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World War II

Invasion of Poland Battle of France Operation Barbarossa Tunisia Campaign

Spouse(s) Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Relations

Parents

Alfred Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Caroline Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Brothers

Berthold Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Alexander Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg

Children

Gm Berthold Maria Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Heimeran Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Franz-Ludwig Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Valerie Ida Huberta Karoline Anna Maria Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg Konstanze Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg[1] (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the German nobility who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and remove the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
from power. Along with Henning von Tresckow
Henning von Tresckow
and Hans Oster, he was one of the central figures of the German Resistance
German Resistance
movement within the Wehrmacht. For his involvement in the movement, he was executed by firing squad shortly after the failed attempt known as Operation Valkyrie.[2]

Contents

1 Family 2 Early life 3 World War II

3.1 Activities in 1939–1940 3.2 Operation Barbarossa, 1941 3.3 Tunisia, 1942 3.4 In the resistance, 1943–44

4 20 July plot

4.1 Assassination attempt 4.2 Execution

5 Assessment 6 Family 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Family[edit] Main article: Stauffenberg

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Stauffenberg's full name was Claus Philipp Maria Justinian, followed by the noble title of " Count
Count
of Stauffenberg". He was born in the Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
castle of Jettingen
Jettingen
between Ulm
Ulm
and Augsburg, in the eastern part of Swabia, at that time in the Kingdom of Bavaria, part of the German Empire. He was the third of four sons including the twins Berthold and Alexander and his own twin brother Konrad Maria, who died in Jettingen
Jettingen
one day after birth on 16 November 1907. His father was Alfred Klemens Philipp Friedrich Justinian, the last Oberhofmarschall of the Kingdom of Württemberg. His mother was Caroline Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, née Gräfin von Üxküll-Gyllenband, the daughter of Alfred Richard August Graf
Graf
von Üxküll-Gyllenband and Valerie Gräfin von Hohenthal. The titles "Graf" and "Gräfin" mean count and countess, respectively. Schenk (i.e., cupbearer/butler) was an additional hereditary noble title. The ancestral castle of the nobility was the last part of the title, which would be Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and used as part of the name. The Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
family is one of the oldest and most distinguished aristocratic Catholic families of southern Germany. Among his maternal Protestant ancestors were several famous Prussians, including Field Marshal August von Gneisenau. On 11 November 1919, a new constitutional law, as part of the Weimar Republic, abolished the privileges of nobility. Article 109 also stated, "Legal privileges or disadvantages based on birth or social standing are to be abolished. Noble titles form part of the name only; noble titles may not be granted any more."[3] After this, titles of nobility were incorporated as part of a surname. Early life[edit] In his youth, he and his brothers were members of the Neupfadfinder, a German Scout association and part of the German Youth movement.[4][5][6][7]

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
in 1926

Like his brothers, he was carefully educated and inclined toward literature, but eventually took up a military career. In 1926, he joined the family's traditional regiment, the Bamberger Reiter- und Kavallerieregiment 17 (17th Cavalry Regiment) in Bamberg.[8] It was around this time that the three brothers were introduced by Albrecht von Blumenthal to the poet Stefan George's influential circle, Georgekreis, from which many notable members of the German resistance would later emerge. George dedicated Das neue Reich ("the new Empire") in 1928, including the Geheimes Deutschland ("secret Germany") written in 1922, to Berthold.[9] The work outlines a new form of society ruled by a hierarchical spiritual aristocracy. George rejected any attempts to use it for political purposes, especially Nazism. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was commissioned as a leutnant (second lieutenant) in 1930. He studied modern weapons at the Kriegsakademie in Berlin-Moabit, but remained focused on the use of horses—which continued to carry out a large part of transportation duties throughout World War II—in modern warfare. His regiment became part of the German 1st Light Division
German 1st Light Division
under General
General
Erich Hoepner, who had taken part in the plans for the September 1938 German Resistance
German Resistance
coup, cut short by Hitler's unexpected diplomatic success in the Munich Agreement. The unit was among the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
troops that moved into Sudetenland
Sudetenland
following its annexation to the Reich as per the Munich Agreement. Although Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
agreed with some of the Nazi Party's nationalistic aspects and had supported the German colonization of Poland
Poland
and made extremist remarks regarding Polish Jews,[10][11][12] he found many aspects of the Nazi Party's ideology repugnant and never became a member. Moreover, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
remained a practicing Catholic. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
vacillated between a strong personal dislike of Hitler's policies and a respect for what he perceived to be Hitler's military acumen. On top of this, the growing systematic ill-treatment of Jews and suppression of religion had offended Stauffenberg's strong personal sense of Catholic morality and justice.[13][14] World War II[edit]

