Third World
Third World
escalations See also: Dominican Civil War, Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966, Vietnam
Vietnam
War, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état, 1976 Argentine coup d'état, Operation Condor, Six-Day War, Task Force 74, War of Attrition, Yom Kippur War, Ogaden War, Angolan Civil War, Indonesian invasion of East Timor, Reeducation camp, Vietnamese boat people, and Stability–instability paradox

Speech on the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
given by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
on 29 September 1967.

Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
(left) next to US President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(right) during the Glassboro Summit Conference, 23 June 1967.

Under the Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Administration, which gained power after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the U.S. took a more hardline stance on Latin America—sometimes called the "Mann Doctrine".[196] In 1964, the Brazilian military overthrew the government of president João Goulart
João Goulart
with U.S. backing.[196] In late April 1965, the U.S. sent some 22,000 troops to the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
for a one-year occupation in an invasion codenamed Operation Power Pack, citing the threat of the emergence of a Cuban-style revolution in Latin America.[71] Héctor García-Godoy
Héctor García-Godoy
acted as provisional president, until conservative former president Joaquín Balaguer
Joaquín Balaguer
won the 1966 presidential election against non-campaigning former President Juan Bosch.[197] Activists for Bosch's Dominican Revolutionary Party
Dominican Revolutionary Party
were violently harassed by the Dominican police and armed forces.[197] In Indonesia, the hardline anti-communist General Suharto
Suharto
wrested control of the state from his predecessor Sukarno
Sukarno
in an attempt to establish a "New Order". From 1965 to 1966, with the aid of the United States and other Western governments,[198][199][200][201] the military led the mass killing of more than 500,000 members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party and other leftist organizations, and detained hundreds of thousands more in prison camps around the country under extremely inhumane conditions.[202][203] A top-secret CIA
CIA
report stated that the massacres "rank as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century, along with the Soviet purges of the 1930s, the Nazi mass murders during the Second World War, and the Maoist bloodbath of the early 1950s."[204] These killings served U.S. strategic interests and constitute a major turning point in the Cold War
Cold War
as the balance of power shifted in Southeast Asia.[201][205] Escalating the scale of American intervention in the ongoing conflict between Ngô Đình Diệm's South Vietnamese government and the communist National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
South Vietnam
(NLF) insurgents opposing it, Johnson deployed some 575,000 troops in Southeast Asia
Asia
to defeat the NLF and their North Vietnamese allies in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, but his costly policy weakened the US economy and, by 1975, it ultimately culminated in what most of the world saw as a humiliating defeat of the world's most powerful superpower at the hands of one of the world's poorest nations.[71]

Chilean leader Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
shaking hands with Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
in 1976.

In Chile, the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
won the presidential election of 1970, becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas.[206] The CIA
CIA
targeted Allende for removal and operated to undermine his support domestically, which contributed to a period of unrest culminating in General Augusto Pinochet's coup d'état on 11 September 1973. Pinochet consolidated power as a military dictator, Allende's reforms of the economy were rolled back, and leftist opponents were killed or detained in internment camps under the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA). The Pinochet regime would go on to be one of the leading participants in Operation Condor, an international campaign of political assassination and state terrorism organized by right-wing military dictatorships in the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
of South America that was covertly supported by the US government.[207][208][209]

Henry Kissinger, who was US National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under Presidents Nixon and Ford, was a central figure in the Cold War
Cold War
while in office (1969–1977).

U.S. combat operations during the Battle of Ia Drang, South Vietnam, November 1965.

The Middle East remained a source of contention. Egypt, which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR, was a troublesome client, with a reluctant Soviet Union
Soviet Union
feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
(with advisers and technicians) and the War of Attrition
War of Attrition
(with pilots and aircraft) against pro-Western Israel.[210] Despite the beginning of an Egyptian shift from a pro-Soviet to a pro-American orientation in 1972 (under Egypt's new leader Anwar Sadat),[211] rumors of imminent Soviet intervention on the Egyptians' behalf during the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
brought about a massive American mobilization that threatened to wreck détente.[212] Although pre-Sadat Egypt had been the largest recipient of Soviet aid in the Middle East, the Soviets were also successful in establishing close relations with communist South Yemen, as well as the nationalist governments of Algeria
Algeria
and Iraq.[211] Iraq
Iraq
signed a 15-year Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1972. According to historian Charles R. H. Tripp, the treaty upset "the U.S.-sponsored security system established as part of the Cold War in the Middle East. It appeared that any enemy of the Baghdad regime was a potential ally of the United States."[213] In response, the U.S. covertly financed Kurdish rebels led by Mustafa Barzani during the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War; the Kurds were defeated in 1975, leading to the forcible relocation of hundreds of thousands of Kurdish civilians.[213] Indirect Soviet assistance to the Palestinian side of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
included support for Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO).[214] In Africa, Somali army officers led by Siad Barre
Siad Barre
carried out a bloodless coup in 1969, creating the socialist Somali Democratic Republic. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
vowed to support Somalia. Four years later, the pro-American Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was overthrown in a 1974 coup by the Derg, a radical group of Ethiopian army officers led by the pro-Soviet Mengistu Haile Mariam, who built up relations with the Cubans and the Soviets.[215] When fighting between the Somalis and Ethiopians broke out in the 1977–1978 Somali-Ethiopian Ogaden War, Barre lost his Soviet support and turned to the Safari Club—a group of pro-American intelligence agencies including Iran, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia—for support and weapons.[216][217] The Ethiopian military was supported by Cuban soldiers along with Soviet military advisors and armaments.[215] The 1974 Portuguese Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
against the authoritarian Estado Novo returned Portugal
Portugal
to a multi-party system and facilitated the independence of the Portuguese colonies Angola
Angola
and East Timor. In Africa, where Angolan rebels had waged a multi-faction independence war against Portuguese rule since 1961, a two-decade civil war replaced the anti-colonial struggle as fighting erupted between the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(MPLA), backed by the Cubans and the Soviets, and the National Liberation Front of Angola
Angola
(FNLA), backed by the United States, the People's Republic of China, and Mobutu's government in Zaire. The United States, the apartheid government of South Africa, and several other African governments also supported a third faction, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
Angola
(UNITA). Without bothering to consult the Soviets in advance, the Cuban government sent a number of combat troops to fight alongside the MPLA.[215] Foreign mercenaries and a South African armoured column were deployed to support UNITA, but the MPLA, bolstered by Cuban personnel and Soviet assistance, eventually gained the upper hand.[215]

