A CITY is a large human settlement . Cities generally have
extensive systems for housing , transportation , sanitation ,
utilities , land use , and communication . Their density facilitates
interaction between people, government organizations and businesses,
sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.
Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity
overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid
urbanization , roughly half of the world population now lives in
cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability.
Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas
and urban areas - creating numerous commuters traveling towards city
centers for employment, entertainment, and edification. However, in a
world of intensifying globalization , all cities are in different
degree also connected globally beyond these regions.
The most populated city proper is
Shanghai while the largest
metropolitan areas also include the
Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area and Jabodetabek
Jakarta ). The cities of
Damascus , and
among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation .
* 1 Meaning
* 2.1 Site
* 2.2 Center
* 2.4 Internal structure
* 2.5 Urban areas
* 3 History
* 3.1 Ancient times
* 3.2 Middle Ages
* 3.3 Early modern
* 3.4 Industrial age
* 3.5 Post-industrial age
* 5 Government
* 5.2 Finance
* 6 Society
* 6.1 Social structure
* 6.3 Culture and communications
* 7.1 Utilities
* 8 Ecology
World city system
* 9.2 Transnational activity
United Nations System
* 10 Representation in culture
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 14 External links
Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme,
devoted as it is to Jain temples .
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its
relatively great size, but also by its functions and its special
symbolic status , which may be conferred by a central authority. The
term can also refer either to the physical streets and buildings of
the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, and can be
used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory.
A variety of definitions, invoking population , population density ,
number of dwellings , economic function, and infrastructure , are used
in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common
population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000
people, with most states using a minimum between 1,500 and 5000
inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In
others, such as in the United Kingdom , city status is awarded on
local criteria. According to the "functional definition" a city is not
distinguished by size alone, but also by the role it plays within a
larger political context. Cities serve as administrative, commercial,
religious, and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas.
The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the
definition. A typical city has professional administrators ,
regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or
means to trade for them) to feed the government workers . (This
arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships
in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal
agreements between neighbors, or through leadership of a chief.) The
governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work
projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership,
agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of
these. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations .
The word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from
the Latin root civitas, originally meaning citizenship or community
member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in
a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was closely linked with the
Greek "polis " – another common root appearing in English words such
as metropolis .
Hillside housing and graveyard in Kabul. Panoramic view
Tirana , Albania from
Mount Dajt in 2004. Downtown
Pittsburgh sits at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny
rivers, which become the Ohio .
Kinshasa ends and fields begin.
The L\'Enfant Plan for
Washington, D.C. , inspired by the
Versailles , combines a utilitarian grid pattern with
diagonal avenues and a symbolic focus on monumental architecture.
This aerial view of the
Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel shows
the geometrically planned city of
Tel Aviv proper (upper left) as
Givatayim to the east and some of
Bat Yam to the south. Tel
Aviv's population is 433,000; the total population of its metropolitan
area is 3,785,000.
Urban geography deals both with cities in their larger context and
with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural,
technological, economic, and military contexts. Access to water has
long been a major factor in city placement and growth, and despite
exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth
century, through the present most of the world's urban population
lives near the coast or on a river.
Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore
must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them.
Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in
long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside
which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region
influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the
creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations.
The vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings
with special economic, political, and religious significance.
Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos or if
fortified as a citadel . These spaces historically reflect and
amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of
influence . Today cities have a city center or downtown , sometimes
coincident with a central business district .
Cities typically have public spaces where anyone can go. These
include privately owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of
public land such as public domain and the commons . Western philosophy
since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space
as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere .
Public art adorns
(or disfigures) public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within
cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity
of typical built environments .
Urban structure generally follows one or more basic patterns:
geomorphic, radial, concentric, rectilinear, and curvilinear. Physical
environment generally constrains the form in which a city is built. If
located on a mountainside, it may rely on terraces and winding roads.
It may be adapted to its means of subsistence (e.g. agriculture or
fishing). And it may be set up for optimal defense given the
surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphic" features, cities can
develop internal patterns, due to natural growth or to city planning .
In a radial structure, main roads converge on a central point. This
form could evolve from successive growth over a long time, with
concentric traces of town walls and citadels marking older city
boundaries. In more recent history, such forms were supplemented by
ring roads moving traffic around the outskirts of a town. Dutch cities
Haarlem are structured as a central square
surrounded by concentric canals marking every expansion. In cities
such as and also
Moscow , this pattern is still clearly visible.
A system of rectilinear city streets and land plots, known as the
grid plan , has been used for millennia in Asia, Europe, and the
Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation built
Mohenjo-Daro , Harappa
and other cities on a grid pattern, using ancient principles described
Kautilya , and aligned with the compass points . The ancient
Greek city of
Priene exemplifies a grid plan with specialized
districts used across the Hellenistic Mediterranean .
Urban-type settlement extends far beyond the traditional boundaries
of the city proper in a form of development sometimes described
critically as urban sprawl . Decentralization and dispersal of city
functions (commercial, industrial, residential, cultural, political)
has transformed the very meaning of the term and has challenged
geographers seeking to classify territories according to an
Metropolitan areas include suburbs and exurbs organized around the
needs of commuters , and sometimes edge cities characterized by a
degree of economic and political independence. (In the USA these are
grouped into metropolitan statistical areas for purposes of demography
and marketing .) Some cities are now part of a continuous urban
landscape called urban agglomeration , conurbation , or megalopolis
(exemplified by the BosWash corridor of the Northeastern United
History of the city Further information: Urban history
Historical urban community sizes , and List of largest cities
throughout history An arch from the ancient Sumerian city Ur ,
which flourished in the third millennium BC , can be seen at
present-day Tell el-Mukayyar in
Mohenjo-daro , a city of
the Indus Valley
Civilization , which was rebuilt six or more times,
using bricks of standard size, and adhering to the same grid
layout—also in the third millennium BC. This aerial view of
what was once downtown
Teotihuacan shows the
Pyramid of the Sun ,
Pyramid of the Moon , and the processional avenue serving as the spine
of the city's street system.
Cities, characterized by population density , symbolic function, and
urban planning , have existed for thousands of years. In the
conventional view, civilization and the city both followed from the
development of agriculture , which enabled production of surplus food,
and thus a social division of labour (with concomitant social
stratification ) and trade . Early cities often featured granaries ,
sometimes within a temple. A minority viewpoint considers that cities
may have arisen without agriculture, due to alternate means of
subsistence (fishing), to use as communal seasonal shelters, to
their value as bases for defensive and offensive military
organization, or to their inherent economic function. Cities
played a crucial role in the establishment of political power over an
area, and ancient leaders such as
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great founded and
created them with zeal.
Cities of the Ancient Near East ,
City-state , and Late Antiquity § Cities
Çatalhöyük , dated to the eighth millennium BC , are
among the earliest proto-cities known to archaeologists.
In the fourth and third millennium BC , complex civilizations
flourished in the river valleys of
China , and
Egypt . Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities
geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large,
dense populations , but others carried out urban activities in the
realms of politics or religion without having large associated
populations. Among the early Old World cities,
Mohenjo-daro of the
Civilization in present-day
Pakistan , existing from
about 2600 BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50,000 or
more and a sophisticated sanitation system . China\'s planned cities
were constructed according to sacred principles to act as celestial
microcosms . The Ancient Egyptian cities known physically by
archaeologists are not extensive. They include (known by their Arab
El Lahun , a workers' town associated with the pyramid of
Senusret II , and the religious city
Amarna built by
abandoned. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and
stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers
and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes.
In Mesopotamia, the civilization of
Sumer , followed by
Babylon , gave rise to numerous cities, governed by kings and
fostering multiple languages written in cuneiform . The Phoenician
trading empire, flourishing around the turn of the first millennium BC
, encompassed numerous cities extending from Tyre ,
Cydon , and Byblos
In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece
developed the polis , an association of male landowning citizens who
collectively constituted the city. The agora , meaning "gathering
place" or "assembly", was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual
and political life of the polis. Rome's rise to power brought its
population to one million. Under the authority of its empire , Rome
transformed and founded many cities (coloniae ), and with them brought
its principles of urban architecture, design, and society.
In the ancient Americas, early urban traditions developed in the
Mesoamerica . In the Andes, the first urban centers
developed in the
Norte Chico civilization
Norte Chico civilization , Chavin and Moche cultures,
followed by major cities in the Huari ,
Inca cultures. The
Norte Chico civilization
Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population
centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal
Peru . It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas,
flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC.
Mesoamerica saw the rise of early urbanism in several cultural
regions, beginning with the
Olmec and spreading to the Preclassic Maya
, the Zapotec of Oaxaca, and
Teotihuacan in central Mexico. Later
cultures such as the
Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.
Jenné-Jeno , located in present-day Mali and dating to the third
century BC, lacked monumental architecture and a distinctive elite
social class—but nevertheless had specialized production and
relations with a hinterland. Pre-
Arabic trade contacts probably
Jenné-Jeno and North Africa. Other early urban
centers in sub-Saharan Africa, dated to around 500 AD, include
Awdaghust, Kumbi-Saleh the ancient capital of Ghana, and Maranda a
center located on a trade route between
Egypt and Gao.
In the first millennium AD,
Angkor in the
Khmer Empire grew into one
of the most extensive cities in the world and may have supported up
to one million people.
Ming dynasty of
China oversaw the creation of the Forbidden
City and the expansion of
Beijing to become the largest city in the
world. This map of
Haarlem , the Netherlands, created around
1550, shows the city completely surrounded by a city wall and
defensive canal , with its square shape inspired by
In the remnants of the
Roman Empire , cities of late antiquity gained
independence but soon lost population and importance. The locus of
power in the West shifted to
Constantinople and to the ascendant
Islamic civilization with its major cities
Cairo , and
Córdoba . From the 9th through the end of the 12th century,
Constantinople , capital of the
Byzantine Empire , was the largest and
wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million.
Ottoman Empire gradually gained control over many cities in the
Mediterranean area, including
Constantinople in 1453 .
By the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, some cities become
powerful states, taking surrounding areas under their control or
establishing extensive maritime empires. In Italy medieval communes
developed into city-states including the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice and the
Republic of Genoa . In Northern Europe, cities including
Bruges formed the
Hanseatic League for collective defense and
commerce. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch
commercial cities of
Ypres , and
Amsterdam . Similar
phenomena existed elsewhere, as in the case of Sakai , which enjoyed a
considerable autonomy in late medieval Japan.
In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political
organization following the
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth
century. Western Europe's larger capitals (
London and Paris)
benefited from the growth of commerce following the emergence of an
Atlantic trade. However, most towns remained small.
During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city
concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the
newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding
administration, finances and urbanism.
The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led
to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in
Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge
numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
19th-century London as capital of the world, crowded and thick with
its own variety of smog .
England led the way as
London became the capital of a world empire
and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for
manufacturing . In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the
introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large
manufacturing centers began to emerge, fueling migration from rural to
Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health
problems resulting from overcrowding , occupational hazards of
industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitation , and
communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera .
slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape.
In the second half of the twentieth century, deindustrialization (or
"economic restructuring ") in the West led to poverty , homelessness ,
and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. America's "Steel Belt"
became a "
Rust Belt " and cities such as Detroit , Michigan, and Gary,
Indiana began to shrink , contrary to the global trend of massive
urban expansion. Such cities have shifted with varying success into
the service economy and public-private partnerships , with concomitant
gentrification , uneven revitalization efforts , and selective
cultural development. Under the
Great Leap Forward and subsequent
five-year plans continuing today, the People\'s Republic of
undergone concomitant urbanization and industrialization and to become
the world's leading manufacturer .