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Activities in 1939–1940[edit] Following the outbreak of war in 1939, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and his regiment took part in the attack on Poland. He supported the occupation of Poland
Poland
and its handling by the Nazi regime and the use of Poles as slave workers to achieve German prosperity[10] as well as German colonization and exploitation of Poland. The deeply rooted belief common in the German aristocracy was that the Eastern territories, populated predominantly by Poles and partly absorbed by Prussia
Prussia
in partitions of Poland, but taken from the German Empire
German Empire
after World War I, should be colonized as the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
had done in the Middle Ages. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
said, "It is essential that we begin a systemic colonization in Poland. But I have no fear that this will not occur".[11] While his uncle, Nikolaus Graf
Graf
von Üxküll-Gyllenband, had approached him before to join the resistance movement against the Hitler regime, it was only after the Polish campaign that Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
began to consider it. Peter Yorck von Wartenburg
Peter Yorck von Wartenburg
and Ulrich Schwerin von Schwanenfeld urged him to become the adjutant of Walther von Brauchitsch, then Supreme Commander of the Army, in order to participate in a coup against Hitler. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
declined at the time, reasoning that all German soldiers had pledged allegiance not to the institution of the presidency of the German Reich, but to the person of Adolf Hitler, due to the Führereid
Führereid
introduced in 1934. As such, he felt bound by this oath.[citation needed] Stauffenberg's unit was reorganized into the 6th Panzer Division, and he served as an officer on its General Staff
General Staff
in the Battle of France, for which he was awarded the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
First Class. Like many others, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was impressed by the overwhelming military success, which was attributed to Hitler. Operation Barbarossa, 1941[edit] Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, was launched on 22 June 1941. During the idle months of the so-called Phoney War, preceding the Battle of France
Battle of France
(1939–40), he had already been transferred to the organizational department of the Oberkommando des Heeres, the German army high command, which directed the operations on the Eastern Front. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
did not engage in any coup plot at this time. The Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
brothers (Berthold and Claus) maintained contact with former commanders like Hoepner, and with the Kreisau Circle; they also included civilians and social democrats like Julius Leber
Julius Leber
in their scenarios for an administration after Hitler. According to Hoffman (p. 131, 1988) citing Brigadier (ret.) Oskar Alfred-Berger's letters, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had commented openly on the ill-treatment of the Jews when he "expressed outrage and shock on this subject to fellow officers in General Staff
General Staff
Headquarters in Vinnitsa (Ukraine) during the summer of 1942".[15] Being interrogated after his capture by the Red Army
Red Army
on September 2, 1944, Stauffenberg's friend, Major Joachim Kuhn claimed that Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had told him in August 1942 that "They are shooting Jews in masses. These crimes must not be allowed to continue".[16] After his arrest in July 1944, Stauffenberg's older brother Berthold told the Gestapo
Gestapo
that: "He and his brother had basically approved of the racial principle of National Socialism, but considered it to be exaggerated and excessive".[17] Tunisia, 1942[edit] In November 1942, the Allies landed in French North Africa, and the 10th Panzer Division occupied Vichy France
Vichy France
(Case Anton) before being transferred to fight in the Tunisia Campaign, as part of the Afrika Korps. In 1943, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was promoted to Oberstleutnant i.G.[18] (lieutenant-colonel of the general staff), and was sent to Africa to join the 10th Panzer Division as its Operations Officer in the General Staff (Ia). On 19 February, Rommel launched his counter-offensive against British, American and French forces in Tunisia. The Axis commanders hoped to break rapidly through either the Sbiba or Kasserine Pass
Kasserine Pass
into the rear of the British 1st Army. The assault at Sbiba was halted, so Rommel concentrated on Kasserine Pass
Kasserine Pass
where primarily the Italian 7th Bersaglieri Regiment and 131st Centauro Armoured Division had defeated the American defenders.[19] During the fighting, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
drove up to be with the leading tanks and troops of the 10th Panzer Division.[20] The division, together with the 21st Panzer Division, took up defensive positions near Mezzouna on 8 April. On 7 April 1943, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was involved in driving from one unit to another, directing their movement.[21] Near Mezzouna, his vehicle was part of a column strafed by Kittyhawk (P-40) fighter bombers of the Desert Air Force
Desert Air Force
– most likely from No. 3 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force [22] – and he received multiple severe wounds. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
spent three months in a hospital in Munich, where he was treated by Ferdinand Sauerbruch. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
lost his left eye, his right hand, and two fingers on his left hand.[23] He jokingly remarked to friends never to have really known what to do with so many fingers when he still had all of them. For his injuries, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was awarded the Wound Badge
Wound Badge
in Gold on 14 April and for his courage the German Cross
German Cross
in Gold on 8 May. In the resistance, 1943–44[edit]