During the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
regime led by Pol Pot, 1 to 3 million people died due to the policies of his four-year premiership.

An American PoW speaking with a North Vietnamese Army officer, 1973.

During the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, North Vietnam
Vietnam
invaded and occupied parts of Cambodia
Cambodia
to use as military bases, which contributed to the violence of the Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian Civil War
between the pro-American government of Lon Nol and communist Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
insurgents. Documents uncovered from the Soviet archives reveal that the North Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1970 was launched at the request of the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
after negotiations with Nuon Chea.[218] US and South Vietnamese forces responded to these actions with a bombing campaign and ground incursion, the effects of which are disputed by historians.[219] Under the leadership of Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
would eventually kill 1–3 million Cambodians in the killing fields, out of a 1975 population of roughly 8 million.[220][221][222] Martin Shaw described these atrocities as "the purest genocide of the Cold War
Cold War
era."[223] Backed by the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation, an organization of Khmer pro-Soviet Communists and Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
defectors led by Heng Samrin, Vietnam
Vietnam
invaded Cambodia
Cambodia
on 22 December 1978. The invasion succeeded in deposing Pol Pot, but the new state would struggle to gain international recognition beyond the Soviet Bloc sphere —despite the previous international outcry at Pol Pot's DK regime's gross human rights violations, and it would be bogged down in a guerrilla war led from refugee camps located in the border with Thailand. Following Khmer Rouge's destruction, Cambodia's national reconstruction would be severely hampered and Vietnam
Vietnam
would suffer a punitive Chinese attack.[224][225] Sino-American rapprochement Main article: 1972 Nixon visit to China

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and US President Richard Nixon, during his visit in China.

As a result of the Sino-Soviet split, tensions along the Chinese–Soviet border reached their peak in 1969, and United States President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War.[226] The Chinese had sought improved relations with the Americans
Americans
in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well. In February 1972, Nixon announced a stunning rapprochement with Mao's China[227] by traveling to Beijing and meeting with Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and Zhou Enlai. At this time, the USSR achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States; meanwhile, the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
both weakened America's influence in the Third World
Third World
and cooled relations with Western Europe.[228] Although indirect conflict between Cold War
Cold War
powers continued through the late 1960s and early 1970s, tensions were beginning to ease.[129] Nixon, Brezhnev, and détente Main articles: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Vladivostok
Vladivostok
Summit Meeting on Arms Control, Helsinki Accords, and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
and Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
sign the SALT II treaty, 18 June 1979, in Vienna.

Following his visit to China, Nixon met with Soviet leaders, including Brezhnev in Moscow.[229] These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulted in two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I, the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers, and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles. These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles.[81] Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" and established the groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers. Meanwhile, Brezhnev attempted to revive the Soviet economy, which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures. Between 1972 and 1974, the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties,[71] including agreements for increased trade. As a result of their meetings, détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War
Cold War
and the two countries would live mutually.[230] Meanwhile, these developments coincided with the "Ostpolitik" of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt.[194] Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe, culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975.[231]

Iranian people protesting against the Pahlavi dynasty, during the Iranian Revolution.

Late 1970s deterioration of relations In the 1970s, the KGB, led by Yuri Andropov, continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
and Andrei Sakharov, who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms.[232] Indirect conflict between the superpowers continued through this period of détente in the Third World, particularly during political crises in the Middle East, Chile, Ethiopia, and Angola.[233] Although President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979,[234] his efforts were undermined by the other events that year, including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution, which both ousted pro-US regimes, and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in December.[71] "Second Cold War" (1979–1985) Main article: Cold War
Cold War
(1979–1985) The term second Cold War
Cold War
refers to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War
Cold War
tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic.[235] Diggins says, "Reagan went all out to fight the second cold war, by supporting counterinsurgencies in the third world."[236] Cox says, "The intensity of this 'second' Cold War was as great as its duration was short."[237] Soviet War in Afghanistan Main articles: War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
and Soviet–Afghan War

President Reagan publicizes his support by meeting with Afghan Mujahideen
Mujahideen
leaders in the White House, 1983.

