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The Circassians
Circassians
(Russian: Черкесы), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher, Russian: Ады́ги), are a Northwest Caucasian
Northwest Caucasian
ethnic group[19] native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War
Russian–Circassian War
in 1864. In its narrowest sense, the term "Circassian" includes the twelve Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэ, Adyge) tribes (three democratic and nine aristocratic); Abzakh, Besleney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Kabardian, Mamkhegh, Natukhai, Shapsug, Temirgoy, Ubykh, Yegeruqwai
Yegeruqwai
and Zhaney,[20] each star on the Circassian flag representing each tribe. However, due to Soviet administrative divisions, Circassians
Circassians
were also designated as the following: Adygeans (Adyghe in Adygea), Cherkessians (Adyghe in Karachay-Cherkessia), Kabardians
Kabardians
(Adyghe in Kabardino-Balkaria) and Shapsugians (Adyghe in Krasnodar Krai), although all the four are essentially the same people residing in different political units. Most Circassians
Circassians
are Sunni Muslim.[21] The Circassians
Circassians
mainly speak the Circassian languages, a Northwest Caucasian
Northwest Caucasian
dialect continuum with three main dialects and numerous sub-dialects. Many Circassians
Circassians
also speak Turkish, Russian, English, Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew, having been exiled by Russia
Russia
to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them today live.[22][better source needed] About 800,000 Circassians
Circassians
remain in historical Circassia
Circassia
(the modern-day titular Circassian republics of Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
and Karachay-Cherkessia
Karachay-Cherkessia
as well as Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
and the southwestern parts of Stavropol Krai
Stavropol Krai
and Rostov Oblast), and others live in the Russian Federation outside these republics and krais. The 2010 Russian Census recorded 718,727 Circassians, of whom 516,826 are Kabardian, 124,835 are other Adyghe in Adygea, 73,184 are Cherkess
Cherkess
and 3,882 Shapsug.[8] The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
estimated in the early 1990s that there are as many as 3.7 million "ethnic Circassian" diaspora (in over 50 countries)[23] outside the titular Circassian republics (meaning that only one in seven "ethnic Circassians" live in the homeland), and that, of these 3.7 million, more than 2 million live in Turkey,[23] 300,000 in the Levant
Levant
(mostly modern-day Jordan and Syria) and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and 50,000 in Western Europe
Western Europe
and the United States.

Contents

1 Ethnonyms 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Medieval period 2.3 Russian invasion of Circassia 2.4 Post-exile period

3 Culture

3.1 Language 3.2 Religion

3.2.1 Adyghe Khabze

3.3 Traditional social system 3.4 Traditional clothing 3.5 Traditional cuisine 3.6 Traditional crafts

4 Tribes

4.1 Other Adyghe groups

5 Circassian diaspora

5.1 Western Asia 5.2 Egypt 5.3 Europe 5.4 North America

6 Sochi
Sochi
Olympics controversy 7 Depictions in art 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Ethnonyms[edit] The Circassians
Circassians
refer to themselves as Adyghe (also transliterated as Adyga, Adyge, Adygei, Adyghe, Attéghéi). The name is believed to derive from atté "height" to signify a mountaineer or a highlander, and ghéi "sea", signifying "a people dwelling and inhabiting a mountainous country near the sea coast", or "between two seas".[24][25] The exonym "Circassians" (/sərˈkæsiənz/ sər-KASS-ee-ənz) is occasionally applied to Adyghe and Abaza from the North Caucasus.[26] The name Circassian represents a Latinisation of Siraces, the Greek name for the region, called Shirkess by Khazars
Khazars
and later Cherkess, the Turkic name for the Adyghe, and originated in the 15th century with medieval Genoese merchants and travellers to Circassia.[26][27] The Turkic peoples[28] and Russians
Russians
call the Adyghe Cherkess.[29] Folk etymology usually explains the name Cherkess
Cherkess
as "warrior cutter" or "soldier cutter", from the Turkish words çeri (soldier) and kesmek (to cut).[citation needed] Despite a common self-designation and a common Russian name,[30] Soviet
Soviet
authorities applied four designations to Circassians:[citation needed]

Kabardian, Circassians
Circassians
of Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
( Circassians
Circassians
speaking the Kabardian language[31][32], one of two indigenous peoples of the republic. Cherkess
Cherkess
(Adyghe: Шэрджэс Šărdžăs), Circassians
Circassians
of Karachay-Cherkessia
Karachay-Cherkessia
( Circassians
Circassians
speaking the Cherkess, i.e. Circassian, language[31][32] one of two indigenous peoples of the republic who are mostly Besleney
Besleney
Kabardians. The name "Cherkess" is the Russian form of "Circassian" and was used for all Circassians before Soviet
Soviet
times. Adyghe or Adygeans, the indigenous population of the Kuban
Kuban
including Adygea
Adygea
and Krasnodar Krai.[33] Shapsug, the indigenous historical inhabitants of Shapsugia. They live in the Tuapse District
Tuapse District
and the Lazarevsky City District
Lazarevsky City District
(formerly the Shapsugsky National District) of Sochi, both in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
and in Adygea.