Amidst these economic changes, high technology and instantaneous
telecommunication enable select cities to become centers of the
knowledge economy . A new smart city paradigm, supported by
institutions such as the
RAND Corporation and
IBM , is bringing
computerized surveillance , data analysis, and governance to bear on
cities and city-dwellers. Some companies are building brand new
masterplanned cities from scratch on greenfield sites.
Urbanization Clothes hang neatly and visibly in
Jakarta dwellings on the water near a dump .
Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas,
driven by various political, economic, and cultural factors. Until the
18th century, an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural
population and towns featuring markets and small-scale manufacturing.
With the agricultural and industrial revolutions urban population
began its unprecedented growth, both through migration and through
demographic expansion . In
England the proportion of the population
living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891. In 1900, 15%
of the world population lived in cities. The cultural appeal of
cities also plays a role in attracting residents.
Urbanization rapidly spread across the Europe and the Americas and
since the 1950s has taken hold in
Asia and Africa as well. The
Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs , reported in 2014 that for the first time more than
half of the world population lives in cities. Graph showing
urbanization from 1950 projected to 2050.
Latin America is the most urban continent, with four fifths of its
population living in cities, including one fifth of the population
said to live in shantytowns (favelas , villas miserias , etc.). Batam
Mogadishu , Somalia,
Niamey , Niger,
are considered among the world's fastest-growing cities, with annual
growth rates of 5–8%. In general, the more developed countries of
Global North " remain more urbanized than the less developed
countries of the "
Global South "—but the difference continues to
shrink because urbanization is happening faster in the latter group.
Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of city-dwellers:
over two billion and counting. The UN predicts an additional 2.5
billion citydwellers (and 300 million fewer countrydwellers) worldwide
by 2050, with 90% of urban population expansion occurring in
Megacities , cities with population in the multi-millions, have
proliferated into the dozens, arising especially in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America. Economic globalization fuels the growth of these
cities, as new torrents of foreign capital arrange for rapid
industrialization, as well as relocation of major businesses from
Europe and North America, attracting immigrants from near and far. A
deep gulf divides rich and poor in these cities, with usually contain
a super-wealthy elite living in gated communities and large masses of
people living in substandard housing with inadequate infrastructure
and otherwise poor conditions.
Cities around the world have expanded physically as they grow in
population, with increases in their surface extent, with the creation
of high-rise buildings for residential and commercial use, and with
Urbanization can create rapid demand for water resources management ,
as formerly good sources of freshwater become overused and polluted,
and the volume of sewage begins to exceed manageable levels.
Local government The city council of
Tehran meets in September 2015.
Local government of cities takes different forms including
prominently the municipality (especially in
England , in the United
States , in
India , and in other British colonies ; legally, the
municipal corporation ; municipio in Spain and in Portugal , and,
along with municipalidad , in most former parts of the Spanish and
Portuguese empires) and the commune (in France and in Chile ; or
comune in Italy).
The chief official of the city has the title of mayor . Whatever
their true degree of political authority, the mayor typically acts as
the figurehead or personification of their city. The city hall
Town , Malaysia, today serves as the seat of the City
Penang Island .
City governments have authority to make laws governing activity
within cities, while its jurisdiction is generally considered
subordinate (in ascending order) to state/provincial , national , and
perhaps international law . This hierarchy of law is not enforced
rigidly in practice—for example in conflicts between municipal
regulations and national principles such as constitutional rights and
property rights . Legal conflicts and issues arise more frequently in
cities than elsewhere due to the bare fact of their greater density.
Modern city governments thoroughly regulate everyday life in many
dimensions, including public and personal health , transport , burial
, resource use and extraction , recreation , and the nature and use of
buildings . Technologies, techniques, and laws governing these
areas—developed in cities—have become ubiquitous in many areas.
Municipal officials may be appointed from a higher level of government
or elected locally.
Dublin Fire Brigade pictured in April 1970, quenching a
severe fire at a hardware store.
Cities typically provide municipal services such as education ,
through school systems ; policing , through police departments; and
firefighting , through fire departments ; as well as the city's basic
infrastructure. These are provided more or less routinely, in a more
or less equal fashion. Responsibility for administration usually
falls on the city government, though some services may be operated by
a higher level of government, while others may be privately run.
Armies may assume responsibility for policing cities in states of
domestic turmoil such as America's
King assassination riots of 1968.
The traditional basis for municipal finance is local property tax
levied on real estate within the city.
Local government can also
collect revenue for services, or by leasing land that it owns.
However, financing municipal services, as well as urban renewal and
other development projects, is a perennial problem, which cities
address through appeals to higher governments, arrangements with the
private sector, and techniques such as privatization (selling services
to into the private sector ), corporatization (formation of
quasi-private municipally-owned corporations), and financialization
(packaging city assets into tradable financial instruments and
derivatives ). This situation has become acute in deindustrialized
cities and in cases where businesses and wealthier citizens have moved
outside of city limits and therefore beyond the reach of taxation.
Cities in search of ready cash increasingly resort to the municipal
bond , essentially a loan with interest and a repayment date . City
governments have also begun to use tax increment financing , in which
a development project is financed by loans based on future tax
revenues which it is expected to yield. Under these circumstances,
creditors and consequently city governments place a high importance on
city credit ratings .
Governance includes government but refers to a wider domain of social
control functions implemented by many actors including nongovernmental
organizations . The impact of globalization and the role of
multinational corporations in local governments worldwide, has led to
a shift in perspective on urban governance, away from the "urban
regime theory" in which a coalition of local interests functionally
govern, toward a theory of outside economic control, widely associated
in academics with the philosophy of neoliberalism . In the neoliberal
model of governance, public utilities are privatized , industry is
deregulated , and corporations gain the status of governing
actors—as indicated by the power they wield in public-private
partnerships and over business improvement districts , and in the
expectation of self-regulation through corporate social responsibility
. The biggest investors and real estate developers act as the city's
de facto urban planners.
The related concept of good governance places more emphasis on the
state, with the purpose of assessing urban governments for their
suitability for development assistance . The concepts of governance
and good governance are especially invoked in the emergent megacities,
where international organizations consider existing governments
inadequate for their large populations.
La Plata , Argentina, based on a perfect square with 5196-meter
sides, was designed in the 1880s as the new capital of Buenos Aires
Province . Main articles:
Urban planning and
Urban planning , the application of forethought to city design,
involves optimizing land use, transportation, utilities, and other
basic systems, in order to achieve certain objectives . Urban planners
and scholars have proposed overlapping theories as ideals for how
plans should be formed.
Planning tools, beyond the original design of
the city itself, include public capital investment in infrastructure
and land-use controls such as zoning . The continuous process of
comprehensive planning involves identifying general objectives as well
as collecting data to evaluate progress and inform future decisions.
Government, as the ultimate wielder of force is legally the final
authority on planning but in practice the process involves both public
and private elements. The legal principle of eminent domain is used by
government to divest citizens of their property in cases where its use
is required for a project.
Planning often involves
tradeoffs—decisions in which some stand to gain and some to
lose—and thus is closely connected to the prevailing political
The history of urban planning dates to some of the earliest known
cities, especially in the Indus Valley and Mesoamerican civilizations,
which built their cities on grids and apparently zoned different areas
for different purposes. The effects of planning, ubiquitous in
today's world, can be seen most clearly in the layout of planned
communities , fully designed prior to construction, often with
consideration for interlocking physical, economic, and cultural
Urban society is typically stratified . Spatially, cities are
formally or informally segregated along ethnic, economic and racial
lines. People living relatively close together may live, work, and
play, in separate areas, and associate with different people, forming
ethnic or lifestyle enclaves or, in areas of concentrated poverty,
ghettoes . While in the USA and elsewhere poverty became associated
with the inner city , in France it has become associated with the
banlieues , areas of urban development which surround the city proper.
Meanwhile, across Europe and North America, the racially white
majority is empirically the most segregated group.
Suburbs in the
west, and, increasingly, gated communities and other forms of
"privatopia" around the world, allow local elites to self-segregate
into secure and exclusive neighborhoods .
Landless urban workers, contrasted with peasants and known as the
proletariat , form a growing stratum of society in the age of
urbanization. In Marxist doctrine, the proletariat will inevitably
revolt against the bourgeoisie as their ranks swell with
disenfranchised and disaffected people lacking all stake in the status
quo . The global urban proletariat of today, however, generally lacks
the status as factory workers which in the nineteenth century provided
access to the means of production .
Historically, cities rely on rural areas for intensive farming to
yield surplus crops , in exchange for which they provide money,
political administration, manufactured goods, and culture. Urban
economics tends to analyze larger agglomerations, stretching beyond
city limits, in order to reach a more complete understanding of the
local labor market . People shopping for food at a marketplace
Taipei City .
As hubs of trade cities have long been home to retail commerce and
consumption through the interface of shopping . In the 20th century,
department stores using new techniques of advertising , public
relations , decoration , and design , transformed urban shopping areas
into fantasy worlds encouraging self-expression and escape through
In general, the density of cities expedites commerce and facilitates
knowledge spillovers , helping people and firms exchange information
and generate new ideas. A thicker labor market allows for better
skill matching between firms and individuals.
enables also sharing of common infrastructure and production
facilities, however in very dense cities, increased crowding and
waiting times may lead to some negative effects.
Although manufacturing fueled the growth of cities, many now rely on
a tertiary or service economy . The services in question range from
tourism , hospitality , entertainment , housekeeping and prostitution
to grey-collar work in law , finance , and administration .
CULTURE AND COMMUNICATIONS
Cities are typically hubs for education and the arts , supporting
universities , museums , temples , and other cultural institutions .
They feature impressive displays of architecture ranging from small to
enormous and ornate to brutal ; skyscrapers , providing thousands of
offices or homes within a small footprint, and visible from miles
away, have become iconic urban features. Cultural elites tend to live
in cities, bound together by shared cultural capital , and themselves
playing some role in governance. By virtue of their status as centers
of culture and literacy, cities can be described as the locus of
civilization , world history , and social change .
Density makes for effective mass communication and transmission of
news , through heralds , printed proclamations , newspapers , and
digital media. These communication networks, though still using cities
as hubs, penetrate extensively into all populated areas. In the age of
rapid communication and transportation, commentators have described
urban culture as nearly ubiquitous or as no longer meaningful. At
the same time hallmarks of rural life may appear in the midst of the
city, as in the case of urban agriculture .
Today, a city's promotion of its cultural activities dovetails with
place branding and city marketing , public diplomacy techniques used
to inform development strategy; to attract businesses, investors,
residents, and tourists; and to create a shared identity and sense of
place within the metropolitan area. Physical inscriptions,
plaques, and monuments on display physically transmit a historical
context for urban places. Some cities, such as
Rome have indelible religious status and for hundreds of years
have attracted pilgrims . Patriotic tourists visit
Agra to see the Taj
Mahal , or
New York City
New York City to visit the World
Trade Center . Elvis
Memphis to pay their respects at
Graceland . Place
brands (which include place satisfaction and place loyalty) have great
economic value (comparable to the value of commodity brands ) because
of their influence on the decision-making process of people thinking
about doing business in—"purchasing" (the brand of)—a city.