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
(left) and Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim
in 1944

For rehabilitation, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was sent to his home, Schloss Lautlingen
Lautlingen
(today a museum), then still one of the Stauffenberg castles in southern Germany. Initially, he felt frustrated not to be in a position to stage a coup himself. But by the beginning of September 1943, after a somewhat slow recovery from his wounds, he was propositioned by the conspirators and was introduced to Henning von Tresckow as a staff officer to the headquarters of the Ersatzheer ("Replacement Army" – charged with training soldiers to reinforce first line divisions at the front), located on the Bendlerstrasse (later Stauffenbergstrasse) in Berlin. There, one of Stauffenberg's superiors was General
General
Friedrich Olbricht, a committed member of the resistance movement. The Ersatzheer had a unique opportunity to launch a coup, as one of its functions was to have Operation Valkyrie
Operation Valkyrie
in place. This was a contingency measure which would let it assume control of the Reich in the event that internal disturbances blocked communications to the military high command. Ironically, the Valkyrie plan had been agreed to by Hitler but was now secretly changed to sweep the rest of his regime from power in the event of his death. A detailed military plan was developed not only to occupy Berlin, but also to take the different headquarters of the German army and of Hitler in East Prussia
Prussia
by military force after the suicide assassination attempt by Axel von dem Bussche
Axel von dem Bussche
in late November 1943. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had von dem Bussche transmit these written orders personally to Major Kuhn once he had arrived at Wolfsschanze
Wolfsschanze
(Wolf's Lair) near Rastenburg, East Prussia. However, von dem Bussche had left the Wolfsschanze
Wolfsschanze
for the eastern front, after the meeting with Hitler was cancelled, and the attempt could not be made. Kuhn hid these compromising documents under a watch tower of the OKW, located not far from the Wolfsschanze. Kuhn became a prisoner of war of the Soviets after the 20 July plot. He led the Soviets to the hiding place of the documents in February 1945. In 1989, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
presented these documents to then-German chancellor Dr. Helmut Kohl. The conspirators' motivations have been a matter of discussion for years in Germany after the war. Many thought the plotters wanted to kill Hitler in order to end the war and to avoid the loss of their privileges as professional officers and members of the nobility.[24] On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the Allies had landed in France. Stauffenberg, like most other German professional military officers, had absolutely no doubt that the war was lost. Only an immediate armistice could avoid more unnecessary bloodshed and further damage to Germany, its people, and other European nations. However, in late 1943, he had written out demands with which he felt the Allies had to comply in order for Germany to agree to an immediate peace. These demands included Germany retaining its 1914 eastern borders, including the Polish territories of Wielkopolska
Wielkopolska
and Poznań.[25] Other demands included keeping such territorial gains as Austria
Austria
and the Sudetenland within the Reich, giving autonomy to Alsace-Lorraine, and even expansion of the current wartime borders of Germany in the south by annexing Tyrol as far as Bozen
Bozen
and Meran. Non-territorial demands included such points as refusal of any occupation of Germany by the Allies, as well as refusal to hand over war criminals by demanding the right of "nations to deal with its own criminals". These proposals were only directed to the Western Allies – Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
wanted Germany only to retreat from western, southern and northern positions, while demanding the right to continue military occupation of German territorial gains in the east.[26] 20 July plot[edit] Main article: 20 July plot

Office at Bendlerblock.