In Russian historiography the term had been used as an exonym for Russian, Ukrainian and Kazakh people at least until the end of 18th century[34][35], and Caucasian Tatar peoples (namely Terek Tatar and Kumyk[36]). In Turkey
Turkey
the term nowadays used as a name for all Caucasian ethnic groups such as, such as Karachays, Ossetians, different Dagestanian diasporas and others[37][38]. History[edit] Origins[edit]

Tuman bay II
Tuman bay II
(reigned 1516–1517) the last Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan of Adyghe origins

Genetically, the Adyghe have shared ancestry partially with neighboring peoples of the Caucasus, with some influence from the other regions.[39] The Circassian language, also known as the Cherkess language, including West Adyghe, Kabardian Adyghe, and Ubykh, is a member of the ancient Northwest Caucasian
Northwest Caucasian
language family. Archaeological
Archaeological
findings, mainly of dolmens in Northwest Caucasus region, indicate a megalithic culture in the Northwest Caucasus.[40] Around the beginning of the 4th Millennium BCE, the North West Caucasus
Caucasus
region and western Steppes became influenced by the Maykop culture. Medieval period[edit] As a result of Greek and Byzantine
Byzantine
influence, Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the Caucasus
Caucasus
between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE.[41][42] During that period the Circassians
Circassians
(referred to at the time as Kassogs)[43] began to accept Christianity
Christianity
as a national religion, but did not abandon all elements of their indigenous religious beliefs. From around 400 CE wave after wave of invaders began to invade the lands of the Adyghe, who were also known as the Kasogi (or Kassogs) at the time. They were conquered first by the Bulgars
Bulgars
(who originated on the Central Asian steppes). Outsiders sometimes confused the Adyghe with the similarly-named Utigurs
Utigurs
(a branch of the Bulgars), and both peoples were sometimes conflated under misnomers such as "Utige". The Bulgar state, with its capital at Phanagoria
Phanagoria
on the Taman peninsula, reached the apex of its geopolitical sway from 632 to 668, as Old Great Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(which also occupied present-day southern Ukraine). Under pressure from the Khazars, Great Bulgaria
Bulgaria
declined quickly and collapsed, to be succeeded by the Khazar Khaganate
Khazar Khaganate
in 668. The Adyghe, following the dissolution of the Khazar state, were integrated (around the end of the 1st millennium CE) by the Kingdom of Alania. Between the 10th and 13th centuries Georgia had influence on the Adyghe, adopting Christianity. In the 17th century, under the influence of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
and of the Ottoman Empire, some Circassians
Circassians
started to adopt Islam. Earlier Circassian converts adopting Islam
Islam
even in the late 15th century subsequently became Mamluks
Mamluks
and rose through the ranks to become sultans in Egypt
Egypt
during the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1250–1517). Although the make-up of the Burji Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1382–1517) were mostly Adyghe (including Kabardian), there were also Abkhaz, Abaza, and Georgian people whom the Arab sultans recruited to serve their kingdoms as a military force. However, the former Bahri Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1250–1382) comprised mainly Cumans and Kipchaks.[44] During the 13th century the Mamluks
Mamluks
seized power in Cairo, and as a result[citation needed] the Mamluk
Mamluk
kingdom became the most influential kingdom in the Muslim world. The majority of the leaders of the Mamluk
Mamluk
kingdom had Adyghe origins.[45] Even after the Ottoman Turks conquered Egypt
Egypt
in 1517, the Adyghes continued to rule in Egypt
Egypt
until the 18th century.[citation needed] With the rise of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Muhammad Ali Pasha
(who ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 1805 to 1848), most senior Mamluks
Mamluks
were killed by him in order to secure his rule and the remaining Mamluks
Mamluks
fled to Sudan. As of 2016[update] several thousand Adyghe reside in Egypt; in addition to the descendants of Burji Mamluks
Mamluks
of Adyghe origin, there are many who descend from royal Circassian consorts or Ottoman pashas of Circassian origin as well as Circassian muhajirs of the 19th century. Until the rise of Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
in Egypt
Egypt
in the 1950s, the Adyghe formed an élite group in the country. Besides the Adyghe, the Egyptian Abaza family
Abaza family
(of Abazin
Abazin
origin) still holds to this day an élite place in Egyptian society, and constitutes Egypt's largest family.[citation needed] Large numbers of Circassians
Circassians
converted to Islam
Islam
from Christianity
Christianity
in the 17th century.[46]

Kurgoko Atazhukin, a Circassian prince of the Kabarday
Kabarday
tribe, led his people against the invading Tatars
Tatars
in the battle of Kinzhal (ru).

In 1708, Qaplan I Giray (ru), a Crimean khan, ordered to have 4,000 Kabardian slaves while ascending to the throne. Kabardians
Kabardians
led by Kurgoko Atazhukin (ru) were reluctant to pay tribute to the Crimean Khan.[47] Qaplan I Giray along with 20,000 warriors marched to Kabarday
Kabarday
to retrieve his demands. While setting a fire camp, Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were attacked by 7,000 cavalry units headed by Prince Kurgoko Atazhukin in the battle of Kinzhal (ru) near Malka River. The Crimean army was destroyed in one night on 17 September 1708. Only a small group of Crimeans headed by Qaplan I Giray managed to escape.[48] In 2013, the Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences recognized that the battle of Kinzhal Mountain with the paramount importance in the national history of Kabardians, Balkarians and Ossetians.[49] The Safavid
Safavid
(1501–1736) and Qajar
Qajar
(1789–1925) dynasties saw the importing and deporting of large numbers of Circassians
Circassians
to Persia, where many enjoyed prestige in the harems and in the élite armies (the so-called ghulams), while many others settled and deployed as craftsmen, labourers, farmers and regular soldiers. Many members of the Safavid
Safavid
nobility and élite had Circassian ancestry and Circassian dignitaries, such as the kings Abbas II of Persia
Persia
(reigned 1642–1666) and Suleiman I of Persia
Persia
(reigned 1666–1694). While traces of Circassian settlements in Iran
Iran
have lasted into the 20th century, many of the once large Circassian minority became assimilated into the local population.[50] However, significant communities of Circassians
Circassians
continue to live in particular cities in Iran,[51] like Tabriz and Tehran, and in the northern provinces of Gilan
Gilan
and Mazandaran.[52][53] It has been estimated that the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
imported some 200,000 slaves—mainly Circassians—between 1800 and 1909.[54] Russian invasion of Circassia[edit] Main article: Ethnic cleansing of Circassians See also: Circassian nationalism

Map of the expulsion of Circassians
Circassians
to the Ottoman Empire. The light green area denotes the final borders of Circassians
Circassians
who were already pushed southwards prior to their expulsion to the Ottoman Empire. Note that in the late 1700s Circassians
Circassians
lost their northern territories which are not marked by green colour on this map.