In April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) seized power in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Saur Revolution. Within months, opponents of the communist government launched an uprising in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
that quickly expanded into a civil war waged by guerrilla mujahideen against government forces countrywide.[238] The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Mujahideen
Mujahideen
insurgents received military training and weapons in neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
and China,[239][240] while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA government.[238] Meanwhile, increasing friction between the competing factions of the PDPA – the dominant Khalq
Khalq
and the more moderate Parcham – resulted in the dismissal of Parchami cabinet members and the arrest of Parchami military officers under the pretext of a Parchami coup. By mid-1979, the United States
United States
had started a covert program to assist the mujahideen.[241] In September 1979, Khalqist President Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki
was assassinated in a coup within the PDPA orchestrated by fellow Khalq member Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the presidency. Distrusted by the Soviets, Amin was assassinated by Soviet special forces in December 1979. A Soviet-organized government, led by Parcham's Babrak Karmal but inclusive of both factions, filled the vacuum. Soviet troops were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under Karmal in more substantial numbers, although the Soviet government did not expect to do most of the fighting in Afghanistan. As a result, however, the Soviets were now directly involved in what had been a domestic war in Afghanistan.[242] Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate, imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR, and demanding a significant increase in military spending, and further announced that the United States
United States
would boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
in Moscow. He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War".[243] Reagan and Thatcher Further information: Reagan Doctrine
Reagan Doctrine
and Thatcherism

Thatcher's Ministry meets with Reagan's Cabinet at the White House, 1981.

The world map of military alliances in 1980

In January 1977, four years prior to becoming president, Ronald Reagan bluntly stated, in a conversation with Richard V. Allen, his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. "My idea of American policy toward the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is simple, and some would say simplistic," he said. "It is this: We win and they lose. What do you think of that?"[244] In 1980, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
defeated Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in the 1980 presidential election, vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere.[245] Both Reagan and new British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
denounced the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its ideology. Reagan labeled the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
an "evil empire" and predicted that Communism
Communism
would be left on the "ash heap of history," while Thatcher inculpated the Soviets as "bent on world dominance."[246][247] By early 1985, Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine—which, in addition to containment, formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments.[248] Besides continuing Carter's policy of supporting the Islamic opponents of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Soviet-backed PDPA government in Afghanistan, the CIA
CIA
also sought to weaken the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself by promoting Islamism
Islamism
in the majority-Muslim Central Asian Soviet Union.[249] Additionally, the CIA encouraged anti-communist Pakistan's ISI to train Muslims from around the world to participate in the jihad against the Soviet Union.[249] Polish Solidarity movement and martial law Main articles: Solidarity (Polish trade union)
Solidarity (Polish trade union)
and Martial law in Poland Further information: Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–81 Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
provided a moral focus for anti-communism; a visit to his native Poland
Poland
in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later.[250] In December 1981, Poland's Wojciech Jaruzelski
Wojciech Jaruzelski
reacted to the crisis by imposing a period of martial law. Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland
Poland
in response.[251] Mikhail Suslov, the Kremlin's top ideologist, advised Soviet leaders not to intervene if Poland
Poland
fell under the control of Solidarity, for fear it might lead to heavy economic sanctions, representing a catastrophe for the Soviet economy.[251] Soviet and US military and economic issues Further information: Era of Stagnation, Strategic Defense Initiative, SS-20 Saber, and MGM-31 Pershing

US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006.

Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off, carrying the Strategic Defense Initiative sensor experiment "Delta Star".

Moscow
Moscow
had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors.[252] Soviet spending on the arms race and other Cold War
Cold War
commitments both caused and exacerbated deep-seated structural problems in the Soviet system,[253] which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Brezhnev years. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity, but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges.[254] The Soviet Armed Forces
Soviet Armed Forces
became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed, in the number of troops in their ranks, and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base.[255] However, the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West.[256] For example, the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
demonstrated how the armor, fire control systems and firing range of the Soviet's most common main battle tank, the T-72, were drastically inferior to the American M1 Abrams, yet the USSR fielded almost three times as many T-72's as the US deployed M1's.[257] By the early 1980s, the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, president Carter began massively building up the United States
United States
military. This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration, which increased the military spending from 5.3 percent of GNP in 1981 to 6.5 percent in 1986,[258] the largest peacetime defense buildup in United States
United States
history.[259] Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer
B-1 Lancer
program that was canceled by the Carter administration, produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers,[260] installed US cruise missiles in Europe, and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative, dubbed "Star Wars" by the media, a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight.[261] With the background of a buildup in tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States, and the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe, NATO
NATO
decided, under the impetus of the Carter presidency, to deploy MGM-31 Pershing
MGM-31 Pershing
and cruise missiles in Europe, primarily West Germany.[262] This deployment would have placed missiles just 10 minutes' striking distance from Moscow.[263]

After ten-year-old American Samantha Smith
Samantha Smith
wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war, Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union.

After Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did not respond by further building its military[264] because the enormous military expenses, along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture, were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.[265] At the same time, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
increased oil production,[266] even as other non- OPEC
OPEC
nations were increasing production.[267] These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut, which affected the Soviet Union, as oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.[252][265] Issues with command economics,[268] oil price decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation.[265]

The map of the route of the Korean Air Lines Flight 007, which was shot down by the Soviet Air Forces.