As early as September 1942 Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was considering Hans Georg Schmidt von Altenstadt (de:Hans Georg Schmidt von Altenstadt), author of Unser Weg zum Meer, as a replacement for Hitler. From the beginning of September 1943 until 20 July 1944, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was the driving force behind the plot to assassinate Hitler and take control of Germany. His resolve, organisational abilities, and radical approach put an end to inactivity caused by doubts and long discussions on whether military virtues had been made obsolete by Hitler's behaviour. With the help of his friend Henning von Tresckow, he united the conspirators and drove them into action.[27] Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was aware that, under German law, he was committing high treason. He openly told young conspirator Axel von dem Bussche
Axel von dem Bussche
in late 1943, "ich betreibe mit allen mir zur Verfügung stehenden Mitteln den Hochverrat..." ("I am committing high treason with all means at my disposal....").[28] He justified himself to Bussche by referring to the right under natural law ("Naturrecht") to defend millions of people's lives from the criminal aggressions of Hitler.

Stauffenberg, left, with Hitler (centre) and Wilhelm Keitel, right, in an aborted assassination attempt at Rastenburg
Rastenburg
on 15 July 1944. 54°04′46″N 21°29′37″E / 54.079344°N 21.493544°E / 54.079344; 21.493544 (Site of 20 July 1944 Plot at Wolfsschanze
Wolfsschanze
or Wolf's Lair).

Only after the conspirator General
General
Helmuth Stieff
Helmuth Stieff
on 7 July 1944 had declared himself unable to assassinate Hitler on a uniforms display at Klessheim castle near Salzburg, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
decided to personally kill Hitler and to run the plot in Berlin. By then, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had great doubts about the possibility of success. Tresckow convinced him to go on with it even if it had no chance of success at all, "The assassination must be attempted. Even if it fails, we must take action in Berlin", as this would be the only way to prove to the world that the Hitler regime and Germany were not one and the same and that not all Germans supported the regime. Stauffenberg's part in the original plan required him to stay at the Bendlerstraße offices in Berlin, so he could phone regular army units all over Europe in an attempt to convince them to arrest leaders of Nazi political organisations such as the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) and the Gestapo. Unfortunately, when General
General
Helmuth Stieff, Chief of Operation at Army High Command, who had regular access to Hitler, backtracked from his earlier commitment to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was forced to take on two critical roles: kill Hitler far from Berlin
Berlin
and trigger the military machine in Berlin
Berlin
during office hours of the very same day. Beside Stieff, he was the only conspirator who had regular access to Hitler (during his briefings) by mid-1944, as well as being the only officer among the conspirators thought to have the resolve and persuasiveness to convince German military leaders to throw in with the coup once Hitler was dead. This requirement greatly reduced the chance of a successful coup. Assassination attempt[edit] After several unsuccessful tries by Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
to meet Hitler, Göring and Himmler
Himmler
when they were together, he went ahead with the attempt at Wolfsschanze
Wolfsschanze
on 20 July 1944. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
entered the briefing room carrying a briefcase containing two small bombs. The location had unexpectedly been changed from the subterranean Führerbunker to Albert Speer's wooden barrack/hut due to it being a hot summer's day. He left the room to arm the first bomb with specially adapted pliers, a task made difficult because he had lost his right hand and had only three fingers on his left. A guard knocked and opened the door, urging him to hurry as the meeting was about to begin. As a result, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was able to arm only one of the bombs. He left the second bomb with his aide-de-camp, Werner von Haeften, and returned to the briefing room, where he placed the briefcase under the conference table, as close as he could to Hitler. Some minutes later, he excused himself and left the room. After his exit, the briefcase was moved by Colonel
Colonel
Heinz Brandt. When the explosion tore through the hut, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was convinced that no one in the room could have survived. Although four people were killed and almost all survivors were injured, Hitler himself was shielded from the blast by the heavy, solid-oak conference table leg and was only slightly wounded. Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and Haeften quickly left and drove to the nearby airfield. After his return to Berlin, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
immediately began to motivate his friends to initiate the second phase: the military coup against the Nazi leaders. When Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
announced by radio that Hitler had survived and later, after Hitler himself personally spoke on the state radio, the conspirators realised that the coup had failed. They were tracked to their Bendlerstrasse
Bendlerstrasse
offices and overpowered after a brief shoot-out, during which Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was wounded in the shoulder. Execution[edit]

Play media

Site of Claus von Stauffenberg's execution in the Bendlerblock courtyard.