Between the late 18th and early-to-mid-19th centuries, the Adyghe people lost their independence as they were slowly invaded by Russia in a series of wars and campaigns. During this period, the Adyghe plight achieved a certain celebrity status in the West; but pledges of assistance were never fulfilled. After the Crimean War, Russia
Russia
turned its attention to the Caucasus
Caucasus
in earnest. Following major territorial losses for Persia
Persia
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
Russo-Persian War (1804–1813)
and the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), forcing them to cede what comprises now Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to Imperial Russia,[55] the latter found itself now able to focus most of its army on subdueing the rebelling natives of the North Caucasus, starting with the peoples of Chechnya
Chechnya
and Dagestan. In 1859, the Russians
Russians
had finished defeating Imam Shamil
Imam Shamil
in the eastern Caucasus, and turned their attention westward. Eventually, the long lasting Russian–Circassian War
Russian–Circassian War
ended with the defeat of the Adyghe forces. Some Adyghe leaders signed loyalty oaths on 2 June 1864 (21 May, O.S.). The Conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the 19th century during the Russian-Circassian War, led to the destruction and killing of many Adyghe—towards the end of the conflict, the Russian General Yevdokimov was tasked with driving the remaining Circassian inhabitants out of the region, primarily into the Ottoman Empire. This policy was enforced by mobile columns of Russian riflemen and Cossack cavalry.[56][57][58] "In a series of sweeping military campaigns lasting from 1860 to 1864... the northwest Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Black Sea coast were virtually emptied of Muslim
Muslim
villagers. Columns of the displaced were marched either to the Kuban
Kuban
[River] plains or toward the coast for transport to the Ottoman Empire... One after another, entire Circassian tribal groups were dispersed, resettled, or killed en masse"[58] This expulsion, along with the actions of the Russian military in acquiring Circassian land,[59] has given rise to a movement among descendants of the expelled ethnicities for international recognition that genocide was perpetrated.[60] In 1840, Karl Friedrich Neumann
Karl Friedrich Neumann
estimated the Circassian casualties to be around one and a half million.[61] Some sources state that hundreds of thousands of others died during the exodus.[62] Several historians use the phrase "Circassian massacres"[63] for the consequences of Russian actions in the region.[64] On 20 May 2011, the Georgian parliament voted in a 95 to 0 declaration that Russia
Russia
had committed genocide when it engaged in massacres against Circassians
Circassians
in the 19th century.[65] Like other ethnic minorities under Russian rule, the Adyghe who remained in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
borders were subjected to policies of mass resettlement. The Ottoman Empire, which ruled large parts of the area south of Russia, considered the Adyghe warriors to be courageous and well-experienced. It encouraged them to settle in various near-border settlements of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in order to strengthen the empire's borders. According to Walter Richmond, " Circassia
Circassia
was a small independent nation on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea. For no reason other than ethnic hatred, over the course of hundreds of raids the Russians drove the Circassians
Circassians
from their homeland and deported them to the Ottoman Empire. At least 600,000 people lost their lives to massacre, starvation, and the elements while hundreds of thousands more were forced to leave their homeland. By 1864, three-fourths of the population was annihilated, and the Circassians
Circassians
had become one of the first stateless peoples in modern history".[66] Post-exile period[edit] The Adyghes who were settled by the Ottomans in various near-border settlements across the empire, ended up living across many territories in the Middle East. At the time these belonged to the Ottoman Empire and are now located in the following countries:

Turkey, which has the largest Adyghe population in the world. The Adyghe settled in three main regions in Turkey: Samsun, along the shores of the Black Sea; the region near the city of Ankara, the region near the city of Kayseri, and in the western part of the country near the region of Istanbul. This latter region experienced a severe earthquake in 1999. Many Adyghe played key roles in the Ottoman army and also participated in the Turkish War of Independence. Syria. Most of the Adyghe who immigrated to Syria
Syria
settled in the Golan Heights. Prior to the Six-Day War, the Adyghe people
Adyghe people
were the majority group in the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
region—their number at that time is estimated at 30,000. The most prominent settlement in the Golan was the town of Quneitra. The total number of Circassians
Circassians
in Syria
Syria
is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000.[67] In 2013, the Syrian Circassians
Circassians
said they were exploring returning to Circassia, as tensions between the Baath government and the opposition forces escalated. Circassians
Circassians
from different parts of Syria, such as Damascus, have moved back to the Golan Heights, believed to be safer. Some refugees have been reportedly killed by shelling. Circassians have been lobbying the Russian and Israeli governments to help evacuate refugees from Syria. Some visas were issued by Russia.[68] Israel
Israel
and Palestine. The Adyghe initially settled in three places—in Kfar Kama, Rehaniya, and in the region of Hadera. Due to a malaria epidemic, the Adyghe settlement near Hadera
Hadera
was eventually abandoned. Though Sunni Muslim, Adyghe are seen as a loyal minority within Israel, who serve in the armed forces.[69][70][71] Jordan. The Adyghe had a major role in the history of the Kingdom of Jordan.[72][73] Over the years, various Adyghe have served in distinguished roles in the kingdom of Jordan. An Adyghe has served as a prime minister (Sa'id al-Mufti), ministers (commonly at least one minister should represent the Circassians
Circassians
in each cabinet), high rank officers, etc., and due to their important role in the history of Jordan, Adyghe form the Hashemites
Hashemites
honour guard at the royal palaces. They represented Jordan
Jordan
in the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo
Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo
in 2010, joining other honour guards such as the Airborne Ceremonial Unit.[74][75] Jordanian Circassians
Circassians
have several clusterings, most notably Sweileh
Sweileh
in Amman. Iraq. The Adyghe came to Iraq
Iraq
directly from Circassia.They settled in all parts of Iraq—from north to south—but most of all in Iraq's capital Baghdad. Many Adyghe also settled in Kerkuk, Diyala, Fallujah, and other places. Circassians
Circassians
played a major role in different periods throughout Iraq's history, and made great contributions to political and military institutions in the country, to the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
in particular. Several Iraqi prime ministers have been of Circassian descent.