Bread and circuses among other forms of cultural appeal, attract and
entertain the masses . Sports also play a major role in city
branding and local identity formation. Cities go to considerable
lengths in competing to host the
Olympic Games , which bring global
attention and tourism.
Atomic bombing on August 6, 1945, devastated the Japanese city
Cities play a crucial strategic role in warfare due to their
economic, demographic, symbolic, and political centrality. For the
same reasons, they are targets in asymmetric warfare . Many cities
throughout history were founded under military auspices, a great many
have incorporated fortifications , and military principles continue to
influence urban design . Indeed, war may have served as the social
rationale and economic basis for the very earliest cities.
Powers engaged in geopolitical conflict have established fortified
settlements as part of military strategies, as in the case of garrison
Strategic Hamlet Program during the
Vietnam War , and
Israeli settlements in Palestine. While occupying the
the US Army ordered local people concentrated into cities and towns,
in order to isolate committed insurgents and battle freely against
them in the countryside.
World War II
World War II , national governments on occasion declared
certain cities open , effectively surrendering them to an advancing
enemy in order to avoid damage and bloodshed.
Urban warfare proved
decisive, however, in the
Battle of Stalingrad , where Soviet forces
repulsed German occupiers, with extreme casualties and destruction. In
an era of low-intensity conflict and rapid urbanization, cities have
become sites of long-term conflict waged both by foreign occupiers and
by local governments against insurgency . Such warfare, known as
counterinsurgency , involves techniques of surveillance and
psychological warfare as well as close combat , functionally extends
modern urban crime prevention , which already uses concepts such as
defensible space .
Although capture is the more common objective, warfare has in some
cases spelt complete destruction for a city. Mesopotamian tablets and
ruins attest to such destruction, as does the Latin motto Carthago
delenda est . Since the atomic bombing of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki and
Cold War , nuclear strategists continued to contemplate
the use of "countervalue " targeting: crippling an enemy by
annihilating its valuable cities, rather than aiming primarily at its
military forces .
Urban infrastructure involves various physical networks and spaces
necessary for transportation, water use, energy, recreation, and
Infrastructure carries a high initial cost in fixed
capital (pipes, wires, plants, vehicles, etc.) but lower marginal
costs and thus positive economies of scale . Because of the higher
barriers to entry , these networks have been classified as natural
monopolies , meaning that economic logic favors control of each
network by a single organization, public or private.
Infrastructure in general (if not every infrastructure project) plays
a vital role in a city's capacity for economic activity and expansion,
underpinning the very survival of the city’s inhabitants, as well as
technological, commercial, industrial, and social activities.
Structurally, many infrastructure systems take the form of networks
with redundant links and multiple pathways, so that the system as a
whole continue to operate even if parts of it fail. The particulars
of a city’s infrastructure systems have historical path dependence
because new development must build from what exists already.
Megaprojects such as the construction of airports , power plants ,
and railways require large upfront investments and thus tend to
require funding from national government or the private sector.
Privatization may also extend to all levels of infrastructure
construction and maintenance.
Urban infrastructure ideally serves all residents equally but in
practice may prove uneven—with, in some cities, clear first-class
and second-class alternatives.
Public utilities (literally, useful things with general availability)
include basic and essential infrastructure networks, chiefly concerned
with the supply of water, electricity, and telecommunications
capability to the populace.
Sanitation , necessary for good health in crowded conditions,
requires water supply and waste management as well as individual
hygiene . Urban water systems include principally a water supply
network and a network for wastewater including sewage and stormwater .
Historically , either local governments or private companies have
administered urban water supply , with a tendency toward government
water supply in the 20th century and a tendency toward private
operation at the turn of the twenty-first. The market for private
water services is dominated by two French companies, Veolia Water
Vivendi ) and
Engie (formerly Suez ), said to hold 70% of
all water contracts worldwide.
Modern urban life relies heavily on the energy transmitted through
electricity for the operation of electric machines (from household
appliances to industrial machines to now-ubiquitous electronic systems
used in communications, business, and government) and for traffic
lights , streetlights and indoor lighting . Cities rely to a lesser
extent on hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and natural gas for
transportation, heating , and cooking . Telecommunications
infrastructure such as telephone lines and coaxial cables also
traverse cities, forming dense networks for mass and point-to-point
Because cities rely on specialization and an economic system based on
wage labour , their inhabitants must have the ability to regularly
travel between home, work, commerce, and entertainment. Citydwellers
travel foot or by wheel on roads and walkways , or use special rapid
transit systems based on underground , overground , and elevated rail.
Cities also rely on long-distance transportation (truck, rail , and
airplane ) for economic connections with other cities and rural areas.
Train stopped at the Dnipro stop of the
Kiev Metro .
Historically, city streets were the domain of horses and their riders
and pedestrians , who only sometimes had sidewalks and special walking
areas reserved for them. In the west, bicycles or (velocipedes ),
efficient human-powered machines for short- and medium-distance
travel, enjoyed a period of popularity at the beginning of the
twentieth century before the rise of automobiles. Soon after, they
gained a more lasting foothold in Asian and African cities under
European influence. In western cities, industrializing, expanding,
and electrifying at this time, public transit systems and especially
streetcars enabled urban expansion as new residential neighborhoods
sprung up along transit lines and workers rode to and from work
Since the mid-twentieth century, cities have relied heavily on motor
vehicle transportation, with major implications for their layout,
environment, and aesthetics. (This transformation occurred most
dramatically in the USA—where corporate and governmental policies
favored automobile transport systems—and to a lesser extent in
Europe.) The rise of personal cars accompanied the expansion of
urban economic areas into much larger metropolises , subsequently
creating ubiquitous traffic issues with accompanying construction of
new highways , wider streets, and alternative walkways for
pedestrians. People walk, drive, and cycle through a street
However, severe traffic jams still occur regularly in cities around
the world, as private car ownership and urbanization continue to
increase, overwhelming existing urban street networks . Rapid
metro on the move in Gurugram ,
The urban bus system , the world's most common form of public
transport , uses a network of scheduled routes to move people through
the city, alongside cars, on the roads. Economic function itself also
became more decentralized as concentration became impractical and
employers relocated to more car-friendly locations (including edge
cities ). Some cities have introduced bus rapid transit systems which
include exclusive bus lanes and other methods for prioritizing bus
traffic over private cars. Many big American cities still operate
conventional public transit by rail, as exemplified by the
New York City
New York City Subway system.
Rapid transit is widely used
in Europe and has increased in Latin America and Asia.
Walking and cycling ("non-motorized transport") enjoy increasing
favor (more pedestrian zones and bike lanes ) in American and Asian
urban transportation planning, under the influence of such trends as
the Healthy Cities movement, the drive for sustainable development ,
and the idea of a carfree city . Techniques such as road space
rationing and road use charges have been introduced to limit urban car
Housing of residents presents one of the major challenges every city
must face. Adequate housing entails not only physical shelters but
also the physical systems necessary to sustain life and economic
activity. Home ownership represents status and a modicum of economic
security, compared to renting which may consume much of the income of
low-wage urban workers.
Homelessness , or lack of housing, is a
challenged currently faced by millions of people in countries rich and
This urban scene in
Paramaribo features a few plants growing
amidst solid waste and rubble behind some houses . Main article:
Urban ecosystems , influenced as they are by the density of human
buildings and activities differ considerably from those of their rural
surroundings. Anthropogenic buildings and waste , as well as
cultivation in gardens , create physical and chemical environments
which have no equivalents in wilderness , in some cases enabling
exceptional biodiversity . They provide homes not only for immigrant
humans but also for immigrant plants , bringing about interactions
between species which never previously encountered each other. They
introduce frequent disturbances (construction, walking) to plant and
animal habitats , creating opportunities for recolonization and thus
favoring young ecosystems with r-selected species dominant. On the
whole, urban ecosystems are less complex and productive than others,
due to the diminished absolute amount of biological interactions.
Typical urban fauna include insects (especially ants ), rodents (mice
, rats ), and birds , as well as cats and dogs (domesticated and feral
). Large predators are scarce. Profile of an urban heat island .
Cities generate considerable ecological footprints , locally and at
longer distances, due to concentrated populations and technological
activities. From one perspective, cities are not ecologically
sustainable due to their resource needs. From another, proper
management may be able to ameliorate a city's ill effects. Air
pollution arises from various forms of combustion, including
fireplaces, wood or coal-burning stoves, other heating systems, and
internal combustion engines . Industrialized cities, and today
third-world megacities, are notorious for veils of smog (industrial
haze ) which envelop them, posing a chronic threat to the health of
their millions of inhabitants. Urban soil contains higher
concentrations of heavy metals (especially lead , copper , and nickel
) and has lower pH than soil in comparable wilderness.
Modern cities are known for creating their own microclimates , due to
concrete , asphalt , and other artificial surfaces, which heat up in
sunlight and channel rainwater into underground ducts . The
New York City
New York City exceeds nearby rural temperatures by an
average of 2–3 °C and at times 5–10 °C differences have been
recorded. This effect varies nonlinearly with population changes
(independently of the city's physical size). Aerial particulates
increase rainfall by 5–10%. Thus, urban areas experience unique
climates, with earlier flowering and later leaf dropping than in
Poor and working-class people face disproportionate exposure to
environmental risks (known as environmental racism when intersecting
also with racial segregation). For example, within the urban
microclimate, less-vegetated poor neighborhoods bear more of the heat
(but have fewer means of coping with it).
WORLD CITY SYSTEM
As the world becomes more closely linked through economics, politics,
technology, and culture (a process called globalization ), cities have
come to play a leading role in transnational affairs, exceeding the
limitations of international relations conducted by national
governments. This phenomenon, resurgent today, can be traced back
to the Silk
Phoenicia , and the Greek city-states, through the
Hanseatic League and other alliances of cities. Today the
information economy based on high-speed internet infrastructure
enables instantaneous telecommunication around the world, effectively
eliminating the distance between cities for the purposes of stock
markets and other high-level elements of the world economy, as well as
personal communications and mass media .
Stock exchanges , characteristic features of the top global
cities, are interconnected hubs for capital. Here, a delegation from
Australia is shown visiting the
London Stock Exchange .
A global city , also known as a world city, is a prominent centre of
trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets.
Saskia Sassen used
the term "global city" in 1991 to refer to a city's power , status,
and cosmopolitanism, rather than to its size. Following this view of
cities, it is possible to rank the world\'s cities hierarchically .
New York City
New York City ,
Paris , and
Tokyo form the capstone of the
global hierarchy, exerting command and control through their economic
and political influence. Global cities may have reached their status
due to early transition to post-industrialism or through inertia
which has enabled them to maintain their dominance from the industrial
era. This type of ranking exemplifies an emerging discourse in which
cities, considered variations on the same ideal type, must compete
with each other globally to achieve prosperity.
Critics of the notion point to the different realms of power and
interchange. The term "global city" is heavily influenced by economic
factors and, thus, may not account for places that are otherwise
significant. Paul James , for example argues that the term is
"reductive and skewed" in its focus on financial systems.
Multinational corporations and banks make their headquarters in
global cities and conduct much of their business within this context.
American firms dominate the international markets for law and
engineering and maintain branches in the biggest foreign global
Global cities feature concentrations of extremely wealthy and
extremely poor people. Their economies are lubricated by their
capacity (limited by the national government's immigration policy,
which functionally defines the supply side of the labor market) to
recruit low- and high-skilled immigrant workers from poorer areas.