In an attempt to save his own life, co-conspirator General
General
Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Army present in the Bendlerblock
Bendlerblock
(Headquarters of the Army), charged other conspirators in an impromptu court martial and condemned the ringleaders of the conspiracy to death. Stauffenberg, his aide 1st Lieutenant Werner von Haeften, General
General
Friedrich Olbricht, and Colonel
Colonel
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim were executed before 1:00 in the morning (21 July 1944) by a makeshift firing squad in the courtyard of the Bendlerblock, which was lit by the headlights of a truck.

Death certificate (issued in 1951)

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was third in line to be executed, with Lieutenant von Haeften after. However, when it was Stauffenberg's turn, Lieutenant von Haeften placed himself between the firing squad and Stauffenberg, and received the bullets meant for Stauffenberg. When his turn came, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
spoke his last words, "Es lebe das heilige Deutschland!" ("Long live our sacred Germany!")[29][30] Others say the last words were: "Es lebe das geheime Deutschland!" ("Long live the secret Germany!")[30][31] Fromm ordered that the executed officers (his former co-conspirators) receive an immediate burial with military honours in the Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof
Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof
in Berlin's Schöneberg district. The next day, however, Stauffenberg's body was exhumed by the SS, stripped of his medals and insignia, and cremated. Another central figure in the plot was Stauffenberg's eldest brother, Berthold Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg. On 10 August 1944, Berthold was tried before Judge-President Roland Freisler
Roland Freisler
in the special "People's Court" (Volksgerichtshof). This court was established by Hitler for political offences. Berthold was one of eight conspirators executed by slow strangulation in Plötzensee Prison, Berlin, later that day. Before he was killed, Berthold was strangled and then revived multiple times.[32] The entire execution and multiple resuscitations were filmed for Hitler to view at his leisure.[32] More than 200[33] were condemned in show trials and executed. Hitler used the 20 July Plot as an excuse to destroy anyone he feared would oppose him. The traditional military salute was replaced with the Nazi salute
Nazi salute
also known as the Hitler salute. Eventually, over 20,000 Germans were killed or sent to concentration camps in the purge.[34]

Remembrance stone in Berlin/Yorckstrasse cemetery. Here the corpses were buried and then moved to an unknown place. 52°29′24″N 13°22′02″E / 52.490035°N 13.367359°E / 52.490035; 13.367359 (Burial Site at Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof or "Old St. Matthew's Cemetery").

Memorial at the Bendlerblock
Bendlerblock
in Berlin

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
memorial at the ruins of the Wolf's Lair, near Kętrzyn, Poland

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
memorial site in Altes Schloss in Stuttgart

20th anniversary memorial service

A German stamp of Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and Helmuth James Graf
Graf
von Moltke in commemoration of their 100th birthdays.

Assessment[edit] One of the few surviving members of the German resistance, Hans Bernd Gisevius portrays Colonel
Colonel
Stauffenberg, whom he met in July 1944, as a man driven by reasons which had little to do with Christian ideals or repugnance of Nazi ideology. In his autobiographical Bis zum bitteren Ende ("To the Bitter End"), Gisevius writes:

Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
wanted to retain all the totalitarian, militaristic and socialistic elements of National Socialism (p. 504). What he had in mind was the salvation of Germany by military men who could break with corruption and maladministration, who would provide an orderly military government and would inspire the people to make one last great effort. Reduced to a formula, he wanted the nation to remain soldierly and become socialistic (p. 503). Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was motivated by the impulsive passions of the disillusioned military man whose eyes had been opened by the defeat of German arms (p. 510). Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had shifted to the rebel side only after Stalingrad (p. 512). The difference between Stauffenberg, Helldorf
Helldorf
and Schulenburg — all of them counts — was that Helldorf had come to the Nazi Movement as a primitive, I might almost say an unpolitical revolutionary. The other two had been attracted primarily by a political ideology. Therefore, it was possible for Helldorf
Helldorf
to throw everything overboard at once: Hitler, the Party, the entire system. Stauffenberg, Schulenberg and their clique wanted to drop no more ballast than was absolutely necessary; then they would paint the ship of state a military gray and set it afloat again (p. 513–514).[35]