Culture[edit] See also: Circassian music and Circassian folklore Adyghe society prior to the Russian invasion was highly stratified. While a few tribes in the mountainous regions of Adygeya were fairly egalitarian, most were broken into strict castes. The highest was the caste of the "princes", followed by a caste of lesser nobility, and then commoners, serfs, and slaves. In the decades before Russian rule, two tribes overthrew their traditional rulers and set up democratic processes, but this social experiment was cut short by the end of Adyghe independence. Language[edit]

The Circassian dialects and sub-dialects development

The isolated Northwest Caucasian
Northwest Caucasian
language family

Main articles: Circassian language, Adyghe language, and Kabardian language Circassians
Circassians
mainly speak the Circassian language, a Northwest Caucasian language with numerous dialects, the primary ones being Adyghe (West Circassian) and Kabardian (East Adyghe). West Adyghe language is based on Temirgoy dialect, while East Adyghe language
Adyghe language
is based on Kabardian dialect. Circassians
Circassians
also speak Russian, Turkish, English, Arabic, and Hebrew in large numbers, having been exiled by Russia
Russia
to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them live today, and some to neighboring Persia, to which they came primarily through mass deportations by the Safavids
Safavids
and Qajars
Qajars
or, to a lesser extent, as muhajirs in the 19th century.[76][77][78][79] Lesser numbers of Circassians
Circassians
speak German and Persian. Diaspora
Diaspora
Circassians
Circassians
in Israel
Israel
are the only community that use Adyghe as their main spoken language. Circassians
Circassians
in Turkey
Turkey
speak Turkish, Circassians
Circassians
in Arab countries speak Arabic
Arabic
and Circassian communities in North America speak English.[80] Walter Richmond writes that the Circassian language
Circassian language
in Russia
Russia
is "gravely threatened." He argues that Russian policy of surrounding small Circassian communities with Slavic populations has created conditions where Circassian language
Circassian language
and nationality will disappear. By the 1990s, Russian had become the standard language for business in the Republic of Adygea, even within communities with Circassian majority populations.[81] The Circassians
Circassians
who migrated to the United States
United States
are facing an assimilation crisis.[citation needed] Each new generation of Circassians
Circassians
are not preserving their language. Historians predict the language will be extinct within the next 50 years in the U.S. Religion[edit]

The mosque of Abu Darwish (Adyghe descendant), one of the oldest mosques in Amman
Amman
and considered as a major landmark.

The ethnic religion of Circassians
Circassians
(Adyghes) was Habze—a philosophical and religious system of personal values and the relationship of an individual to others, to the world around him, and to the Higher Mind. In essence, it represents monotheism with a much-defined system of worshipping One God—the Mighty Tha (Tha, Thashxue). During the time of the settlement of Greek cities / colonies on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
there was an intermingling of cultures. Circassian mythology has noticeable aspects from Roman mythology. In return, there is evidence that Roman mythology also borrowed from Circassian legends. In the 6th century, under Byzantine influence, many Adyghes became Christian, but under the growing influence of the Ottomans, many of them became Muslims. Throughout Circassian history the ethnic religion of Circassians
Circassians
has interacted with Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. It is the tradition of the early church that Christianity
Christianity
made its first appearance in Circassia
Circassia
in the first century AD via the travels and preaching of the Apostle Andrew.[82] Subsequently, Christianity spread throughout the Caucasus
Caucasus
between the 4th century[41] and the 6th century[42] under Greek Byzantine
Byzantine
influence and later through the Georgians
Georgians
between the 10th century and the 13th century. During that period, Circassians
Circassians
began to accept Christianity
Christianity
as their national religion, but did not fully adopt Christianity
Christianity
as elements of their ancient indigenous religious beliefs still survived. Islam
Islam
reached the northeastern region of the Caucasus, principally Dagestan, as early as the 7th century, but was first introduced to the Circassians
Circassians
between the 16th century and in the middle of the 19th century under the influence of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
and Ottoman Turks. In the modern times, it has been reported that some Circassians practice their traditional religious faith Habzism, the adherents of which constitute 12% of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia
Karachay-Cherkessia
and 3% of the population of Kabardino-Balkaria.[83][84] There have also been reports of violence against those practising the older religion. Aslan Tsipinov, an advocate of Habzism in Kabardino-Balkaria, was murdered in 2010 by Islamist radical non- Circassians
Circassians
who had accused him of mushrik (disbelief in Islamic monotheism) and months earlier threatened him and others they accused as idolaters and munafiqun ("hypocrites" who are said are outwardly Muslims but secretly unsympathetic to the cause of Islam) to stop "reviving" and diffusing the rituals of the original Circassian pre-Islamic faith.[85][86] Since the late 18th and early 19th century, the majority of Circassians
Circassians
are predominantly Sunni Muslim
Muslim
and adhere to the Hanafi school of thought, or law, the largest and oldest school of Islamic law in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. However, there are still Orthodox Christian Circassians—e.g., Mozdok Kabardians—who have been Christian since the early 3rd century to present. There are also a few Roman Catholics, who now account for just under 1% of Russia's Circassians,[87] the faith having been introduced to the area during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Venetian and Genoese traders. Adyghe Khabze[edit]