On 1 September 1983, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
shot down the Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747
Boeing 747
with 269 people aboard, including sitting Congressman Larry McDonald, when it violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Island near Moneron Island—an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre". This act increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev.[269] The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO
NATO
nuclear release, was perhaps the most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership feared that a nuclear attack might be imminent.[270] American domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War.[271] The Reagan administration emphasized the use of quick, low-cost counter-insurgency tactics to intervene in foreign conflicts.[271] In 1983, the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War, invaded Grenada, bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras, anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Soviet-aligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua.[113] While Reagan's interventions against Grenada
Grenada
and Libya were popular in the United States, his backing of the Contra rebels was mired in controversy.[272] The Reagan administration's backing of the military government of Guatemala
Guatemala
during the Guatemalan Civil War, in particular the regime of Efraín Ríos Montt, was also controversial.[273] Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US, China, Britain, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Pakistan,[240] waged a fierce resistance against the invasion.[274] The Kremlin sent nearly 100,000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan, leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam".[274] However, Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam
Vietnam
had been for the Americans
Americans
because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system. A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system. ... It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has ... caught up with the Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself. We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay".[275][276] Final years (1985–1991) Main article: Cold War
Cold War
(1985–1991) Gorbachev's reforms Further information: Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika, and Glasnost

Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987.

By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
became General Secretary in 1985,[246] the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s.[277] These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state.[277] An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring.[278] Perestroika
Perestroika
relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War
Cold War
military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector.[278] Despite initial skepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West.[129][279] Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions.[280] Glasnost
Glasnost
was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee.[281] Glasnost
Glasnost
also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations.[282] Thaw in relations Further information: Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Summit, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, START I, and Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

The beginning of the 1990s brought a thaw in relations between the superpowers.

"Tear down this wall!" speech: Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate, 12 June 1987.

In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions, Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race.[283] The first summit was held in November 1985 in Geneva, Switzerland.[283] At one stage the two men, accompanied only by an interpreter, agreed in principle to reduce each country's nuclear arsenal by 50 percent.[284] A second summit, was held in October 1986, Reykjavík, Iceland. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated. Reagan refused.[285] The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
(INF). The INF treaty eliminated all nuclear-armed, ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers (300 to 3,400 miles) and their infrastructure.[286] East–West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late 1980s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow
Moscow
in 1989, when Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
signed the START I
START I
arms control treaty.[287] During the following year it became apparent to the Soviets that oil and gas subsidies, along with the cost of maintaining massive troops levels, represented a substantial economic drain.[288] In addition, the security advantage of a buffer zone was recognised as irrelevant and the Soviets officially declared that they would no longer intervene in the affairs of allied states in Central and Eastern Europe.[289] In 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan[290] and by 1990 Gorbachev consented to German reunification,[288] the only alternative being a Tiananmen Square scenario.[291] When the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
came down, Gorbachev's "Common European Home" concept began to take shape.[292] On 3 December 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, declared the Cold War
Cold War
over at the Malta Summit;[293] a year later, the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War
Gulf War
against Iraq
Iraq
(August 1990–February 1991).[294] Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
breaks away Main article: Revolutions of 1989

The Romanian Revolution
Romanian Revolution
in 1989 was the only violent revolution in Europe that brought the end of the Communist rule.

By 1989, the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
states were losing power.[290] Grassroots organizations, such as Poland's Solidarity movement, rapidly gained ground with strong popular bases. In 1989, the communist governments in Poland
Poland
and Hungary became the first to negotiate the organizing of competitive elections. In Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and East Germany, mass protests unseated entrenched communist leaders. The communist regimes in Bulgaria and Romania
Romania
also crumbled, in the latter case as the result of a violent uprising. Attitudes had changed enough that US Secretary of State James Baker
James Baker
suggested that the American government would not be opposed to Soviet intervention in Romania, on behalf of the opposition, to prevent bloodshed.[295] The tidal wave of change culminated with the fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in November 1989, which symbolized the collapse of European communist governments and graphically ended the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
divide of Europe. The 1989 revolutionary wave swept across Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and peacefully overthrew all of the Soviet-style communist states: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Bulgaria;[296] Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state.[297] Soviet republics break away Further information: Economy of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Baltic Way

The human chain in Lithuania
Lithuania
during the Baltic Way, 23 August 1989.

In the USSR itself, glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together[289] and by February 1990, with the dissolution of the USSR looming, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power.[298] At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by glasnost and the festering "nationalities question" increasingly led the Union's component republics to declare their autonomy from Moscow, with the Baltic states
Baltic states
withdrawing from the Union entirely.[299] Soviet dissolution Main articles: History of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1982–91), The Barricades, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, and Commonwealth of Independent States

Leaders of the Soviet Republics sign the Belovezha Accords
Belovezha Accords
which eliminated the USSR and established the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1991.

Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
did not initially extend to Soviet territory; even Bush, who strove to maintain friendly relations, condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued.[300] The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and a growing number of Soviet republics, particularly Russia, who threatened to secede from the USSR. The Commonwealth of Independent States, created on 21 December 1991, is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
but, according to Russia's leaders, its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation.[301] The USSR was declared officially dissolved on 26 December 1991.[302] US President at that time, George H. W. Bush, expressed his emotions: "The biggest thing that has happened in the world in my life, in our lives, is this: By the grace of God, America won the Cold War." [303] Aftermath Main articles: Effects of the Cold War, Frozen conflict, Post-Soviet states, Post-Soviet conflicts, Yugoslav Wars, and Cold War
Cold War
II

Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia drastically cut military spending, and restructuring the economy left millions unemployed.[304] The capitalist reforms culminated in a recession in the early 1990s more severe than the Great Depression
Great Depression
as experienced by the United States
United States
and Germany.[305] The Cold War
Cold War
continues to influence world affairs. The post-Cold War world is considered to be unipolar, with the United States
United States
the sole remaining superpower.[306][307][308] The Cold War
Cold War
defined the political role of the United States
United States
after World War II—by 1989 the United States
United States
had military alliances with 50 countries, with 526,000 troops stationed abroad,[309] with 326,000 in Europe (two-thirds of which in west Germany)[310] and 130,000 in Asia
Asia
(mainly Japan
Japan
and South Korea).[309] The Cold War
Cold War
also marked the zenith of peacetime military–industrial complexes, especially in the United States, and large-scale military funding of science.[311] These complexes, though their origins may be found as early as the 19th century, snowballed considerably during the Cold War.[312]