At the same time, historian Peter Hoffman, who has written the introduction to a recent[when?] republication Gisevius's memoirs on the 20 July plot, questions Gisevius's evaluations based on the latter's brief acquaintance with Stauffenberg, misreporting of Stauffenberg's actions, and apparent rivalry with him:

Gisevius met Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
for the first time in Berlin
Berlin
on July 12, 1944, eight days before the colonel's last assassination attempt against Hitler. . . . In view of Gisevius's own record as a transmitter of historical information for which he had displayed strong personal feelings, and in light of what is known about both Gisevius's alleged sources and Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
himself, Gisevius's account is at best questionable hearsay. Gisevius disliked Stauffenberg. He sensed that this dynamic leader would be an obstacle to his own far-reaching ambitions and intrigues. In his book he mocked Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
as a presumptuous and ignorant amateur. . . . Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
must have been informed of Gisevius's background and it cannot have inspired his confidence. Gisevius was understandably upset by Stauffenberg's attitude toward him. . . . Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
seemed to regard him merely as an incidental source of background information.[36]

British historian Richard J. Evans, in his books on the Third Reich,[37] covered various aspects of Stauffenberg's beliefs and philosophy. He wrote an article originally published in Süddeutsche Zeitung, 23 January 2009[38] entitled "Why did Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
plant the bomb?" which states, "Was it because Hitler was losing the war? Was it to put an end to the mass murder of the Jews. Or was it to save Germany's honour? The overwhelming support, toleration, or silent acquiescence" from the people of his country for Hitler, which was also being heavily censored and constantly fed propaganda,[39][40] meant any action must be swift and successful. Evans writes, "Had Stauffenberg's bomb succeeded in killing Hitler, it is unlikely that the military coup planned to follow it would have moved the leading conspirators smoothly into power". However, Karl Heinz Bohrer, a cultural critic, literary scholar, publisher,[41] criticized Evans' views in an article originally published in the Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 30, 2010.[42] Although agreeing that Evans is historically correct in much of his writing, Bohrer feels that Evans twists time lines and misrepresents certain aspects. He wrote of Evans, "In the course of his problematic argument he walks into two traps: 1. by contesting Stauffenberg's "moral motivation"; 2. by contesting Stauffenberg's suitability as role model." He further writes, "If then, as Evans notes with initial objectivity, Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
had a strong moral imperative – whether this stemmed from an aristocratic code of honour, Catholic doctrine or Romantic poetry – then this also underpinned his initial affinity for National Socialism which Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
misinterpreted as 'spiritual renewal'". In 1980, the German government established a memorial for the failed anti-Nazi resistance movement in a part of the Bendlerblock, the remainder of which currently houses the Berlin
Berlin
offices of the German Ministry of Defense (whose main offices remain in Bonn). The Bendlerstrasse
Bendlerstrasse
was renamed the Stauffenbergstrasse, and the Bendlerblock
Bendlerblock
now houses the Memorial to the German Resistance, a permanent exhibition with more than 5,000 photographs and documents showing the various resistance organizations at work during the Hitler era. The courtyard where the officers were shot on 21 July 1944 is now a memorial site, with a plaque commemorating the events and a bronze figure of a young man with his hands symbolically bound which resembles Count
Count
von Stauffenberg. Family[edit] Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
married Nina Freiin von Lerchenfeld on 26 September 1933 in Bamberg.[43] They had five children: Berthold; Heimeran; Franz-Ludwig; Valerie; and Konstanze, who was born in Frankfurt on the Oder after Stauffenberg's execution. Berthold, Heimeran, Franz-Ludwig and Valerie, who were not told of their father's deed,[44] were placed in a foster home for the remainder of the war and were forced to use new surnames, as Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
was now considered taboo. Nina died at the age of 92 on 2 April 2006 at Kirchlauter
Kirchlauter
near Bamberg, and was buried there on 8 April. Berthold went on to become a general in West Germany's post-war Bundeswehr. Franz-Ludwig became a member of both the German and European parliaments, representing the Christian Social Union in Bavaria. In 2008, Konstanze von Schulthess-Rechberg wrote a best-selling book about her mother, Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg.