Habzist "hammer cross" symbol, representing the highest god Tha.[88]

Main article: Adyghe Habze Adyghe Habze, Khabze, or Xabze (Adyghe: Адыгэ Хабзэ) is the native Circassian philosophy, worldview, and quasi-religion, it is the epitome of Circassian culture and tradition having deeply shaped the ethical values of the Adyghe. It is their code of honour and is based on mutual respect and above all requires responsibility, discipline and self-control. Adyghe Xabze functions as the Circassian unwritten law yet was highly regulated and adhered to in the past. The Code requires that all Circassians
Circassians
are taught courage, reliability and generosity. Greed, desire for possessions, wealth and ostentation are considered disgraceful ("Yemiku") by the Xabze code. In accordance with Xabze, hospitality was and is particularly pronounced among the Circassians. A guest is not only a guest of the host family, but equally a guest of the whole village and clan. Even enemies are regarded as guests if they enter the home and being hospitable to them as one would with any other guest is a sacred duty. Circassians
Circassians
consider the host to be like a slave to the guest in that the host is expected to tend to the guest's every need and want. A guest must never be permitted to labour in any way, this is considered a major disgrace on the host. Every Circassian arises when someone enters the room, providing a place for the person entering and allowing the newcomer to speak before everyone else during the conversation. In the presence of elders and women, respectful conversation and conduct are essential. Disputes are stopped in the presence of women and domestic disputes are never continued in the presence of guests. A woman can request disputing families to reconcile and they must comply with her request. A key figure in Circassian culture is the person known as the "Tkhamade" or "T'hamata" (Adyghe: Тхьэмадэ – Тхьэматэ), who is often an elder but also the person who carries the responsibility for functions like weddings or circumcision parties. This person must always comply with all the rules of Xabze in all areas of his life. Traditional social system[edit] Society was organized by Adyghe khabze, or Circassian custom.[89] Many of these customs had equivalents throughout the mountains. It should be noted that the seemingly disorganized Circassians
Circassians
resisted the Russians
Russians
just as effectively as the organized theocracy of Imam Shamil. The aristocracy was called warq. Some aristocratic families held the rank of Pshi or prince and the eldest member of this family was the Pshi-tkhamade who was the tribal chief. Below the warq was the large class to tfokotl, roughly yeomen or freemen, who had various duties to the warq. They were divided into clans of some sort. Below them were three classes approximating serfs or slaves. Of course, these Circassian social terms do not exactly match their European equivalents. Since everything was a matter custom, much depended on time, place, circumstances and personality. The three 'democratic' tribes, Natukhai, Shapsug, and Abzakh, managed their affairs by assemblies called Khase or larger ones called Zafes. Decisions were made by general agreement and there was no formal mechanism to enforce decisions. The democratic tribes, who were perhaps the majority, lived mainly in the mountains where they were relatively protected from the Russians. They seem to have retained their aristocrats, but with diminished powers. In the remaining 'feudal' tribes power was theoretically in the hands of the Pshi-tkhamade, although his power could be limited by Khases or other influential families. In addition to the vertical relations of class there were many horizontal relations between unrelated persons. There was a strong tradition of hospitality similar to the Greek xenia. Many houses would have a kunakskaya or guest room. The duty of a host extended even to abreks or outlaws. Two men might be sworn brothers or kunaks. There were brotherhoods of unrelated individuals called tleuzh who provided each other mutual support. It was common for a child to be raised by an atalyk or foster father. Criminal law was mainly concerned with reconciling the two parties. Adyghe khabze is sometimes called adat when it is contrasted to the kind of Islamic law
Islamic law
advocated by people like Imam Shamil. Traditional clothing[edit]

Traditional Circassian clothing

The traditional female clothing (Adyghe: Бзылъфыгъэ Шъуашэр [bzəɬfəʁa ʂʷaːʃar]) was very diverse and highly decorated and mainly depends on the region, class of family, occasions, and tribes. The traditional female costume is composed of a dress (Adyghe: Джанэр [d͡ʒaːnar]), coat (Adyghe: Сае [saːja]), shirt, pant (Adyghe: ДжэнэкӀакор [d͡ʒanat͡ʃʼaːkʷar]), vest (Adyghe: КӀэкӀ [t͡ʃʼat͡ʃʼ]), lamb leather bra (Adyghe: Шъохътан [ʂʷaχtaːn]), a variety of hats (Adyghe: ПэӀохэр [paʔʷaxar]), shoes, and belts (Adyghe: Бгырыпхыхэр [bɣərəpxəxar]). Holiday dresses are made of expensive fabrics such as silk and velvet. The traditional colors of women's clothing rarely includes blue, green or bright-colored tones, instead mostly white, red, black and brown shades are worn. The Circassian dresses were embroidered with gold and silver threads. These embroideries were handmade and took time to complete as they were very intricate. The traditional male costume (Adyghe: Адыгэ хъулъфыгъэ шъуашэр [aːdəɣa χʷəɬfəʁa ʂʷaːʃar] ) includes a coat with wide sleeves, shirt, pants, a dagger, sword, and a variety of hats and shoes. Traditionally, young men in the warriors times wore coat with short sleeves—in order to feel more comfortable in combat. Different colors of clothing for males were strictly used to distinguish between different social classes, for example white is usually worn by princes, red by nobles, gray, brown, and black by peasants (blue, green and the other colors were rarely worn). A compulsory item in the traditional male costume is a dagger and a sword. The traditional Adyghean sword is called Shashka. It is a special kind of sabre; a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. Although the sword is used by most of Russian and Ukrainian Cossacks, the typically Adyghean form of the sabre is longer than the Cossack type, and in fact the word Shashka
Shashka
came from the Adyghe word "Sashkhwa" (Adyghe: Сашьхъуэ) which means "long knife". On the breast of the costume are long ornamental tubes or sticks, once filled with a single charge of gunpowder (called gaziri cartridges) and used to reload muskets. Traditional cuisine[edit]

An old country house and traditional cuisine with Haliva (Хьэлжъо) and Mataz
Mataz
(Мэтазэ), two of the prominent traditional Adyghe snacks.