More and more cities today draw on this globally available labor
force. Modern global cities, like New York City, often include
large central business districts that serve as hubs for economic
Cities increasingly participate in world political activities
independently of their enclosing nation-states. Early examples of this
phenomenon are the sister city relationship and the promotion of
multi-level governance within the
European Union as a technique for
European integration . Cities including
The Hague , and
London maintain their own
embassies to the
European Union at Brussels .
New urban dwellers may increasingly not simply as immigrants but as
transmigrants , keeping one foot each (through telecommunications if
not travel) in their old and their new homes.
Cities participate in global governance by various means including
membership in global networks which transmit norms and regulations. At
the general, global level,
United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG)
is a significant umbrella organization for cities; regionally and
Asian Network of Major Cities 21 , the
Federation of Canadian Municipalities
Federation of Canadian Municipalities the
National League of Cities ,
United States Conference of Mayors play similar roles. UCLG
took responsibility for creating
Agenda 21 for culture
Agenda 21 for culture , a program for
cultural policies promoting sustainable development, and has organized
various conferences and reports for its furtherance.
Networks have become especially prevalent in the arena of
environmentalism and specifically climate change following the
Agenda 21 . Environmental city networks include the C40
Cities Climate Leadership Group , World Association of Major
Metropolises ("Metropolis"), the United Nations Global Compact Cities
Programme , the
Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA), the Covenant of
Mayors and the
Compact of Mayors ,
ICLEI - Local Governments for
Sustainability , and the Transition Towns network .
Cities with world political status as meeting places for advocacy
groups, non-governmental organizations, lobbyists, educational
institutions, intelligence agencies, military contractors, information
technology firms, and other groups with a stake in world policymaking.
They are consequently also sites for symbolic protest.
UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM
United Nations System has been involved in a series of events and
declarations dealing with the development of cities during this period
of rapid urbanization.
Habitat I conference in 1976 adopted the "Vancouver
Declaration on Human Settlements" which identifies urban management as
a fundamental aspect of development and establishes various principles
for maintaining urban habitats .
* Citing the Vancouver Declaration, the UN General Assembly in
December 1977 authorized the United Nations Commission Human
Settlements and the HABITAT Centre for Human Settlements, intended to
coordinate UN activities related to housing and settlements.
* The 1992
Earth Summit in
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro resulted in a set of
international agreements including
Agenda 21 which establishes
principles and plans for sustainable development . World
Assembly of Mayors at
Habitat III conference in
Habitat II conference in 1996 called for cities to play a
leading role in this program, which subsequently advanced the
Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals and
Sustainable Development Goals .
* In January 2002 the UN Commission on Human Settlements became an
umbrella agency called the United Nations Human Settlements Programme
or UN-Habitat, a member of the
United Nations Development Group .
Habitat III conference of 2016 focused on implementing these
goals under the banner of a "New Urban Agenda". The four mechanisms
envisio 14ned for effecting the New Urban Agenda are (1) national
policies promoting integrated sustainable development, (2) stronger
urban governance, (3) long-term integrated urban and territorial
planning, and (4) effective financing frameworks. Just before this
European Union concurrently approved an "Urban Agenda
for the European Union" known as the Pact of
Habitat coordinates the UN urban agenda, working with the UN
Environmental Programme , the
UN Development Programme , the Office of
the High Commissioner for Human Rights , the World
, and the World
Bank . World
Bank headquarters in Washington,
Bank , a United Nations specialized agency , has been a
primary force in promoting the
Habitat conferences, and since the
Habitat conference has used their declarations as a framework
for issuing loans for urban infrastructure. The bank's structural
adjustment programs contributed to urbanization in the
Third World by
creating incentives to move to cities. The World
Bank and UN-Habitat
in 1999 jointly established the
Cities Alliance (based at the World
Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.) to guide policymaking,
knowledge sharing, and grant distribution around the issue of urban
Habitat plays an advisory role in evaluating the quality
of a locality's governance.) The Bank's policies have tended to focus
on bolstering real estate markets through credit and technical
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
UNESCO has increasingly focused on cities as key sites for influencing
cultural governance . It has developed various city networks including
the International Coalition of Cities against Racism and the Creative
Cities Network. UNESCO's capacity to select
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites and
maintain them through Public/social/private partnerships gives the
organization significant influence over cultural capital , tourism ,
and historic preservation funding.
REPRESENTATION IN CULTURE
John Martin 's The Fall of
Babylon (1831), depicting chaos as
the Persian army occupies Babylon, also symbolizes the ruin of
decadent civilization in modern times. Lightning striking the
Babylonian ziggurat (also representing the
Tower of Babel ) indicates
God's judgment against the city.
Cities figure prominently in traditional Western culture, appearing
Bible in both evil and holy forms, symbolized by
Nimrod are the first city builders in the Book
of Genesis . In Sumerian mythology
Gilgamesh built the walls of
Cities can be perceived in terms of extremes or opposites: at once
liberating and oppressive, wealthy and poor, organized and chaotic.
The name anti-urbanism refers to various types of ideological
opposition to cities, whether because of their culture or their
political relationship with the country . Such opposition may result
from identification of cities with oppression and the ruling elite .
This and other political ideologies strongly influence narratives and
themes in discourse about cities. In turn, cities symbolize their
Writers, painters, and filmmakers have produced innumerable works of
art concerning the urban experience. Classical and medieval literature
includes a genre of descriptiones which treat of city features and
history. Modern authors such as
Charles Dickens and
James Joyce are
famous for evocative descriptions of their home cities. Fritz Lang
conceived the idea for his influential 1927 film
Times Square and marveling at the nighttime neon lighting .
Other early cinematic representations of cities in the twentieth
century generally depicted them as technologically efficient spaces
with smoothly functioning systems of automobile transport. By the
1960s, however, traffic congestion began to appear in such films as
The Fast Lady (1962) and
Literature, film, and other forms of popular culture have supplied
visions of future cities both utopian and dystopian . The prospect of
expanding, communicating, and increasingly interdependent world cities
has given rise to images such as
Nylonkong (NY, London, Hong Kong)
and visions of a single world-encompassing ecumenopolis .
Bibliography of suburbs
List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities
Lists of cities
Principles of intelligent urbanism
Free city (antiquity)
* ^ Intellectuals such as
H. G. Wells ,
Patrick Geddes and Kingsley
Davis foretold the coming of a mostly urban world throughout the
twentieth century. The United Nations has long anticipated a
half-urban world, earlier predicting the year 2000 as the turning
point and in 2007 writing that it would occur in 2008. Other
researchers had also estimated that the halfway point was reached in
2007. Although the trend is undeniable, the precision of this
statistic is dubious, due to reliance on national censuses and to the
ambiguities of defining an area as urban.
* ^ In practice, utility companies and agencies do secure
monopolies over local service provision. Critics within the economics
field have contested the inevitability of this outcome.
Water resources in rapidly urbanizing areas are not merely
privatized as they are in western countries; since the systems don't
exist to begin with, private contracts also entail water
industrialization and enclosure. Also, there is a countervailing
trend: 100 cities have re-municipalized their water supply since the
* ^ One important global political city, described at one time as a
world capital , is
Washington, D.C. and its metropolitan area
Tysons Corner and Reston in the Dulles Technology Corridor
and the various federal agencies found along the Baltimore-Washington
Parkway ). Beyond the prominent institutions of U.S. government on the
national mall, this area contains 177 embassies ,
The Pentagon , the
Central Intelligence Agency headquarters , the World Bank
headquarters, myriad think tanks and lobbying groups , and corporate
Booz Allen Hamilton ,
General Dynamics , Capital One
Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems , Gannett
* ^ Blanca Arellano 55th Congress of the European Regional Science
Association: "World Renaissance: Changing roles for people and
places", 25–28 August 2015, Lisbon.
* ^ Aristotle, Politics 2.1267b
* ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985), Crabgrass Frontier: The
Suburbanization of the United States , New York: Oxford University
Press, ISBN 0-19-504983-7 , p.73-76
* ^ Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography.
* ^ Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) The Social Science
Encyclopedia. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
* ^ James, Paul ; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred
B. (2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of
Sustainability. London: Routledge. .
* ^ The Travel &
Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007, Jennifer
Blanke, World Economic Forum
* ^ Demographia World Urban Areas 13th Annual Edition, April 2017.
* ^ Nick Compton, "What is the oldest city in the world?", The
Guardian, 16 February 2015.
* ^ Ring, Trudy (2014). Middle East and Africa: International
Dictionary of Historic Places. p. 204.
* ^ Jhimli Mukherjee Pandeyl, "
Varanasi is as old as Indus valley
civilization, finds IIT-KGP study", Times of
India 25 February 2016.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), p. 45.
* ^ A B "city, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, June 2014.
* ^ A B Kevin A. Lynch, "What Is the Form of a City, and How is It
Made?"; in Marzluff et al. (2008), p. 678. "The city may be looked on
as a story, a pattern of relations between human groups, a production
and distribution space, a field of physical force, a set of linked
decisions, or an arena of conflict. Values are embedded in these
metaphors: historic continuity, stable equilibrium, productive
efficiency, capable decision and management, maximum interaction, or
the progress of political struggle. Certain actors become the decisive
elements of transformation in each view: political leaders, families
and ethnic groups, major investors, the technicians of transport, the
decision elite, the revolutionary classes."
* ^ "Table 6" in
United Nations Demographic Yearbook (2015), the
1988 version of which is quoted in Carter (1995), pp. 10–12.
* ^ A B C D Graeme Hugo, Anthony Champion, & Alfredo Lattes,
"Toward a New Conceptualization of Settlements for Demography",
Population and Development Review 29(2), June 2003.
* ^ "How NC Municipalities Work - North Carolina League of
Municipalities". www.nclm.org. Archived from the original on
* ^ A B C D Smith, "Earliest Cities", in Gmelch Social Sciences in
China 33(2), 2012; doi:10.1080/02529203.2012.677292 .
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1986), pp. 146–148.
* ^ Volker M. Welter, "The 1925 Master Plan for Tel-Aviv by Patrick
Geddes"; Israel Studies 14(3), Fall 2009.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , "Locations, Population
and Density per Sq. km., by metropolitan area and selected localities,
* ^ Carter (1995), p. 5–7. " the two main themes of study
introduced at the outset: the town as a distributed feature and the
town as a feature with internal structure, or in other words, the town
in area and the town as area."
* ^ Marshall (1989), pp. 11–14.
* ^ A B Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 155–156.
* ^ A B Marshall (1989), p. 15. "The mutual interdependence of town
and country has one consequence so obvious that it is easily
overlooked: at the global scale, cities are generally confined to
areas capable of supporting a permanent agricultural population.
Moreover, within any area possessing a broadly uniform level of
agricultural productivity, there is a rough but definite association
between the density of the rural population and the average spacing of
cities above any chosen minimum size."
* ^ A B Latham et al. (2009), p. 18. "From the simplest forms of
exchange, when peasant farmers literally brought their produce from
the fields into the densest point of interaction – giving us market
towns – the significance of central places to surrounding
territories began to be asserted. As cities grew in complexity, the
major civic institutions, from seats of government to religious
buildings, would also come to dominate these points of convergence.
Large central squares or open spaces reflected the importance of
collective gatherings in city life, such as Tiananmen Square in
Beijing, the Zócalo in Mexico City, the Piazza Navona in
Trafalgar Square in London.