He let things come to him, and then he made up his mind ... one of his characteristics was that he really enjoyed playing the devil's advocate. Conservatives were convinced that he was a ferocious Nazi, and ferocious Nazis were convinced he was an unreconstructed conservative. He was neither.[45]

See also[edit]

Biography portal

Assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler

References[edit]

^ Gerd Wunder: Die Schenken von Stauffenberg. Müller & Gräff, 1972, p. 480 ^ [1] - Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
biography ^ [2] – Abolition of noble titles ^ Löttel, Holger (2007-07-22). "Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg (1907–1944): Leben und Würdigung- Vortrag anläßlich der Gedenkveranstaltung zum 100.Geburtstag von Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg, Ketrzyn/Rastenburg, 22.Juli 2007" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 2008-02-07.  ^ Kiesewetter, Renate. "Im Porträt: Claus Graf
Graf
Schenk von Stauffenberg" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 2008-02-07.  ^ Bentzien, Hans (2004). Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg-Der Täter und seine Zeit (in German). Berlin: Das Neue Berlin Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. pp. 24–29.  ^ Zeller, Eberhard (2008). Oberst Claus Graf
Graf
Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
(in German). Paderborn-Munich-Vienna-Zürich: Ferdinand Schöningh. pp. 7–10.  ^ Jones, Nigel (2008). Countdown to Valkyrie: The July Plot to Assassinate Hitler. Casemate Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 9781848325081.  ^ Herbert Ammon: Vom Geist Georges zur Tat Stauffenbergs – Manfred Riedels Rettung des Reiches, in: Iablis 2007 at http://www.iablis.de ^ a b Housden, Martyn (1997). Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12134-5.  page 100: "He was endorsing both the tyrannical occupation of Poland
Poland
and the use of its people as slave labourers" ^ a b Peter Hoffman (2003). Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905–1944. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 116.  ^ "Germans against Hitler. Who resisted the Third Reich and why did they do it?".  ^ Peter Hoffman (2003). Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905–1944. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 151.  ^ "Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg," German Resistance
German Resistance
Memorial Center. 2009. (Retrieved 2009-12-28.) ^ Hoffman, P. (1988) German Resistance
German Resistance
to Hitler, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA ISBN 0-674-35086-3 ^ Hoffmann, Peter "The German Resistance
German Resistance
and the Holocaust" pages 105–126 from Confront! edited by John Michalczyk, Peter Lang: New York, 2004 page 110 ^ Noakes, Jeremy Nazism, Volume 4, University of Exeter Press, 1998 page 633 ^ im Generalstab ^ "Murphy in America in WWII Magazine". Americainwwii.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  ^ Hoffmann, Peter (2003-10-03). Hoffmann (2003), p. 171. Books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-7735-2595-5. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  ^ Stauffenberg: A Family History, 1905–1944: Third Edition by Peter Hoffmann (2009) ^ 3 Sqn veteran Tom Russell states that: "operational records and pilot diaries" for the other Desert Air Force
Desert Air Force
Kittyhawk squadrons "shows them operating away from Mezzouna..." at the time. Tom Russell, 2011, "3 Squadron and the 'Plot to Kill Hitler'" (Access: 23 April 2012.) Russell ^ Commire, Anne (1994), "Historic World Leaders: Europe (L–Z)", Gale Research Inc.: 769, ISBN 978-0-8103-8411-8, retrieved 2011-09-18  ^ "Peter Hoffmann, "Oberst i. G. Henning von Tresckow
Henning von Tresckow
und die Staatsstreichpläne im Jahr 1943" Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte Vol. 55, 2007, No. 2, pp. 331-364". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. 2007-04-01. Retrieved 2012-07-27. [permanent dead link] ^ "Review of 'Claus Graf
Graf
Stauffenberg. 15. November 1907–20. Juli 1944. Das Leben eines Offiziers. by Joachim Kramarz, Bonn 1967' by : F. L. Carsten International Affairs, Vol. 43, No. 2 (April 1967). "It is more surprising that, as late as May 1944, Stauffenberg still demanded for Germany the frontiers of 1914 in the east, i.e., a new partition of Poland." ^ Martyn Housden,"Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich";Routledge 1997;page 109–110 ^ Joachim Fest; "Hitler – Eine Biographie" ^ Joachim Fest; Hitler – Eine Biographie; Propyläen, Berlin; 2. Auflage 2004; Page 961; ISBN 3-549-07172-8 ^ Knopp, Guido (2004). Sie wollten Hitler töten-Die deutsche Widerstandsbewegung (in German). Munich: Bertelsmann Verlag. p. 263.  ^ a b Eugen Georg Schwarz (1994-07-18). "20.JULI 1944-Das "geheime" Deutschland". FOCUS (in German). 29/1994.  ^ Fest, Joachim (2004). Staatsstreich der lange Weg zum 20.Juli (in German). btb-Verlag. p. 280.  ^ a b Hoffmann 1994, p. 127: "Claus von Stauffenberg's brother Berthold was hanged, resuscitated, and hanged again, several times, and the hangings were filmed for Hitler's personal viewing." ^ List of members of the 20 July plot
20 July plot
-July conspirators ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  -Opposing Hitler ^ Hans Bernd Gisevius, To the bitter end. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 1947. Translation by Richard and Clara Winston. ^ Peter Hoffman, 'Introduction,' in To the Bitter End, by Hans Bernd Gisevius. Da Capo Press, Philadelphia. 1998. Translation by Richard and Clara Winston. ^ The Coming of the Third Reich (Penguin, 2003), The Third Reich in Power (Penguin, 2005) and The Third Reich at War (Penguin, 2008) ^ [3] – Reprinted; 10/02/2009, – Retrieved 10-08-2010 ^ [4] – Guide to Nazi propaganda ^ [5] – Examples of Nazi propaganda ^ Of the monthly Merkur magazine ^ [6] – Reprinted 13/02/2009, – Retrieved 10-08-2010, ^ Baigent, Michael; Leigh, Richard (1994). Secret Germany: Claus von Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and the Mystical Crusade against Hitler. J. Cape. p. 123. ISBN 0224035258. OCLC 31038327.  ^ Stauffenberg's eldest son has said, however, that the children were told of the assassination attempt and their father's role in it by their mother. ^ Quoted from Burleigh (2000).