The Adyghe cuisine is rich with different dishes.[90][91] In the summer, the traditional dishes consumed by the Adyghe people
Adyghe people
are mainly dairy products and vegetable dishes. In the winter and spring the traditional dishes are mainly flour and meat dishes. An example of the latter is known as ficcin. Circassian cheese
Circassian cheese
is considered one of the more famous types of cheeses in the North Caucasus. A popular traditional dish is chicken or turkey with sauce, seasoned with crushed garlic and red pepper. Mutton
Mutton
and beef are served boiled, usually with a seasoning of sour milk with crushed garlic and salt. Variants of pasta are found. A type of ravioli may be encountered, which is filled with potato or beef. On holidays the Adyghe people
Adyghe people
traditionally make Haliva
Haliva
(Adyghe: хьэлжъо) (fried triangular pastries with mainly Circassian cheese or potato), from toasted millet or wheat flour in syrup, baked cakes and pies. In the Levant
Levant
there is a famous Circassian dish which is called Tajen Alsharkaseiah.[92] Traditional crafts[edit] The Adyghes have been famous for making carpets (Adyghe: пӏуаблэхэр [pʷʼaːblaxar]) or mats worldwide for thousands of years.[citation needed] Making carpets was very hard work in which collecting raw materials is restricted to a specific period within the year. The raw materials were dried, and based on the intended colours, different methods of drying were applied. For example, when dried in the shade, its[clarification needed] colour changed to a beautiful light gold colour. If it were dried in direct sun light then it would have a silver colour, and if they wanted to have a dark colour for the carpets, the raw materials were put in a pool of water and covered by poplar leaves (Adyghe: екӏэпцӏэ [jat͡ʃʼapt͡sʼa]). The carpets were adorned with images of birds, beloved animals (horses), and plants, and the image of the Sun
Sun
was widely used. The carpets were used for different reasons due to their characteristic resistance to humidity and cold, and in retaining heat. Also, there was a tradition in Circassian homes to have two carpets hanging in the guest room, one used to hang over rifles (Adyghe: шхончымрэ [ʃxʷant͡ʃəmra]) and pistols (Adyghe: къэлаеымрэ), and the other used to hang over musical instruments. The carpets were used to pray upon, and it was necessary for every Circassian girl to make three carpets before marriage; a big carpet, a small carpet, and the last for praying as a prayer rug. These carpets would give the grooms an impression as to the success of their brides in their homes after marriage.[93] Tribes[edit] From the late Middle Ages, a number of territorial- and political-based Circassian tribes or ethnic entities began to take shape. Their culture, traditions, and way of life differed little. At the end of the Caucasian War
Caucasian War
with most Circassians
Circassians
were expelled to the Ottoman Empire, many of the tribes were destroyed or evicted from their historical homeland. Most Adyghe living in Circassia
Circassia
are Bzhedug, Kabardian, and Temirgoy, while the majority in diaspora are Kabardian, Abzakh, and Shapsug. West Adyghe language
Adyghe language
is based on Temirgoy dialect, while East Adyghe language is based on Kabardian dialect. The twelve stars on the Circassian flag symbolize the individual tribes of the Circassians; the nine stars within the arc symbolize the nine aristocratic tribes of Adygea, and the three horizontal stars symbolize the three democratic tribes. The twelve tribes are the Abdzakh, Besleney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Kabardian, Mamkhegh, Natukhai, Shapsug, Temirgoy, Ubykh, Yegeruqwai, and Zhaney.[94]

Twelve Circassian (Adyghe) tribes (sub-ethnic groups)

Geographical designation Main dialect Tribe[95][96] Circassian name Notes

Adygeans (Adyghe of Adygea) West Adyghe Abzakh
Abzakh
(Abdzakh or Abadzekh[95]) Абдзах [aːbd͡zaːx] Second largest Adyghe tribe in Turkey
Turkey
and the world, largest in Jordan, sixth largest in Russia

Bzhedug (Bzhedugh or Bzhedukh[95]) Бжъэдыгъу [bʐadəʁʷ] Third largest Adyghe tribe in Russia, lesser in other countries

Hatuqwai (Hatukay or Khatukai[95]) Хьэтыкъуай [ħaːtəq͡χʷaːj] Completely expelled from the Caucasus, found almost exclusively in Turkey, US, Jordan, and Israel

Mamkhegh Мэмхэгъ, Мамхыгъ [maːmxəʁ] a large clan, but a small tribe

Natukhai
Natukhai
(Notkuadj[95]) Натыхъуай [natəχʷaːj], Наткъуадж [natəχʷaːd͡ʒ] Completely expelled from the Caucasus
Caucasus
after the Caucasian War

Temirgoy (Chemgui or Kemgui[95]) КIэмгуй [t͡ʃʼamɡʷəj] Second largest Adyghe tribe in Russia, lesser in other countries

Yegeruqwai
Yegeruqwai
(Yegerukay) Еджэрыкъуай [jad͡ʒarqʷaːj] Completely expelled from the Caucasus

Zhaney
Zhaney
(Jane or Zhan[95]) Жанэ [ʒaːna] Not found after the Caucasian War
Caucasian War
on a tribal basis

Shapsugians (Adyghe of Krasnodar Krai) Shapsug
Shapsug
(Shapsugh) Шэпсыгъ, Шапсыгъ [ʃaːpsəʁ] Third largest Adyghe tribe in Turkey
Turkey
and the world, largest in Israel