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 34–35. "In the center of the city,
an elite compound or temenos was situated. Study of the very earliest
cities show this compound to be largely composed of a temple and
supporting structures. The temple rose some 40 feet above the ground
and would have presented a formidable profile to those far away. The
temple contained the priestly class, scribes, and record keepers, as
well as granaries, schools, crafts—almost all non-agricultural
aspects of society.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 177–179.
* ^ Don Mitchell, "The End of Public Space? People\'s Park,
Definitions of the Public, and Democracy"; Annals of the Association
of American Geographers 85(1), March 1995.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), 21–33.
* ^ Mohan Pant and Shjui Fumo, "The Grid and Modular Measures in
Planning of Mohenjodaro and Kathmandu Valley: A Study on
Modular Measures in Block and Plot Divisions in the
Mohenjodaro and Sirkap (Pakistan), and Thimi (Kathmandu Valley)";
Journal of Asian
Engineering 59, May 2005.
* ^ Michel Danino, "New Insights into Harappan Town-Planning,
Proportions and Units, with
Special Reference to Dholavira", "Man and
Environment 33(1), 2008.
* ^ Jane McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives ;
ABC-CLIO, 2008; ISBN 978-1-57607-907-2 ; pp. 231, 346.
* ^ Carter (1995), p. 15. "In the underbound city the
administratively defined area is smaller than the physical extent of
settlement. In the overbound city the administrative area is greater
than the physical extent. The 'truebound' city is one where the
administrative bound is nearly coincidental with the physical extent."
* ^ Paul James; Meg Holden; Mary Lewin; Lyndsay Neilson; Christine
Oakley; Art Truter; David Wilmoth (2013). "Managing Metropolises by
Negotiating Mega-Urban Growth". In Harald Mieg; Klaus Töpfer.
Institutional and Social Innovation for
Sustainable Urban Development.
* ^ Chaunglin Fang Landscape and Urban
Planning 162, 2017.
* ^ (Bairoch 1988 , pp. 3–4)
* ^ (Pacione 2001 , p. 16)
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 26. "Early cities also reflected these
preconditions in that they served as places where agricultural
surpluses were stored and distributed. Cities functioned economically
as centers of extraction and redistribution from countryside to
granaries to the urban population. One of the main functions of this
central authority was to extract, store, and redistribute the grain.
It is no accident that granaries—storage areas for grain—were
often found within the temples of early cities."
* ^ Jennifer R. Pournelle, "KLM to CORONA: A Bird\'s Eye View of
Cultural Ecology and Early Mesopotamian Urbanization"; in Settlement
and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams ed. Elizabeth
C. Stone; Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, and Oriental
Institute of the
University of Chicago, 2007.
* ^ A B
Fredy Perlman ,
Against His-Story, Against Leviathan ,
Detroit: Black p. 16.
* ^ A B Mumford (1961), pp. 39–46. "As the physical means
increased, this one-sided power mythology, sterile, indeed hostile to
life, pushed its way into every corner of the urban scene and found,
in the new institution of organized war, its completest expression.
Thus both the physical form and the institutional life of the city,
from the very beginning to the urban implosion, were shaped in no
small measure by the irrational and magical purposes of war. From this
source sprang the elaborate system of fortifications, with walls,
ramparts, towers, canals, ditches, that continued to characterize the
chief historic cities, apart from certain special cases—as during
the Pax Romana—down to the eighteenth century. War brought
concentration of social leadership and political power in the hands of
a weapons-bearing minority, abetted by a priesthood exercising sacred
powers and possessing secret but valuable scientific and magical
* ^ A B Ashworth (1991), pp. 12–13.
* ^ (Jacobs 1969 , p. 23)
* ^ P. J. Taylor , "Extraordinary Cities I: Early 'City-ness' and
the Invention of Agriculture"; International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research 36(3), 2012; doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01101.x ;
see also GaWC Research Bulletins 359 and 360.
* ^ Michael E. Smith, Jason Ur, doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12138 .
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.03. "The ancients fostered the
spread of urban culture; their efforts were constant to bring their
people within the complete influence of municipal life. The desire to
create cities was the most striking characteristic of the people of
antiquity, and ancient rulers and statesmen vied with one another in
satisfying that desire."
* ^ Southall (1998), p. 23.
* ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998) Ancient Cities of the Indus
Valley Civilization. Oxford
University Press ,
Karachi and New York.
* ^ Southall (1998), pp. 38–43.
* ^ Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 158–161.
Robert McCormick Adams Jr.
Robert McCormick Adams Jr. , Heartland of Cities: Surveys of
Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the
University of Chicago Press, 1981; ISBN 0-226-00544-5 ; p.
Mesopotamia was a land of cities. It became one
precociously, before the end of the fourth millennium B.C. Urban
traditions remained strong and virtually continuous through the
vicissitudes of conquest, internal upheaval accompanied by widespread
economic breakdown, and massive linguistic and population replacement.
The symbolic and material content of civilization obviously changed,
but its cultural ambience remained tied to cities."
* ^ Pocock, J. G. A. (1998). The
Citizenship Debates. Chapter 2 --
The Ideal of
Citizenship since Classical Times (originally published
in Queen's Quarterly 99, no. 1). Minneapolis, MN: The
Minnesota. p. 31. ISBN 0-8166-2880-7 .
* ^ Ring, Salkin, Boda, Trudy, Robert, Sharon (January 1, 1996).
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe.
Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2 . CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link )
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 41–42. "
Rome created an elaborate
urban system. Roman colonies were organized as a means of securing
Roman territory. The first thing that Romans did when they conquered
new territories was to establish cities."
* ^ Shady Solís, Ruth Martha (1997). La ciudad sagrada de
Caral-Supe en los albores de la civilización en el Perú (in
Spanish). Lima: UNMSM, Fondo Editorial. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
* ^ McIntosh, Roderic J., McIntosh, Susan Keech. "Early Urban
Configurations on the Middle Niger: Clustered Cities and Landscapes of
Power," Chapter 5.
* ^ Magnavita, Sonja (2013). "Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of
ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world".
Afriques. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
* ^ History of African Cities South of the Sahara Archived
2008-01-24 at the
Wayback Machine . By Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch.
2005. ISBN 1-55876-303-1
* ^ Evans et al., A comprehensive archaeological map of the
world\'s largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, August 23,
* ^ "Map reveals ancient urban sprawl", BBC News, 14 August 2007.
* ^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world\'s first mega-city, The
Independent, August 15, 2007
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 43. "Capitals like Córdoba and Cairo
had populations of about 500,000;
Baghdad probably had a population of
more than 1 million. This urban heritage would continue despite the
conquests of the Seljuk Turks and the later Crusades. China, the
longest standing civilization, was in the midst of a golden age as the
Tang dynasty gave way—after a short period of fragmentation—to the
Song dynasty. This dynasty ruled two of the most impressive cities on
the planet, Xian and Hangzhou. / In contrast, poor Western Europe had
not recovered from the sacking of
Rome and the collapse of the western
half of the Roman Empire. For more than five centuries a steady
process of deurbanization—whereby the population living in cities
and the number of cities declined precipitously—had converted a
prosperous landscape into a scary wilderness, overrun with bandits,
warlords, and rude settlements."
* ^ Cameron, Averil (2009). The Byzantines. John Wiley and Sons. p.
47. ISBN 978-1-4051-9833-2 . Retrieved 24 January 2015.
* ^ Laiou, Angeliki E. (2002). "Writing the Economic History of
Byzantium". In Angeliki E. Laiou. The Economic History of Byzantium
(Volume 1). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 130–131.
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 47–50.
* ^ Curtis (2016), pp. 5–6. "In the modern international system,
cities were subjugated and internalized by the state, and, with
industrialization, became the great growth engines of national
* ^ A B Nicholas Blomley, "What Sort of a Legal Space is a City?" in
Brighenti (2013), pp. 1–20.
Municipalities, within this frame, are understood as nested within
the jurisdictional space of the provinces. Indeed, rather than
freestanding legal sites, they are imagined as products (or
'creatures') of the provinces who may bring them into being or
dissolve them as they choose. As with the provinces their powers are
of a delegated form: they may only exercise jurisdiction over areas
that have been expressly identified by enabling legislation. Municipal
law may not conflict with provincial law, and may only be exercised
within its defined territory.
Yet we are danger missing the reach of municipal law: 'ven in
highly constitutionalized regimes, it has remained possible for
municipalities to micro-manage space, time, and activities through
police regulations that infringe both on constitutional rights and
private property in often extreme ways' (Vaverde 2009: 150). While
liberalism fears the encroachments of the state, it seems less worried
about those of the municipality. Thus if a national government
proposed a statute forbidding public gatherings or sporting events, a
revolution would occur. Yet municipalities routinely enact sweeping
by-laws directed at open ended (and ill-defined) offences such as
loitering and obstruction, requiring permits for protests or requiring
residents and homeowners to remove snow from the city's sidewalks.
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 53–54. "
England was clearly at the
center of these changes.
London became the first truly global city by
placing itself within the new global economy. English colonialism in
North America, the Caribbean, South Asia, and later Africa and China
helped to further fatten the wallets of many of its merchants. These
colonies would later provide many of the raw materials for industrial
production. England's hinterland was no longer confined to a portion
of the world; it effectively became a global hinterland."
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), pp. 54–55.
* ^ Steven High, Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America\'s
Rust Belt, 1969-1984;
University of Toronto Press, 2003; ISBN
0-8020-8528-8 . "It is now clear that the deindustrialization thesis
is part myth and part fact. Robert Z. Lawrence, for example, uses
aggregate economic data to show that manufacturing employment in the
United States did not decline but actually increased from 16.8 million
in 1960, to 20.1 million in 1973, and 20.3 million in 1980. However,
manufacturing employment was in relative decline. Barry Bluestone
noted that manufacturing represented a decreasing proportion of the
U.S. labour force, from 26.2 per cent in 1973 to 22.1 per cent in
1980. Studies in Canada have likewise shown that manufacturing
employment was only in relative decline during these years. Yet mills
and factories did close, and towns and cities lost their industries.
John Cumbler submitted that 'depressions do not manifest themselves
only at moments of national economic collapse' such as in the 1930s,
but 'also recur in scattered sites across the nation in regions, in
industries, and in communities.'"
* ^ A B Kaplan (2004), p. 160–165. "Entrepreneurial leadership
became manifest through growth coalitions made up of builders,
realtors, developers, the media, government actors such as mayors, and
dominant corporations. For example, in St. Louis, Anheuser-Busch,
Monsanto, and Ralston Purina played prominent roles. The leadership
involved cooperation between public and private interests. The results
were efforts at downtown revitalization; inner-city gentrification;
the transformation of the CBD to advanced service employment;
entetainment, museums, and cultural venues; the construction of sports
stadiums and sport complexes; and waterfront development."
* ^ James Xiaohe Zhang, "Rapid urbanization in
China and its impact
on the world economy"; 16th Annual Conference on Global Economic
Analysis, "New Challenges for Global
Trade in a Rapidly Changing
World", Shanhai Institute of Foreign Trade, June 12–14, 2013.
* ^ Ian Johnson, "China\'s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into
Cities"; New York Times, 15 June 2013.
* ^ Castells, M. (ed) (2004). The network society: a cross-cultural
perspective. London: Edward Elgar. (ebook)
* ^ Flew, T. (2008). New media: an introduction, 3rd edn, South
* ^ Harford, T. (2008) The Logic of Life. London: Little, Brown.