Since the end of the Cold War, the EU has expanded eastwards into the former Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and parts of the former Soviet Union

Cumulative U.S. military expenditures throughout the entire Cold War amounted to an estimated $8 trillion. Further nearly 100,000 Americans
Americans
lost their lives in the Korean and Vietnam
Vietnam
Wars.[313] Although Soviet casualties are difficult to estimate, as a share of their gross national product the financial cost for the Soviet Union was much higher than that incurred by the United States.[314] In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers, millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe, most notably in Southeast Asia.[315] Most of the proxy wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended along with the Cold War; interstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, as well as refugee and displaced persons crises have declined sharply in the post- Cold War
Cold War
years.[316] Left over from the Cold War
Cold War
are numbers stations, which are shortwave radio stations thought to be used to broadcast covert messages, some of which can still be heard today.[citation needed] However, the aftermath of the Cold War
Cold War
is not always easily erased, as many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War
Cold War
competition in parts of the Third World
Third World
remain acute. The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by communist governments produced new civil and ethnic conflicts, particularly in the former Yugoslavia. In Central and Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War
Cold War
has ushered in an era of economic growth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies, while in other parts of the world, such as Afghanistan, independence was accompanied by state failure.[235] In popular culture See also: Culture during the Cold War During the Cold War
Cold War
itself, with the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union invested heavily in propaganda designed to influence the hearts and minds of people around the world, especially using motion pictures.[317][page needed] The Cold War
Cold War
endures as a popular topic reflected extensively in entertainment media, and continuing to the present with numerous post-1991 Cold War-themed feature films, novels, television, and other media.[citation needed] In 2013, a KGB-sleeper-agents-living-next-door action drama series, The Americans, set in the early 1980s, was ranked #6 on the Metacritic
Metacritic
annual Best New TV Shows list; its final season will begin airing in March 2018.[318][319] At the same time, movies like Crimson Tide (1995) are shown in their entirety to educate college students about the Cold War.[320] Historiography Main article: Historiography of the Cold War

Periods in United States
United States
history

 

Colonial era 1607–1775

American Revolution 1765–1783

Confederation
Confederation
Period 1783–1788

Federalist Era 1788–1801

Jeffersonian Era 1801–1817

Era of Good Feelings 1817–1825

Jacksonian Era 1825–1849

Civil War Era 1849–1865

Reconstruction Era 1865–1877

Gilded Age 1877–1897

Progressive Era 1897–1920

Roaring Twenties 1920–1929

Great Depression 1929–1939

World War II 1941–1945

Postwar Era 1945–1981

Reagan Era 1981–2009

Timeline

v t e

As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists.[321] In particular, historians have sharply disagreed as to who was responsible for the breakdown of Soviet–US relations after the Second World War; and whether the conflict between the two superpowers was inevitable, or could have been avoided.[322] Historians have also disagreed on what exactly the Cold War
Cold War
was, what the sources of the conflict were, and how to disentangle patterns of action and reaction between the two sides.[235] Although explanations of the origins of the conflict in academic discussions are complex and diverse, several general schools of thought on the subject can be identified. Historians commonly speak of three differing approaches to the study of the Cold War: "orthodox" accounts, "revisionism", and "post-revisionism".[311] "Orthodox" accounts place responsibility for the Cold War
Cold War
on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its expansion further into Europe.[311] "Revisionist" writers place more responsibility for the breakdown of post-war peace on the United States, citing a range of US efforts to isolate and confront the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
well before the end of World War II.[311] "Post-revisionists" see the events of the Cold War
Cold War
as more nuanced, and attempt to be more balanced in determining what occurred during the Cold War.[311] Much of the historiography on the Cold War
Cold War
weaves together two or even all three of these broad categories.[39] See also Main article: Outline of the Cold War

Canada in the Cold War Cold War
Cold War
(TV series) Culture during the Cold War McCarthyism Mutually assured destruction Non-Aligned Movement Soviet Empire Soviet espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Timeline of events in the Cold War World War III Cold War
Cold War
II Category: Cold War
Cold War
by period

1940s portal 1950s portal 1960s portal 1970s portal 1980s portal 1990s portal Cold War
Cold War
portal Conservatism portal Communism
Communism
portal Socialism portal Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal United States
United States
portal