Ubykhians (Adyghe of Krasnodar Krai) Ubykh Adyghe (extinct) and Hakuchi Adyghe Ubykh Убых [wəbəx], Пэху Completely expelled from the Caucasus, found almost exclusively in Turkey
Turkey
where most speak East Adyghe, and some West Adyghe (often Hakuchi sub-dialect) as well as Abaza

Kabardians
Kabardians
(Adyghe of Kabardino-Balkaria) Kabardian Adyghe[97] Kabardians
Kabardians
(Kabardinian, Kabardin, Kabarday, Kebertei, or Adyghe of Kabarda) Къэбэрдэй [qabardaj], Къэбэртай [qabartaːj] Largest Adyghe tribe in Turkey
Turkey
(over 2 millions), Russia
Russia
(over 500,000), and the world (3–4 million), second or third largest in Jordan
Jordan
and Israel

Cherkessians ( Cherkess
Cherkess
or Adyghe of Karachay-Cherkessia) Besleney[97] (Beslenei[95]) Беслъэней [basɬənəj]

Other Adyghe groups[edit] Small tribes or large clans that are included in one of the twelve Adyghe tribes:

Name Circassian name Notes

Adele (Khatko) (ru) (Khetuk or Adali[95]) ХьэтIукъу Not found after the Caucasian War
Caucasian War
on a tribal basis, included in the Abzakh
Abzakh
and Hatuqwai tribes

Ademey (ru) (Adamei or Adamiy) Адэмый [aːdaməj] Included in the Kabardian tribe

Guaye (ru) (Goaye) Гъоайе Not found after the Caucasian War

Shegak (ru) (Khegaik[95]) Хэгъуайкъу Not found after the Caucasian War

Chebsin (ru) (Čöbein[95]) ЦIопсынэ Not found after the Caucasian War

Makhosh (Mequash) (ru) (Mokhosh[95]) Махошъ [maːxʷaʂ] A large clan, but not enough to be a separate tribe

The Circassian tribes can be grouped and compared in various ways. The term "Circassian" sometimes includes the Abkhaz and Abaza people since they are originally related to the Adyghe. Linguists divide the Northwest Caucasian languages
Northwest Caucasian languages
into Adyghe (including Kabardian), Ubykh (originally an Adyghe dialect), and Abazgi (Abkhaz-Abaza). The three language groups are mutually unintelligible. The Ubykhs lived on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast north of Abkhazia. The Abkhazians
Abkhazians
lived on the coast between the Ubyks and the Georgians, were organized as the Principality of Abkhazia
Principality of Abkhazia
and were involved with the Georgians
Georgians
to some degree. The Abaza, their relatives, lived north of the mountains and were involved with Circassia
Circassia
proper. They extended from the mountain crest northeast onto the steppe and separated the Kabardians
Kabardians
from the rest. Sadz
Sadz
were either northern Abkhazian or eastern Abaza, depending on the source. The Kabardians
Kabardians
occupied about a third of the north Caucasus
Caucasus
piedmont from east of Circassia
Circassia
proper eastward to the Chechen country. To their north were the Nogai nomads and to the south, deeper in the mountains, were from west to east, the Karachays, Balkars, Ossetes, Ingushes, and Chechens. The Kabardians
Kabardians
were fairly advanced, interacted with the Russians
Russians
from the sixteenth century and were much reduced by plague in the early nineteenth century.

Temirgoy

Temirgoy

Adamey

Yegeruqwai

Makhosh

Besleney

Kabardian

Kuban Kabardian

Hatuqwai

Bzhedug

Adele

Zhaney

Natukhai

Natukhai

Abzakh

Abzakh

Ubykh

Shapsug

Shapsug

Mamkhegh

Shegak

Abazin

Tapanta

Abkhaz

Anapa-----

Novorossisk-

Gelendzhik-

Tuapse-----

Sochi-----

Gagra-----

Approximate location of Circassian tribes, Tsutsiev's Atlas

As for the Circassians
Circassians
proper, apparently called Kiakhs, some writers speak of twelve tribes and some do not.

The narrow Black Sea
Black Sea
coast was occupied, from north to south by the Natukhai, Shapsug, Ubykh, and the Abkhaz ( Sadz
Sadz
sub-branch). The main part of the Natukhai
Natukhai
and Shapsug
Shapsug
tribes lived north of the mountains. The Natukhai
Natukhai
were enriched by trade since their coast was not backed by high mountains and opened onto the steppe. The north slope was inhabited, from north to south, by the Natukhai, Shapsug, Abzakh, and Abaza. They seem to have been the most populous tribes after the Kabardians
Kabardians
and their inland location gave then some protection from Nogai and Cossack raiding. In the far west were three small tribes that were absorbed into the Natukhai
Natukhai
and disappeared. These were the Adele ru:Адале on the Taman peninsula
Taman peninsula
and the Shegak and Chebsin (ru:Хегайки and ru:Чебсин) near Anapa. Along the Kuban
Kuban
were the Natukhai, Zhaney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, and Temirgoy. On the east, between the Laba and Belaya, from north to south, were the Temirgoy, Yegeruqwai
Yegeruqwai
(ru:Егерукаевцы), Makhosh (ru:Махошевцы), Besleney
Besleney
and Abaza. The Besleney
Besleney
were a branch of the Kabardians. The Tapanta (ru:Тапанта), a branch of the Abaza, lived between the Besleney
Besleney
and Kabardian tribes on the upper Kuban. Along the Belaya River were the Temirgoy, the ill-documented Ademey (ru:Адамийцы) and then the Mamkhegh near the modern Maykop. The Guaye (ru:Гуайе) are poorly documented. The Tchelugay lived west of the Makhosh. The Hakuch lived on the coast south of the Natukhai. Other groups are mentioned without much documentation. There are reports of tribes migrating from one place to another, again without much documentation. Some sketch maps show a group of Karachays on the upper Laba without any explanation.

