CLAM is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs. The word is often applied only to those that live as infauna , spending most of their lives partially buried in the sand of the ocean floor. In particular, edible infaunal bivalves are often called clams. Clams have two shells of equal size connected by two adductor muscles and have a powerful burrowing foot. Clams in the culinary sense do not live attached to a substrate (whereas oysters and mussels do) and do not live near the bottom (whereas scallops do). In culinary usage, clams are commonly eaten marine bivalves, as in clam digging and the resulting soup, clam chowder . Many edible clams such as palourde clams are oval or triangular; however, razor clams have an elongated parallel-sided shell, suggesting an old-fashioned straight razor.
Some clams have life cycles of only one year, while at least one may be over 500 years old. All clams have two calcareous shells or valves joined near a hinge with a flexible ligament, and all are filter feeders . A clam shell (species Spisula solidissima ) at Sandy Hook, New Jersey
* 1 Anatomy
* 2 As food
* 2.1 North America
* 2.2 Japan
* 2.3 Italy
* 3 Religion * 4 As currency * 5 Species * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
Littleneck clams, small hard clams , species Mercenaria mercenaria
A clam's shell consists of two (usually equal) valves, which are connected by a hinge joint and a ligament that can be external or internal. The ligament provides tension to bring the valves apart, while one or two adductor muscles can contract to close the valves. Clams also have kidneys, a heart, a mouth, a stomach, a nervous system and an anus. Many have a siphon .
A clam dish Clams simmering in a white wine sauce
In culinary use, within the eastern coast of the United States, the
term "clam" most often refers to the hard clam
Mercenaria mercenaria .
It may also refer to a few other common edible species, such as the
soft-shell clam ,
Mya arenaria and the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica
. Another species commercially exploited on the
Clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried . They can
also be made into clam chowder or they can be cooked using hot rocks
and seaweed in a
New England clam bake
In Japan, clams are often an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes. They can also be made into hot pot , miso soup or Tsukudani . The more commonly used varieties of clams in Japanese cooking are the SHIJIMI ( Corbicula japonica ), the ASARI ( Venerupis philippinarum ) and the HAMAGURI ( Meretrix lusoria ).
In Italy, clams are often an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes or are eaten together with pasta. The more commonly used varieties of clams in Italian cooking are the Vongola ( Venerupis decussata ), the Cozza (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the Tellina ( Donax trunculus ). Though Dattero di mare ( Lithophaga lithophaga) was once eaten, overfishing drove it to the verge of extinction (it takes 15 to 35 years to reach adult size and could only be harvested by smashing the calcarean rocks that form its habitat) and the Italian government has declared it an endangered species since 1998 and its harvest and sale are forbidden.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Clams and shellfish are locally called "chipchip", and local fishermen sell them in rural markets.
The Moche people of ancient
Some species of clams, particularly Mercenaria mercenaria , were in the past used by the Algonquians of Eastern North America to manufacture wampum , a type of shell money .
Grooved carpet shell :
Hard clam or Northern Quahog:
* Manila clam:
* Soft clam :
Not usually considered edible:
* Nut clams or pointed nut clams, family
* Duck clams or trough shells , family
* Marsh clams, family
* ^ "Clam". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2016. * ^ "Clams recipes". BBC. Retrieved 23 February 2017. * ^ "Clam". Oxford Dictionaries – Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar. * ^ Danielle Elliot (14 November 2013). "Ming the Clam, World\'s Oldest Animal, Was Actually 507 Years Old". CBS News. Retrieved 15 November 2013. * ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera . New York: Thames and Hudson , 1997. * ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2006), The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell , Penguin Group , pp. 16, 30–31, ISBN 0-345-47638-7 , OCLC 60550567 .