Footnotes

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and Great Britain, was greatly to be desired." ^ David Carlton, Churchill and the Soviet Union
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also had the covert support of the US government. Washington provided Condor with military intelligence and training, financial assistance, advanced computers, sophisticated tracking technology, and access to the continental telecommunications system housed in the Panama Canal Zone.  ^ Walter L. Hixson (2009). The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy. Yale University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0300151314 ^ Greg Grandin (2011). The Last Colonial Massacre: Latin America
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in the Cold War. University of Chicago Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780226306902 ^ Stone, p. 230 ^ a b Grenville, J.A.S. & Bernard Wasserstein (1987). Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts, Volume 2. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-38080-4. ^ Kumaraswamy, p. 127 ^ a b Tripp, Charles R. H. (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. pp. xii, 211–214. ISBN 978-0-521-87823-4.  ^ Friedman, p. 330 ^ a b c d Erlich, Reese (2008). Dateline Havana: The Real Story of U.S. Policy and the Future of Cuba. Sausalito, California: PoliPoint Press. pp. 84–86. ISBN 978-0-9815769-7-8.  ^ Bronson, Thicker than Oil (2006), p. 134. "Encouraged by Saudi Arabia, Safari Club
Safari Club
members approached Somali president Siad Barre
Siad Barre
and offered to provide the arms he needed if he stopped taking Russian aid. Barre agreed. Egypt then sold Somalia
Somalia
$75 million worth of its unwanted Soviet arms, with Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
footing the bill." ^ Miglietta, American Alliance Policy (2002), p. 78. "American military goods were provided by Egypt and Iran, which transferred excess arms from their inventories. It was said that American M-48 tanks sold to Iran were shipped to Somalia
Somalia
via Oman." ^ Dmitry Mosyakov, "The Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
and the Vietnamese Communists: A History of Their Relations as Told in the Soviet Archives," in Susan E. Cook, ed., Genocide in Cambodia
Cambodia
and Rwanda (Yale Genocide Studies Program Monograph Series No. 1, 2004), p. 54ff. Can be accessed at: www.yale.edu/gsp/publications/Mosyakov.doc "In April–May 1970, many North Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia
Cambodia
in response to the call for help addressed to Vietnam
Vietnam
not by Pol Pot, but by his deputy Nuon Chea. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: " Nuon Chea
Nuon Chea
has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia
Cambodia
in ten days."" ^ Chandler, David 2000, Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot, Revised Edition, Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, pp. 96–7. ^ Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Heuveline suggests that a range of 1.17–3.42 million people were killed. ^ Marek Sliwinski, Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique (L'Harmattan, 1995). ^ Banister, Judith, and Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia." In Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations
United Nations
and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. ^ Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution by Martin Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 141, ISBN 978-0-521-59730-2 ^ Slocomb M. "The K5 Gamble: National Defence and Nation Building under the People's Republic of Kampuchea." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001;32(02):195–210 ^ hu-Huong, Nguyen (1992). Khmer Viet Relations and the Third Indochina
Indochina
Conflict. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-89950-717-0, pp. 139–140 ^ Dallek, Robert (2007), p. 144. ^ Gaddis 2005, pp. 149–152 ^ Buchanan, pp. 168–169 ^ "President Nixon arrives in Moscow". BBC
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News. 22 May 1972. Retrieved 10 June 2008.  ^ Robert S. Litwak, Détente
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and the Nixon doctrine: American foreign policy and the pursuit of stability, 1969–1976 (Cambridge UP, 1986). ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 188 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 186 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 178 ^ "Leaders agree arms reduction treaty". BBC
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News. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008.  ^ a b c Halliday 2001, p. 2e ^ John P. Diggins (2007). Ronald Reagan: Fate, Freedom, And the Making of History. W. W. Norton. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-393-06022-5.  ^ Michael Cox (1990). Beyond the Cold War: Superpowers at the Crossroads. University Press of America. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8191-7865-7.  ^ a b Hussain 2005, pp. 108–109 ^ Starr 2004, pp. 157–158 ^ a b Warren 1992 ^ Meher 2004, pp. 68–69, 94 ^ Kalinovsky 2011, pp. 25–28 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 211 ^ Allen, Richard V. "The Man Who Won the Cold War". Hoover.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 189 ^ a b Gaddis 2005, p. 197 ^ https://www.rt.com/op-edge/thatcher-ussr-cold-war-gorbachev-528/ ^ Graebner, Norman A., Richard Dean Burns & Joseph M. Siracusa (2008). Reagan, Bush, Gorbachev: Revisiting the End of the Cold War. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-313-35241-6. ^ a b Singh, Bilveer (1995). "Jemaah Islamiyah". In Wilson John & Swati Parashar (Eds.) Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Implications for South Asia. Singapore and Delhi: ORF-Pearson-Longman. p. 130. ISBN 978-81-297-0998-1. ^ Henze, p. 171 ^ a b Gaddis 2005, pp. 219–222 ^ a b LaFeber 2002, p. 332 ^ Towle, Philip. The Oxford History of Modern War. p. 159.  ^ LaFeber 2002, p. 335 ^ Odom 2000, p. 1 ^ LaFeber 2002, p. 340 ^ "Desert Storm Filled Soviet Military With Awe". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ Carliner, Geoffrey; Alesina, Alberto, eds. (1991). Politics and Economics in the Eighties. University of Chicago Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-226-01281-6.  ^ Feeney, Mark (29 March 2006). "Caspar W. Weinberger, 88; Architect of Massive Pentagon Buildup". The Boston Globe. Boston.com. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ "LGM-118A Peacekeeper". Federation of American Scientists. 15 August 2000. Retrieved 10 April 2007.  ^ Lakoff, p. 263 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 202 ^ Garthoff, p. 88 ^ Lebow, Richard Ned and Janice Gross Stein (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ a b c Gaidar 2007 pp. 190–205 ^ Gaidar, Yegor. "Public Expectations and Trust towards the Government: Post-Revolution Stabilization and its Discontents". The Institute for the Economy in Transition. Retrieved 15 March 2008.  ^ "Official Energy Statistics of the US Government", EIA — International Energy Data and Analysis. Retrieved on 4 July 2008. ^ Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 1 ^ Talbott, Strobe; Hannifin, Jerry; Magnuson, Ed; Doerner, William R.; Kane, Joseph J. (12 September 1983). "Atrocity in the skies". Time. Retrieved 8 June 2008.  ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 228 ^ a b LaFeber 2002, p. 323 ^ Reagan, Ronald (1991). Foner, Eric; Garraty, John Arthur, eds. The Reader's companion to American history. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0-395-51372-3. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ What Guilt Does the U.S. Bear in Guatemala? The New York Times, 19 May 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2017. ^ a b LaFeber 2002, p. 314 ^ Dobrynin 2001, pp. 438–439 ^ Maynes 1980, pp. 1–2 ^ a b LaFeber 2002, pp. 331–333 ^ a b Gaddis 2005, pp. 231–233 ^ LaFeber 2002, pp. 300–340 ^ Gibbs 1999, p. 7 ^ Gibbs 1999, p. 33 ^ Gibbs 1999, p. 61 ^ a b Gaddis 2005, pp. 229–230 ^ 1985: "Superpowers aim for 'safer world'", BBC
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to the Council of Europe". Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe. 6 July 1989. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2007.  ^ Malta summit ends Cold War, BBC
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of America". BBC
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News. Retrieved 11 March 2007 ^ Nye, p. 157 ^ Blum 2006, p. 87 ^ a b "U.S. Military Deployment 1969 to the present". PBS. 26 October 2004. Retrieved 30 November 2010.  ^ Duke, Simón (1989). United States
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Military Forces and Installations in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-19-829132-9.  ^ a b c d e Calhoun, Craig (2002). " Cold War
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(entire chapter)". Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512371-9. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ Pavelec, Sterling Michael (2009). The Military-Industrial Complex and American Society. ABC-CLIO. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 1-59884-187-4.  ^ LaFeber 2002, p. 1 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 213 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 266 ^ Monty G. Marshall and Ted Gurr, "Peace and Conflict" (PDF). Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Center for Systemic Peace (2006). Retrieved 14 June 2008. "Peace and Conflict" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ Anthony Shaw and Denise Youngblood, Cinematic Cold War: The American and Soviet struggle for hearts and minds (University Press of Kansas, 2010), ch 1. ^ Jason Dietz (11 December 2013). "The Best New TV Shows of 2013". Metacritic
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(CBS Interactive Inc.). Retrieved 14 April 2014.  ^ Roots, Kimberly (January 5, 2018). "FX Sets Premieres for The Americans' Final Season, Atlanta, Getty Saga Trust". TVLine. Retrieved January 5, 2018.  ^ Gokcek, Gigi & Howard, Alison; Howard (2013). "Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War
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Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students". Journal of Political Science Education. 9 (4): 436. doi:10.1080/15512169.2013.835561. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Nashel, Jonathan (1999). " Cold War
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References and further reading Main article: List of primary and secondary sources on the Cold War