Sources[edit]

(in English) Baigent, Michael; Leigh, Richard (1994). Secret Germany: Claus von Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and the Mystical Crusade against Hitler. J. Cape. ISBN 0224035258. OCLC 31038327.  (in German) Christian Müller: Oberst i.G. Stauffenberg. Eine Biographie. Droste, Düsseldorf 1970, ISBN 3-7700-0228-8. (First great biography) Hoffman, Peter (1995). Stauffenberg : A Family History, 1905–1944. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3544-2. Translation of the German-language original, Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
und seine Brüder. Roger Moorhouse
Roger Moorhouse
(2006), Killing Hitler, Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-224-07121-1 Wheeler-Bennett, John; Overly, Richard (1968). The Nemesis of Power: German Army in Politics, 1918–1945. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company (New Impression edition). ISBN 0-333-06864-5. (in German) Hoffmann, Peter (1998). Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
und der 20. Juli 1944. München: C.H.Beck. ISBN 3-406-43302-2. (in English) Hoffmann, Peter (1994). The second world war, German society and internal resistance to Hitler, In Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance
German Resistance
in the Third Reich (1994 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46668-4.  – Total pages: 208 Burleigh, Michael (2000). The Third Reich: A New History. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-64487-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Claus Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg.

Timeline of Stauffenberg's life Claus Graf
Graf
Schenk von Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
(1934) From German History in Documents and Images a project of the German Historical Institute "Emerging from the Nazi shadow?". BBC News. 2004-07-19. Retrieved 2008-08-10.  – BBC report of 60th anniversary of the 20 July plot; by Clare Murphy, BBC News
BBC News
Online "Photos of the 20th July 1944 Memorial in Berlin" – Part of the photo collection of Ian J. Sanders Photos from the German Stern magazine to the 20 July plot " Stauffenberg
Stauffenberg
and the Assassination Attempt of July 20, 1944" – Featured topic at the Memorial to the German Resistance's website

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32789868 LCCN: n80035030 ISNI: 0000 0001 1565 2130 GND: 118642537 SELIBR: 220070 SUDOC: 027931226 BNF: cb11986730t (data) NKC: js20050516012 BNE: XX1270

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