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or Cnidus[1][2] (/ˈnaɪdəs/; Greek: Κνίδος, Greek pronunciation: [knídos]) was an ancient Greek city of Caria
and part of the Dorian Hexapolis, in south-western Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey. It was situated on the Datça peninsula, which forms the southern side of the Sinus Ceramicus, now known as Gulf of Gökova. By the 4th century BC, Knidos
was located at the site of modern Tekir, opposite Triopion Island. But earlier, it was probably at the site of modern Datça (at the half-way point of the peninsula).[3] It was built partly on the mainland and partly on the Island of Triopion or Cape Krio. The debate about it being an island or cape is caused by the fact that in ancient times it was connected to the mainland by a causeway and bridge. Today the connection is formed by a narrow sandy isthmus. By means of the causeway the channel between island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which the larger, or southern, was further enclosed by two strongly built moles that are still in good part entire.[2] The extreme length of the city was little less than a mile, and the whole intramural area is still thickly strewn with architectural remains. The walls, both of the island and on the mainland, can be traced throughout their whole circuit; and in many places, especially round the acropolis, at the northeast corner of the city, they are remarkably perfect.[2]


1 History 2 Excavation history 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links 6 Literature


Gold vase found off the sea near Knidos
dating to 25BC- 50AD now in the British Museum[4]

was a Hellenic city of high antiquity. According to Herodotus' Histories) (I.174), the Cnidians were Lacedaemonian
colonists; however, the presence of demiurges there argues for foundation or later influence by other Doric Greeks, possibly Argives. Diodorus Siculus ( Bibliotheca Historica
Bibliotheca Historica
5.53) claimed that Cnidus was founded by both Lacedaemonians and Argives.[5] Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros
and Ialyssos
it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon
and the nymphs.[2] The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
they were subject to Athens.[2] During the hellenistic age, Knidos
boasted a medical school; however, the theory that this school already existed at the beginning of the classical age is an unwarranted extrapolation.[6] In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great
by leaving them the freedom of their city.[2] During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.[2] Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.[2] Artemidorus, a minor character in the Shakespeare
play “Julius Caesar”, was also from Knidos. Bishop Ioannes of Cnidus took part in the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451 and was one of the signatories of the letter that in 458 the bishops of the Roman province
Roman province
of Caria, to which Cnidus belonged, wrote to Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Leo I the Thracian
Leo I the Thracian
after the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. Bishop Evander was at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 and Bishop Stauratius at the Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea
in 787.[7][8] No longer a residential bishopric, Cnidus is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a titular see.[9]


Excavation history[edit] The first Western knowledge of the site was due to the mission of the Dilettante Society
Dilettante Society
in 1812, and the excavations executed by C. T. Newton in 1857–1858.[2]


The agora, the theatre, an odeum, a temple of Dionysus, a temple of the Muses, a temple of Aphrodite
and a great number of minor buildings have been identified, and the general plan of the city has been very clearly made out. The most famous statue by Praxiteles, the Aphrodite of Knidos, was made for Cnidus. It has perished, but late copies exist, of which the most faithful is in the Vatican Museums.[2]

Lion of Knidos
Lion of Knidos
on display in the British Museum, London

In a temple enclosure Newton discovered the fine seated statue of Demeter of Knidos, which he sent back to the British Museum, and about three miles south-east of the city he came upon the ruins of a splendid tomb, and a colossal figure of a lion carved out of one block of Pentelic marble, ten feet in length and six in height, which has been supposed to commemorate the great naval victory, the Battle of Cnidus in which Conon
defeated the Lacedaemonians in 394 BC.[2] The Knidos
Lion is now displayed under the roof of the Great Court in the British Museum.

of a Knidian coin showing the Aphrodite, by Praxiteles


^ EB 1878, p. 44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k EB 1911, pp. 573–374. ^ Simon Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides 3:849, 2009. ISBN 0-19-927648-X cited text ^ British Museum
British Museum
Collection ^ Duncker, Maximillian Wolfgang, History of Greece: From the Earliest Times to the End of the Persian War, S.F. Alleyne, trans., London: Richard Bentley & Son, 1883. ^ Vincenzo Di Benedetto: Cos e Cnido, in: Hippocratica - Actes du Colloque hippocratique de Paris
4-9 septembre 1978, ed. M. D. Grmek, Paris
1980, 97-111, see also Antoine Thivel: Cnide et Cos ? : essai sur les doctrines médicales dans la collection hippocratique, Paris
1981 (passim), ISBN 22-51-62021-4; cf. the review by Otta Wenskus (on JSTOR). ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris
1740, Vol. I, coll. 917-918 ^ Raymond Janin, v. Cnide, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris
1956, col. 179 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 872


 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Cnidus", Encyclopædia Britannica, 6 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 44   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Cnidus", Encyclopædia Britannica, 6 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 573–4 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Knidos.

Official website The Knidos
Labyrinth The Knidia of Praxiteles
and its setting


Marin Buovac: Prilog boljem poznavanju simbolike zoomorfnih recipijenata iz antičke luke u Zatonu kraj Nina - Toward better understanding of the symbolism of the zoomorphic receptacles from the ancient port of Zaton near Nin, Diadora, vol. 31, 2017.

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey


Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa


Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy


Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

in the Taurus Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Ti