Applebaum, Anne (2012). Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944–1956. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-51569-3.  Bilinsky, Yaroslav (1990). Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine. Greenwood. ISBN 0275963632.  Bronson, Rachel. Thicker than Oil: Oil:America's Uneasy Partnership with Saudi Arabia. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-516743-6 The Cambridge History of the Cold War
Cold War
(3 vol. 2010) online Christenson, Ron (1991). Political trials in history: from antiquity to the present. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-406-4.  Davis, Simon, and Joseph Smith. The A to Z of the Cold War
Cold War
(Scarecrow, 2005), encyclopedia focused on military aspects Dominguez, Jorge I. (1989). To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Cuba's Foreign Policy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-89325-2.  Fedorov, Alexander (2011). Russian Image on the Western Screen: Trends, Stereotypes, Myths, Illusions. Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-3-8433-9330-0.  Franco, Jean (2002). The Decline and Fall of the Lettered City: Latin America in the Cold War. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-6740-3717-0.  Frankel, Benjamin. The Cold War
Cold War
1945–1991. Vol. 2, Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World
Third World
(1992), 379pp of biographies. Friedman, Norman (2007). The Fifty-Year War: Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-287-3.  Gaddis, John Lewis (1990). Russia, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States. An Interpretative History. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-557258-3.  Gaddis, John Lewis (1997). We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War
Cold War
History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-878070-2.  Gaddis, John Lewis (2005). The Cold War: A New History. Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-062-9.  Garthoff, Raymond (1994). Détente
Détente
and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3041-1.  Gilbert, Martin (2007). Routledge
Routledge
Atlas of Russian History. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39483-3.  Halliday, Fred. The Making of the Second Cold War
Cold War
(1983, Verso, London). Halliday, Fred (2001). "Cold War". The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World. Oxford University Press Inc.  Haslam, Jonathan. Russia's Cold War: From the October Revolution
October Revolution
to the Fall of the Wall (Yale University Press; 2011) 512 pages Heller, Henry (2006). The Cold War
Cold War
and the New Imperialism: A Global History, 1945–2005. New York: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 1-58367-139-0 Hoffman, David E. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War
Cold War
Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy (2010) House, Jonathan. A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (2012) Immerman, Richard H. and Petra Goedde, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War
Cold War
(2013) excerpt Judge, Edward H. The Cold War: A Global History With Documents (2012) Kalinovsky, Artemy M. (2011). A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05866-8.  Kinsella, Warren (1992). Unholy Alliances. Lester Publishing. ISBN 1895555248.  LaFeber, Walter (1993). America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1992. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-035853-2.  LaFeber, Walter (2002). America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–2002. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-284903-7.  Leffler, Melvyn (1992). A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2218-8.  Leffler, Melvyn P. and Odd Arne Westad, eds. The Cambridge History of the Cold War
Cold War
(3 vol, 2010) 2000pp; new essays by leading scholars Lewkowicz, Nicolas (2010). The German Question and the International Order, 1943–48. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-24812-0.  Lundestad, Geir (2005). East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Politics since 1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-4129-0748-9.  Lüthi, Lorenz M (2008). The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War
Cold War
in the Communist World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13590-8.  Malkasian, Carter (2001). The Korean War: Essential Histories. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-282-2.  Mastny, Vojtech. The Cold War
Cold War
and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (1996) online edition McMahon, Robert (2003). The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280178-3.  Meher, Jagmohan (2004). America's Afghanistan
Afghanistan
War: The Success that Failed. Gyan Books. ISBN 81-7835-262-1.  Miglietta, John P. American Alliance Policy in the Middle East, 1945–1992: Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7391-0304-3 Miller, Roger Gene (2000). To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-967-1.  Njølstad, Olav (2004). The Last Decade of the Cold War. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-8371-X.  Nolan, Peter (1995). China's Rise, Russia's Fall. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12714-6.  Pearson, Raymond (1998). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-17407-1.  Porter, Bruce; Karsh, Efraim (1984). The USSR in Third World Conflicts: Soviet Arms and Diplomacy in Local Wars. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31064-4.  Puddington, Arch (2003). Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War
Cold War
Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-9045-2.  Roberts, Geoffrey (2006). Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11204-1.  Rupprecht, Tobias, Soviet internationalism after Stalin: Interaction and exchange between the USSR and Latin America
Latin America
during the Cold War. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Service, Robert (2015). The End of the Cold War: 1985–1991. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-61039-499-4.  Sewell, Bevan, The US and Latin America: Eisenhower, Kennedy and economic diplomacy in the Cold War. London: New York : I.B. Tauris, 2015. Starr, S. Frederick (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland. M E Sharpe Inc. ISBN 0765613182.  Steele, Jonathan, "Who started it?" (review of Odd Arne Westad, The Cold War: a World History, Allen Lane, 2017, 710 pp., ISBN 978 0 241 01131 7), London Review of Books, vol. 40, no. 2 (25 January 2018), pp. 23–25. Stone, Norman (2010). The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War. Basic Books Press. ISBN 0-465-02043-7.  Taubman, William (2004). Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32484-2. ; Pulitzer Prize Tucker, Robert C. (1992). Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30869-3.  Tucker, Spencer, ed. Encyclopedia of the Cold War: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 vol. 2008), world coverage Walker, Martin. The Cold War: A History (1995), British perspective Weathersby, Kathryn (1993), Soviet Aims in Korea and the Origins of the Korean War, 1945–50: New Evidence From the Russian Archives, Cold War
Cold War
International History Project: Working Paper No. 8  Westad, Odd Arne (2017). The Cold War: A World History. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465054930.  Westad, Odd Arne (2012). Restless Empire: China
China
and the World Since 1750. Basic Books. ISBN 0-4650-2936-1.  Westad, Odd Arne (2012). Restless Empire: China
China
and the World Since 1750. Basic Books. ISBN 0-4650-2936-1.  Wettig, Gerhard (2008). Stalin and the Cold War
Cold War
in Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5542-9.  Wilson, James Graham (2014). The Triumph of Improvisation: Gorbachev's Adaptability, Reagan's Engagement, and the End of the Cold War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801452295.  Zubok, Vladislav; Pleshakov, Constantine (1996). Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-45531-2.  Zubok, Vladislav M. (2008) A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Cold War
Cold War
from Stalin to Gorbachev