* ^ Taylor Shelton, Matthew Zook, doi:10.1093/cjres/rsu026 .
* ^ The
Urbanization and Political Development of the World
System:A comparative quantitative analysis. History & Mathematics 2
* ^ A B William H. Frey in Paddison (2001).
* ^ Christopher Watson, "Trends in urbanisation", Proceedings of
the First International Conference on Urban Pests, ed. K.B. Wildey and
William H. Robinson, 1993.
* ^ Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. "
Growth: Setting the Context" (PDF). In Spence, Michael; Annez,
Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M.
Urbanization and Growth. ISBN
* ^ A B Moholy-Nagy (1968), pp. 136–137.
Why do anonymous people—the poor, the underprivileged, the
unconnected—frequently prefer life under miserable conditions in
tenements to the healthy order and tranquility of small towns or the
sanitary subdivisions of semirural developments? The imperial planners
and architects knew the answer, which is as valid today as it was
2,000 years ago. Big cities were created as power images of a
competitive society, conscious of its achievement potential. Those who
came to live in them did so in order to participate and compete on any
attainable level. Their aim was to share in public life, and they were
willing to pay for this share with personal discomfort. 'Bread and
games' was a cry for opportunity and entertainment still ranking
foremost among urban objectives. * ^ A B Somini Sengupta, "U.N.
Finds Most People Now Live in Cities"; New York Times, 10 July 2014.
Referring to: United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Population Division; World
Urbanization Prospects: 2014
Revision; New York: United Nations, 2014.
* ^ A B Neil Brenner International Journal of Urban and Regional
Research 38(3), 2013; doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12115 .
* ^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.55.
* ^ "Patterns of Urban and Rural
Population Growth", Department of
International Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Studies No. 68;
New York, United Nations, 1980; p. 15. "If the projections prove to be
accurate, the next century will begin just after the world population
achieves an urban majority; in 2000, the world is projected to be 51.3
per cent urban."
* ^ Edouart Glissant (Editor-in-Chief),
UNESCO "Courier" ("The
Urban Explosion"), March 1985.
* ^ "World
Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision" (PDF).
* ^ Mike Hanlon, "World
Population Becomes More Urban Than Rural";
New Atlas, 28 May 2007.
* ^ "United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division (2014). World
Urbanization Prospects: The 2014
Revision, CD-ROM Edition".
* ^ Paulo A. Paranagua, "Latin America struggles to cope with
record urban growth" (archive), The Guardian, 11 September 2012.
Referring to UN-
Habitat , The State of Latin American and Caribbean
Cities 2012: Towards a new urban transition; Nairobi: United Nations
Human Settlements Programme, 2012.
* ^ Helen Massy-Beresford, "Where is the fastest growing city in
the world?"; The Guardian, 18 November 2015.
* ^ Mark Anderson & Achilleas Galatsidas, "Urban population boom
poses massive challenges for Africa and Asia" The Guardian
(Development data: Datablog), 10 July 2014.
* ^ Kaplan et al. (2004), p. 15. "Global cities need to be
distinguished from megacities, defined here as cities with more than 8
million people. Only New York and
London qualified as megacities 50
years ago. By 1990, just over 10 years ago, 20 megacities existed, 15
of which were in less economically developed regions of the world. In
2000, the number of megacities had increased to 26, again all except 6
are located in the less developed world regions."
* ^ Frauke Kraas in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 2. "While seven
megacities (with more than five million inhabitants) existed in 1950
and 24 in 1990, by 2010 there were 55 and by 2025 there will be –
according to estimations – 87 megacities (UN 2012; Fig. 1). "
* ^ Frauke Kraas in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 2–3.
Above all, globalisation processes were and are the motors that drive
these enormous changes and are also the driving forces, together with
transformation and liberalisation policies, behind the economic
developments of the last ca. 25 years (in China, especially the
so-called socialism with Chinese characteristics that started under
Deng Xiaoping in 1978/1979, in
India essentially during the course of
the economic reform policies of the so-called New Economic Policy as
of 1991; Cartier 2001; Nissel 1999). Especially in megacities, these
reforms led to enormous influx of foreign direct investments, to
intensive industrialization processes through international relocation
of production locations and depending upon the location, partially to
considerable expansion of the services sector with increasing demand
for office space as well as to a reorientation of national support
policies – with a not to be mistaken influence of transnationally
acting conglomerates but also considerable transfer payments from
overseas communities. In turn, these processes are flanked and
intensified through, at times, massive migration movements of national
and international migrants into the megacities (Baur et al. 2006).
* ^ Shipra Narang Suri in Kraas et al. (2014), p. 196.
* ^ Stephen Graham Progress in Human
Geography 37(1), 2012;
* ^ Eduardo F.J. de Mulder, Jacques Besner, in Kraas et al. (2014),
* ^ A B C D E F Karen Bakker, "Archipelagos and networks:
urbanization and water privatization in the South"; The Geographical
Journal 169(4), December 2003; doi:10.1111/j.0016-7398.2003.00097.x .
"The diversity of water supply management systems worldwide – which
operate along a continuum between fully public and fully private –
bear witness to repeated shifts back and forth between private and
public ownership and management of water systems."
* ^ Joan C. Williams, "The Invention of the Municipal Corporation:
A Case Study in Legal Change"; American
Law Review 34,
1985; pp. 369–438.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 146. "The figurehead of city
leadership is, of course, the mayor. As 'first citizen', mayors are
often associated with political parties, yet many of the most
successful mayors are often those whoare able to speak 'for' their
city. Rudy Giuliani, for example, while pursuing a neo-liberal
political agenda, was often seen as being outside the mainstream of
the national Republican party. Furthermore, mayors are often crucial
in articulating the interests of their cities to external agents, be
they national governments or major public and private investors."
Penang Island was incorporated as a single municipality in 1976
and gained city status in 2015. See: Royce Tan, "Penang island gets
city status", The Star, 18 December 2014.
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.63. "The problem of achieving
equitable balance between the two freedoms is infinitely greater in
urban, metropolitan and megalopolitan situations than in sparsely
settled districts and rural areas. / In the latter, sheer intervening
space acts as a buffer between the privacy and well-being of one
resident and the potential encroachments thereon by his neighbors in
the form of noise, air or water pollution, absence of sanitation, or
whatever. In a congested urban situation, the individual is powerless
to protect himself from the "free" (i.e., inconsiderate or
invasionary) acts of others without himself being guilty of a form of
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.08.
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §1.33.
* ^ Bryan D. Jones, Saadia R. Greenbeg, Clifford Kaufman, in Hahn
in Hahn & Levine (1980). See: Hawkins v.
Town of Shaw (1971).
* ^ George Nilson, "Baltimore police under state control for good
reason", Baltimore Sun 28 February 2017.
* ^ Robert Jay Dilger, Randolph R. Moffett, doi:10.2307/976688 .
* ^ A B C D E F Kenneth Gwilliam, "Cities on the move – Ten years
after", Research in
Economics 40, 2013;
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.65–1.66.
* ^ David Walker, "The New System of Intergovernmental Relations:
Fiscal Relief and More Governmental Intrusions"; in Hahn & Levine
* ^ Bart Voorn, Marieke L. van Genugten, Economic
2010; doi:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01077.x . "TIF is an increasingly
popular local redevelopment policy that allows municipalities to
designate a 'blighted' area for redevelopment and use the expected
increase in property (and occasionally sales) taxes there to pay for
initial and ongoing redevelopment expenditures, such as land
acquisition, demolition, construction, and project financing. Because
developers require cash up-front, cities transform promises of future
tax revenues into securities that far-flung buyers and sellers
exchange through local markets."
* ^ Rachel Weber, "Extracting Value from the City: Neoliberalism
and Urban Redevelopment", Antipode, July 2002;
* ^ Josh Pacewicz, "Tax increment financing, economic development
professionals and the financialization of urban politics";
Socio-Economic Review 11, 2013; doi:10.1093/ser/mws019 . "A city's
credit rating not only influences its ability to sell bonds, but has
become a general signal of fiscal health. Detroit's partial recovery
in the early 1990s, for example, was reversed when Moody's downgraded
the rating of the city's general obligation bonds, precipitating new
rounds of capital flight (Hackworth, 2007). The need to maintain a
high credit rating constrains municipal actors by making it difficult
to finance discretionary projects in traditional ways."
* ^ Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 4, 29. "We thereby understand urban
governance as the multiple ways through which city governments,
businesses and residents interact in managing their urban space and
life, nested within the context of other government levels and actors
who are managing their space, resulting in a variety of urban
governance configurations (Peyroux et al. 2014)."
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 142–143.
* ^ Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in Gupta et
al. (2015), pp. 30–31.
* ^ A B Gupta, Verrest, and Jaffe, "Theorizing Governance", in
Gupta et al. (2015), pp. 31–33. "The concept of good governance
itself was developed in the 1980s, primarily to guide donors in
development aid (Doonbos 2001:93). It has been used both as a
condition for aid and a development goal in its own right. Key terms
in definitions of good governance include participation,
accountability, transparency, equity, efficiency, effectiveness,
responsiveness, and rule of law (e.g. Ginther and de Waart 1995; UNDP
1997; Woods 1999; Weiss 2000). At the urban level, this normative
model has been articulated through the idea of good urban governance,
promoted by agencies such as UN Habitat. The Colombian city of Bogotá
has sometimes been presented as a model city, given its rapid
improvements in fiscal responsibility, provision of public services
and infrastructure, public behavior, honesty of the administration,
and civic pride."
* ^ Shipra Narang Suri in Kraas et al. (2014), pp. 197–198.
* ^ Alain Garnier, "La Plata: la visionnaire trahie"; Architecture
New York: George Braziller, 1968.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 131–140.
Karl Marx and
Frederick Engels , Manifesto of the Communist
Party (online), February 1848; translated from German to English by
Samuel Moore. "But with the development of industry, the proletariat
not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater
masses, its strength grows, and it feels that strength more. The
various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the
proletariat are more and more equalised, in proportion as machinery
obliterates all distinctions of labour, and nearly everywhere reduces
wages to the same low level."
* ^ A B Mike Davis, "The
Urbanization of Empire:
Megacities and the
Laws of Chaos"; Social Text 22(4), Winter 2004.
Although studies of the so-called urban informal economy have shown
myriad secret liaisons with outsourced multinational production
systems, the larger fact is that hundreds of millions of new urbanites
must further subdivide the peripheral economic niches of personal
service, casual labor, street vending, rag picking, begging, and
This outcast proletariat—perhaps 1.5 billion people today, 2.5
billion by 2030—is the fastest-growing and most novel social class
on the planet. By and large, the urban informal working class is not a
labor reserve army in the nineteenth-century sense: a backlog of
strikebreakers during booms; to be expelled during busts; then
reabsorbed again in the next expansion. On the contrary, this is a
mass of humanity structurally and biologically redundant to the global
accumulation and the corporate matrix.
It is ontologically both similar and dissimilar to the historical
agency described in the Communist Manifesto. Like the traditional
working classes, it has radical chains in the sense of having little
vested interest in the reproduction of private property. But it is not
a socialized collectivity of labor and it lacks significant power to
disrupt or seize the means of production. It does possess, however,
yet unmeasured powers of subverting urban order. * ^ Marshall
(1989), pp. 5–6.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 160–164. "Indeed, the design of the
buildings often revolves around the consumable fantasy experience,
seen most markedly in the likes of Universal CityWalk, Disneyland and
Architecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable (1997) names
architectural structures built specifically as entertainment spaces as
‘Architainment’. These places are, of course, places to make
money, but they are also stages of performance for an interactive
* ^ Leach (1993), pp. 173–176 and passim.