Historiography and memory

Hopkins, Michael F. "Continuing Debate and New Approaches in Cold War History," Historical Journal, December 2007, Vol. 50 Issue 4, pp 913–934, Isaac, Joel, and Duncan Bell, eds. Uncertain Empire: American History and the Idea of the Cold War
Cold War
(2012) Johnston, Gordon. "Revisiting the cultural Cold War," Social History, Aug 2010, Vol. 35 Issue 3, pp 290–307 Kirkendall, Andrew J. " Cold War
Cold War
Latin America: The State of the Field", H-Diplo Essay No. 119: An H-Diplo State of the Field Essay (November 2014) Nuti, Leopoldo, et al., eds. Europe and the End of the Cold War: A Reappraisal (2012) Roberts, Priscilla. "New Perspectives on Cold War
Cold War
History from China," Diplomatic History 41:2 (April 2017) online Wiener, Jon. How We Forgot the Cold War: A Historical Journey across America (2012)

Primary sources

Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. ISBN 0-585-41828-4.  Cardona, Luis (2007). Cold War
Cold War
KFA. Routledge.  Dobrynin, Anatoly (2001). In Confidence: Moscow's Ambassador to Six Cold War
Cold War
Presidents. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98081-8.  Hanhimäki, Jussi and Odd Arne Westad, eds. The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-19-927280-8. Sakwa, Richard (1999). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917–1991. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12290-2.  "Presidency in the Nuclear Age", conference and forum at the JFK Library, Boston, 12 October 2009. Four panels: "The Race to Build the Bomb and the Decision to Use It", " Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
and the First Nuclear Test Ban Treaty", "The Cold War
Cold War
and the Nuclear Arms Race", and "Nuclear Weapons, Terrorism, and the Presidency". (transcript of "The Cold War
Cold War
and the Nuclear Arms Race")

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Video and audio news reports from during the cold war

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v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina
Indochina
War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis Geneva
Geneva
Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen- South Yemen
South Yemen
Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen
South Yemen
Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

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See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA
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and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

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See also

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Authority control

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