* ^ "Knowledge Spillovers" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-16.
* ^ A B C D Kent E. Calder "SAIS Review of International Affairs"
29(1), Winter-Spring 2009; doi: 10.1353/sais.0.0036 . "Beneath
state-to-state dealings, a flurry of activity occurs, with
interpersonal networks forming policy communities involving embassies,
think tanks, academic institutions, lobbying firms, politicians,
congressional staff, research centers, NGOs, and intelligence
agencies. This interaction at the level of 'technostructure'—heavily
oriented toward information gathering and incremental policy
modification—is too complex and voluminous to be monitored by top
leadership, yet nevertheless often has important implications for
* ^ Borowiecki, Karol J. (2015). "Agglomeration Economies in
Classical Music". Papers in Regional Science. 94 (3): 443–68.
Saskia Sassen , "Global Cities and Survival Circuits"; in
Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy ed.
Barbara Ehrenreich and
Arlie Russell Hochschild ; New York: Henry Holt
and Company, 2002.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009) 84–85.
* ^ Jane Zheng, "Toward a new concept of the 'cultural elite
Cultural capital and the urban sculpture planning authority in
elite coalition in Shanghai"; Journal of Urban Affairs 39(4), 2017;
* ^ McQuillan (1937/1987), §§1.04–1.05. "Almost by definition,
cities have always provided the setting for great events and have been
the focal points for social change and human development. All great
cultures have been city-born. World history is basically the history
of city dwellers."
* ^ Robert Redfield
Economic Development and Cultural Change 3(1),
* ^ Magnusson (2011), p. 21. "These statistics probably
underestimate the degree to which the world has been urbanized, since
they obscure the fact that rural areas have become so much more urban
as a result of modern transportation and communication. A farmer in
Europe or California who checks the markets every morning on the
computer, negotiates with product brokers in distant cities, buys food
at a supermarket, watches television every night, and takes vacations
half a continent away is not exactly living a traditional rural life.
In most respects such a farmer is an urbanite living in the
countryside, albeit an urbanite who has many good reasons for
perceiving himself or herself as a rural person."
* ^ Mumford (1961), p. 563–567. "Many of the original functions
of the city, once natural monopolies, demanding the physical presence
of all participants, have now been transposed into forms capable of
swift transportation, mechanical manifolding, electronic transmission,
* ^ Donald Theall, The Virtual Marshall McLuhan; McGill-Queen's
University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-7735-2119-4 ; p. 11. Quoting Marshall
McLuhan : "The CITY no longer exists, except as a cultural ghost The
INSTANTANEOUS global coverage of radio-tv makes the city form
* ^ Ashworth, Kavaratzis, in Kavaratzis, Warnaby,
* ^ Adriana Campelo, "Rethinking Sense of Place: Sense of One and
Sense of Many"; in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, & Ashworth (2015).
* ^ A B Greg Kerr & Jessica Oliver, "Rethinking Place Identities",
in Kavaratzis, Warnaby, International Council of Sport Science and
Education Bulletin 53, May 2008 (Feature: Feature: "Mega
Sport Events in Developing Countries").
* ^ Kimberly S Schimmel, "Assessing the sociology of sport: On
sport and the city"; International Review for the Sociology for Sport
50(4-5), 2015; doi:10.1177/1012690214539484 .
* ^ A B Stephen V. Ward, "Promoting the Olympic City"; in John R.
London & New York:
Routledge (Taylor ISBN 978-0-203-84074-0 .
All this media exposure, provided it is reasonably positive,
influences many tourist decisions at the time of the Games. This
tourism impact will focus on, but extend beyond, the city to the
country and the wider global region. More importantly, there is also
huge long term potential for both tourism and investment (Kasimati,
No other city marketing opportunity achieves this global exposure. At
the same time, provided it is carefully managed at the local level, it
also gives a tremendous opportunity to heighten and mobilize the
commitment of citizens to their own city. The competitive nature of
sport and its unrivalled capacity to be enjoyed as a mass cultural
activity gives it many advantages from the marketing point of view
(S.V. Ward, 1998, pp.231–232). In a more subtle way it also becomes
a metaphor for the notion of cities having to compete in a global
marketplace, a way of reconciling citizens and local institutions to
the wider economic realities of the world. * ^ Latham et al.
(2009), pp. 127–128.
* ^ Ashworth (1991). "In more recent years, planned networks of
defended settlements as part of military strategies can be found in
the pacification programmes of what has become the conventional wisdom
of anti-insurgency operations. Connected networks of protected
settlements are inserted as islands of government control into
insurgent areas—either defensively to separate existing populations
from insurgents or aggressively as a means of extending control over
areas—as used by the British in South Africa (1899–1902) and
Malaya (1950–3) and by the Americans in Cuba (1898) and Vietnam
(1965–75). These were generally small settlements and intended as
much for local security as offensive operations. / The planned
settlement policy of the State of Israel, however, has been both more
comprehensive and has longer-term objectives. These settlements
provide a source of armed manpower, a defence in depth of a vulnerable
frontier area and islands of cultural and political control in the
midst of a potentially hostile population, thus continuing a tradition
of the use of such settlements as part of similar policies in that
area which is over 2,000 years old."
* ^ See Brigadier General
J. Franklin Bell 's telegraphic circular
to all station commanders, 8 December 1901, in Robert D. Ramsey III, A
Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare: BG
J. Franklin Bell in the
Philippines, 1901–1902, Long War Series, Occasion Paper 25; Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press, US Army Combined
Arms Center; pp. 45–46. "Commanding officers will also see that
orders are at once given and distributed to all the inhabitants within
the jurisdiction of towns over which they exercise supervision,
informing them of the danger of remaining outside of these limits and
that unless they move by December 25th from outlying barrios and
districts with all their movable food supplies, including rice, palay,
chickens, live stock, etc., to within the limits of the zone
established at their own or nearest town, their property (found
outside of said zone at said date) will become liable to confiscation
* ^ Maj. Eric Weyenberg, U.S. Army,
Population Isolation in the
Philippine War: A Case Study; School of Advanced Military Studies,
United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas; January 2015.
* ^ Ashworth (1991), p. 3. Citing L.C. Peltier and G.E. Pearcy,
* ^ R. D. McLaurin Diogenes 203, 2004; doi:1177/0392192104043648 .
* ^ Burns H. Westou, "Nuclear Weapons Versus International Law: A
Contextual Reassessment"; McGill
Law Journal 28, p. 577. "As noted
above, nulcear weapons designed for countervalue or city-killing
purposes tend to be of the strategic class, with known yields of
deployed warheads averaging somewhere between two and three times and
1500 times the firepower of the bombs dropped on
* ^ Dallas Boyd, "Revealed Preference and the Minimum Requirements
of Nuclear Deterrence"; Strategic Studies Quarterly, Spring 2016.
* ^ A B
Joel A. Tarr , "The Evolution of the Urban Infrastructure
in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries"; in Hanson (1984).
* ^ A B C Wellman & Spiller, "Introduction", in Wellman & Spiller
* ^ A B C Kath Wellman in Wellman Review of Australian Economics
* ^ Jean-Michel Guldmann, "Economies of Scale and Natural Monopoly
in Urban Utilities: The Case of Natural Gas Distribution";
Geographical Analysis 17(4), October 1985;
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 70.
* ^ Kath Wellman in Wellman & Spiller (2012), pp. 73–74. "The NCP
established a legislative regime at Federal and State levels to
facilitate third-party access to provision and operation of
infrastructure facilities, including electricity and
telecommunications networks, gas and water pipelines, railroad
terminals and networks, airports, and ports. Following these reforms,
few countries embarked on a larger scale initiative than Australia to
privatize delivery and management of public infrastructure at all
levels of government."
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 75.
By the 1960s, however, this 'integrated ideal' was being challenged,
public infrastructure entering into crisis. There is now a new
orthodoxy in many branches of urban planning: 'The logic is now for
planners to fight for the best possible networked infrastructures for
their specialized district, in partnership with (often privatised and
internationalised network) operators, rather than seeking to
orchestrate how networks roll out through the city as a whole' (Graham
and Marvin, 2001: 113).
In the context of development theory, these 'secessionary'
infrastructures physically by-pass sectors of cities unable to afford
the necessary cabling, pipe-laying, or streetscaping that underpins
service provision. Cities such as Manila,
Mumbai are thus
increasingly characterized by a two-speed mode of urbanisation. * ^
"public, adj. and n.", Oxford English Dictionary, September 2007.
* ^ Emanuele Lobina, David Hall, Public Services International
Research Unit ,
University of Greenwich.
* ^ Michael Goldman, "How \'
Water for All!\' policy became
hegemonic: The power of the World
Bank and its transnational policy
networks"; Geoforum 38(5), September 2007;
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 169–170.
* ^ Grava (2003), pp. 1–2.
* ^ A B C D Tom Hart, "
Transport and the City"; in Paddison (2001).
* ^ Grava (2003), pp. 15–18.
* ^ Grava (2003),
* ^ Smethurst pp. 67–71.
* ^ Smethurst pp. 105–71.
* ^ A B J. Allen Whitt Urban Affairs Quarterly 21(1), September
* ^ A B Iain Borden, "Automobile Interstices: Driving and the
In-Between Spaces of the City"; in Brighenti (2013).
* ^ Moshe Safdie with Wendy Kohn, The
City After the Automobile;
BasicBooks (Harper Collins), 1997; ISBN 0-465-09836-3 ; pp. 3–6.
* ^ Grava (2003), pp. 128–132; 152–157.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 30–32.
* ^ Grava (2003), 301–305. "There are a great many places where
are the only public service mode offered; to the best of the author's
knowledge, no city that has transit operates without a bus component.
Leaving aside private cars, all indicators—passengers carried,
vehicle kilometers accumulated, size of fleet, accidents recorded,
pollution caused, workers employed, or whatever else—show the
dominance of buses among all transit modes, in this country as well as
anywhere else around the world. At the global scale, there are
probably 8000 to 10,000 communities and cities that provide organized
bus transit. The larger places have other modes as well, but the bulk
of these cities offers buses as their sole public means of mobility."
* ^ Herbert S. Levinson, Samuel Zimmerman, Jennifer Clinger,
Journal of Public
Transportation 5(2), 2002.
* ^ Yvonne Rydin et al., "Shaping cities for health: complexity and
the planning of urban environments in the 21st century"; The Lancet
379(9831), 2012; PMID 3428861 .
* ^ Anthony Walmsley, "Greenways: multiplying and diversifying in
the 21st century"; Landscape and Urban
Planning 76, 2006;
* ^ McQuillin (1937/1987), §1.74. "It cannot be too strongly
emphasized that no city begins to be well-planned until it has solved
its housing problem. The problems of living and working are of primary
importance. These include sanitation, sufficient sewers, clean, well
lighted streets, rehabilitation of slum areas, and health protection
through provision for pure water and wholesome food.
* ^ Ray Forrest in Paddison (2001).
* ^ Franz Rebele, "Urban Ecology and
Special Features of Urban
Ecosystems", Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 4(6), November
* ^ Herbert Sukopp, "On the Early History of Urban Ecology in
Europe"; in Marzluff et al. (2008).
* ^ A B C D E S.T.A. Pickett, M.L. Cadenasso, J.M. Grove, C.H.
Nilon, R.V. Pouyat, W.C. Zipperer, in Marzluff et al. (2008).
* ^ Ingo Kowarik, "On the Role of Alien Species in Urban Flora and
Vegetation"; in Marzluff et al. (2008).
* ^ Robert Campagni, Roberta Capello, in Paddison (2001).
* ^ "National Geographic Magazine;
Special report 2008: Changing
Village Green". Michelle Nijhuis. 2008-08-26. Retrieved
* ^ "Indoor Air Quality — American Lung Association of Alaska".
Aklung.org. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
* ^ "Newsminer.com; EPA to put Fairbanks on air pollution problem
list". Newsminer.com. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
* ^ Peter Adey, "Coming up for Air: Comfort, Conflict and the Air
of the Megacity"; in Brighenti (2013), p. 103.
* ^ Anthony Brazel, Nancy Selover, Russel Vose, Climate Research
* ^ Sharon L. Harlan, Anthony J. Brazel, G. Darrel Jenerette, Nancy
S. Jones, Larissa Larsen, Lela Prashad, in Robert C. Wilkinson Oxford:
JAI Press (Elsevier); ISBN 978-0-7623-1417-1 .
* ^ Abrahamson (2004), p. 2–4. "The linkages among cities cutting
across nations became a global network. It is important to note here
that the key nodes in the international system are (global) cities,
not nations. Once the linkages among cities became a global network,
nations became dependent upon their major cities for connections to
the rest of the world."
* ^ A B Herrschel Sassen 1998). Decentralization processes have
increased city-level capacities of city authorities to develop and
implement local social and developmental policies. Cities as homes of
the rich, and of powerful businesses, banks, stock markets, UN
agencies and NGOs, are the location from which global to local
decision-making occurs (e.g. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Hong
Kong, São Paulo)."
* ^ Herrschel with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B.
(2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of
Sustainability. London: Routledge. pp. 28, 30. "Against those writers
who, by emphasizing the importance of financial exchange systems,
distinguish a few special cities as 'global cities'—commonly London,
Paris, New York and Tokyo—we recognize the uneven global dimensions
of all the cities that we study. Los Angeles, the home of Hollywood,
is a globalizing city, though perhaps more significantly in cultural
than economic terms. And so is Dili globalizing, the small and
'insignificant' capital of Timor Leste—except this time it is
predominantly in political terms..."
* ^ Kaplan (2004), 99–106.
* ^ Kaplan (2004), pp. 91–95. "The United States is also dominant
in providing high-quality, global engineering-design services,
accounting for approximately 50 percent of the world's total exports.
The disproportionate presence of these U.S.-headquartered firms is
attributable to the U.S. role in overseas automobile production, the
electronics and petroleum industries, and various kinds of
construction, including work on the country's numerous overseas air
and navy military bases."
* ^ Kaplan (2004), p. 90–92.
* ^ Michael Samers, "Immigration and the Global
Towards an Alternative Research Agenda"; International Journal of
Urban and Regional Research 26(2), June 2002. "And not withstanding
some major world cities that do not have comparatively high levels of
immigration, like Tokyo, it may in fact be the presence of such
large-scale immigrant economic 'communities' (with their attendant
global financial remittances and their ability to incubate small
business growth, rather than simply their complementarity to producer
services employment) which partially distinguishes mega-cities from
other more nationally oriented urban centres."
* ^ Jane Willis, Kavita Datta, Yara Evans, Joanna Herbert, Jon May,
London: Pluto Press, 2010; ISBN 978 0 7453 2799 0 ; p. 29: "These
apparently rather different takes on London's 'global city' status are
of course not so far removed from one another as they may first
appear. Holding them together is the figure of the migrant worker. The
reliance of London's financial institutions and business services
industries on the continuing flow of highly skilled labour from
overseas is now well known (Beaverstock and Smith 1996). Less well
known is the extent to which London's economy as a whole is now
dependent upon the labour power of low-paid workers from across the
* ^ Mattthew R. Sanderson, Ben Derudder, Michael Timberlake,
International Journal of Comparative Sociology 56(3–4), 2015;
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 49–50.
* ^ Charlie Jeffery, "Sub-National Authorities and European
Integration: Moving Beyond the Nation-State?" Presented at the Fifth
Biennial International Conference of the European Community Studies
Association, 29 May–1 June 1997, Seattle, USA.
* ^ Jing Pan, "The Role of Local Government in Shaping and
Influencing International Policy Frameworks", PhD thesis accepted at
De Montfort University, April 2014.
* ^ Herrschel Regional and Federal Studies 12(3), Autumn 2002.
* ^ Carola Hein, "Cities (and regions) within a city: subnational
representations and the creation of European imaginaries in Brussels";
International Journal of the Urban Sciences 19(1), 2015. See also
websites of individual city embassies cited therein, including Hanse
Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein) and
Office in Brussels"; and CoR's in Brussels.
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), pp. 45–47.
* ^ A B Sofie Bouteligier, "Inequality in new global governance
arrangements: the North–South divide in transnational municipal
networks"; Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research
26(3), 2013; doi:10.1080/13511610.2013.771890 . "
City networks are not
a new phenomenon, but it was the 1990s that saw an explosion of such
initiatives, especially in the environmental domain. This is mostly
ascribed to (chapter 28 of) Agenda 21, which recognizes the role of
local authorities in the promotion of sustainable development and
stimulates exchange and cooperation between them."
* ^ A B Herrschel & Newman (2017), p. 82.
* ^ A B Nancy Duxbury Chapter 21 in The Ashgate Research Companion
Planning and Culture; London: Ashgate, 2013.
* ^ Now the Global
Covenant of Mayors ; see: "Global Covenant of
Mayors - Compact of Mayors". Retrieved 13 October 2016.
* ^ "The Vancouver Action Plan"; Approved at Habitat: United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada; 31 May to
11 June 1976.
* ^ A B C Peter R. Walker, "Human Settlements and Urban Life: A
United Nations Perspective"; Journal of Social Distress and the
Homeless 14, 2005; doi:10.1179/105307805807066329 .
* ^ David Satterthwaite, "Editorial: A new urban agenda?";
Environment doi:10.1177/0956247816637501 .
* ^ A B Susan Parnell, "Defining a Global Urban Development
Agenda"; World Development 78, 2015;
doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.028 ; pp. 531–532: "Garnered by its
interest in the urban poor the Bank, along with other international
donors, became an active and influential participant in the Habitat
deliberations, confirming both
Habitat I and
Habitat II's focus on
'development in cities' instead of the role of 'cities in
* ^ A B Vanessa Watson, "Locating planning in the New Urban Agenda
of the urban sustainable development goal";
Planning Theory 15(4),
2016; doi:10.1177/1473095216660786 .
* ^ New Urban Agenda,
Habitat III Secretariat, 2017; A/RES/71/256*;
ISBN 978-92-1-132731-1 ; p. 15.
* ^ Akin L. Mabogunje , "A New Paradigm for Urban Development";
Proceedings of the World
Bank Annual Conference on Development
Economics 1991. "Irrespective of the economic outcome, the regime of
structural adjustment being adopted in most developing countries today
is likely to spur urbanization. If structural adjustment actually
succeeds in turning around economic performance, the enhanced gross
domestic product is bound to attract more migrants to the cities; if
it fails, the deepening misery—especially in the rural areas—is
certain to push more migrants to the city."
* ^ John Briggs and Ian E. A. Yeboah, "
Structural adjustment and
the contemporary sub-Saharan African city"; Area 33(1), 2001.
* ^ Claire Wanjiru Ngare, "Supporting Learning Cities: A Case Study
of the Cities Alliance"; master's thesis accepted at the
Ottawa, April 2012.
* ^ Alexandre Apsan Frediani, "Amartya Sen, the World Bank, and the
Redress of Urban Poverty: A Brazilian Case Study"; in Journal of Human
Development 8(1), March 2007.
* ^ Ellul (1970).
* ^ Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, "
City Imaginaries", in Bridge &
Watson, eds. (2000).
* ^ Herrschel A Dictionary of Symbols, Second Edition, translated
from Spanish to English by Jack Read; New York: Philosophical Library,
1971; pp. 48–49 (online).
* ^ Latham et al. (2009), p. 115.
* ^ Leach (1993), p. 345. "The German film director
Fritz Lang was
inspired to 'make a film' about 'the sensations' he felt when he first
Times Square in 1923; a place 'lit as if in full daylight by neon
lights and topping them oversized luminous advertisements moving,
turning, flashing on and off . . . something completely new and nearly
fairly-tale-like for a European . . . a luxurious cloth hung from a
dark sky to dazzle, distract, and hypnotize.' The film Lang made
turned out to be The Metropolis, an unremittingly dark vision of a
modern industrial city.
* ^ Curtis (2016), p. vii–x, 1.
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis , Ecumenopolis: Tomorrow\'s
City; Brittanica Book of the Year, 1968. Chapter V: Ecumenopolis, the
City of Man. "Ecumenopolis, which mankind will have built 150
years from now, can be the real city of man because, for the first
time in history, man will have one city rather than many cities
belonging to different national, racial, religious, or local groups,
each ready to protect its own members but also ready to fight those
from other cities, large and small, interconnected into a system of
cities. Ecumenopolis, the unique city of man, will form a continuous,
differentiated, but also unified texture consisting of many cells, the
human communities. "
* Abrahamson, Mark (2004). Global Cities. Oxford
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* Carter, Harold (1995). The Study of Urban Geography. Fourth
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* Curtis, Simon (2016). Global Cities and Global Order. Oxford
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* Hanson, Royce (ed.). Perspectives on Urban Infrastructure.
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* Kavaratzis, Mihalis, Gary Warnaby, & Gregory J. Ashworth, eds.
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* Kraas, Frauke, Surinder Aggarwal, Martin Coy, & Günter Mertins,
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* Leach, William (1993). Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the
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House), 1994. ISBN 0-679-75411-3 .
* Levy, John M. (2017). Contemporary Urban Planning. 11th Edition.
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* Magnusson, Warren. Politics of Urbanism: Seeing like a city.
London & New York: Routledge, 2011. ISBN 978-0-203-80889-4 .
* Marshall, John U. (1989). The Structure of Urban Systems.
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* Marzluff, John M., Eric Schulenberger, Wilfried Endlicher, Marina
Alberti, Gordon Bradley, Clre Ryan, Craig ZumBrunne, & Ute Simon
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* McQuillan, Eugene (1937/1987). The
Law of Municipal Corporations:
Third Edition. 1987 revised volume by Charles R. P. Keating, Esq.
Wilmette, Illinois: Callaghan & Company.
* Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl (1968). Matrix of Man: An Illustrated History
of Urban Environment. New York: Frederick A Praeger. ISBN
* Mumford, Lewis (1961). The
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* O'Flaherty, Brendan (2005).
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* Pacione, Michael (2001). The City: Critical Concepts in The Social
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* Paddison, Ronan, ed. (2001). Handbook of Urban Studies. London;
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* Rybczynski, W. ,
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* Smith, Michael E. (2002) The Earliest Cities. In Urban Life:
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* Southall, Aidan (1998). The
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* Chandler, T. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical
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* Geddes, Patrick ,
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