The tribes along the Kuban
Kuban
and Laba rivers were exposed to Nogai and Cossack raiding while those in the interior has some protection. The three "democratic" tribes were the Natukhai, Shapsug, and Abzakh. They managed their affairs by assemblies while the other tribes were controlled by "princes" or Pshi. Tribes with remnants in the Caucasus are: Kabardians
Kabardians
(the largest group), the Temirgoy and Bzhedug in Adygea, and the Shapsug
Shapsug
near Tuapse and elsewhere. There are also a few Besleney
Besleney
and Natukhai
Natukhai
villages, and an Abzakh
Abzakh
village. Circassian diaspora[edit] Main article: Circassian diaspora

Adyghe horsemanship in Transjordan, April 1921

Circassians
Circassians
commemorate the banishment of the Circassians
Circassians
from Russia in Taksim, İstanbul

Adyghe have lived outside the Caucasus
Caucasus
region since the Middle Ages. They were particularly well represented in the Mamluks
Mamluks
of Turkey
Turkey
and Egypt. In fact, the Burji dynasty
Burji dynasty
which ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 1382 to 1517 was founded by Adyghe Mamluks. Starting from the 16th and 17th century up to the course of the 19th century, a massive Circassian diaspora
Circassian diaspora
was created in Iran
Iran
and Turkey due to deportation, importation, resettlement, and to a much lesser extent voluntary migration. Much of Adyghe culture was disrupted after the conquest of their homeland by Russia
Russia
in 1864. The Circassian people were subjected to ethnic cleansing and mass exile mainly to the Ottoman Empire, and to a lesser extent Qajar
Qajar
Iran
Iran
and the Balkans. This increased the number of Circassians
Circassians
in the region and even created several entirely new Circassian communities in the states that got created after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The total number of Circassians
Circassians
worldwide is estimated at 8 million. Western Asia[edit] Around half of all Circassians
Circassians
live in Turkey, mainly in the provinces of Samsun
Samsun
and Ordu (in Northern Turkey), Kahramanmaraş (in Southern Turkey), Kayseri
Kayseri
(in Central Turkey), Bandırma, and Düzce (in Northwest Turkey). Significant communities live in Jordan,[98] Syria
Syria
(see Circassians
Circassians
in Syria),[98] and smaller communities live in Israel
Israel
(in the villages of Kfar Kama
Kfar Kama
and Rehaniya—see Circassians
Circassians
in Israel).[98] Iran
Iran
has a significant Circassian population.[51] It once had a very large community, but the vast amount were assimilated in the population in the course of centuries.[99][100][101] Notable places of traditional Circassian settlement in Iran
Iran
include Gilan
Gilan
Province, Fars Province,[102] Isfahan, and Tehran
Tehran
(due to contemporary migration). Circassians
Circassians
in Iran
Iran
are the nation's second largest Caucasus-derived ethnic group after the Georgians.[51] Circassians
Circassians
are also present in Iraq. Baghdad, Sulaymaniyah, and Diyala comprise the country's main cities with Circassians,[103] though lesser numbers are spread in other regions and cities as well. Egypt[edit] Most Circassian communities in Egypt
Egypt
were assimilated into the local population.[104] A prominent example is Egypt's Abaza family, a large Abazin
Abazin
clan. Europe[edit] There are Circassians
Circassians
in Germany
Germany
and a small number in the Netherlands. Out of 1,010 Circassians
Circassians
living in Ukraine
Ukraine
(473 Kabardian Adyghe (Kabardin),[105] 338 Adygean Adyghe,[106] and 199 Cherkessian Adyghe (Cherkess)[107]—after the existing Soviet
Soviet
division of Circassians into three groups), only 181 (17.9%) declared fluency in the native language; 96 (9.5%) declared Ukrainian as their native language, and 697 (69%) marked "other language" as being their native language. The major Adyghe community in Ukraine
Ukraine
is in Odessa. There is a small community of Circassians
Circassians
in Serbia
Serbia
and Macedonia. A number of Adyghe also settled in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1864–1865 but most fled after it became separate from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1878. The small community that settled in Kosovo
Kosovo
(the Kosovo
Kosovo
Adyghes) repatriated to the Republic of Adygea
Adygea
in 1998. North America[edit] Numerous Circassians
Circassians
have also immigrated to the United States
United States
and settled in Upstate New York, California, and New Jersey. There is also a small Circassian community in Canada. Sochi
Sochi
Olympics controversy[edit] Main article: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics The 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
facilities in Sochi
Sochi
(once the Circassian capital)[108] were built in areas that are claimed to contain mass graves of Circassians
Circassians
who were killed during genocide by Russia
Russia
in military campaigns lasting from 1860 to 1864.[109] Adyghe organizations in Russia
Russia
and the Adyghe diaspora around the world have requested that the construction at the site would stop and that the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
would not be held at the site of the Adyghe genocide to prevent the desecration of the Adyghe graves. According to Iyad Youghar, who heads the lobby group International Circassian Council: "We want the athletes to know that if they compete here they will be skiing on the bones of our relatives."[108] The year 2014 also marked the 150th anniversary of the Circassian Genocide
Genocide
which angered the Circassians
Circassians
around the world. Many protests were held all over the world to stop the Sochi
Sochi
Olympics but were not successful. Depictions in art[edit]

A Circassian sipahi in the Ottoman Army

Circassian Prince Sefer Bey Zanuko
Sefer Bey Zanuko
in 1845

An Adyghe man from Kabardian tribe in regular (non-traditional) wear

A painting from 1843 of an Adyghe warrior by Sir William Allan

An Adyghe strike on a Russian Military Fort built over a Shapsugian village that aimed to free the Circassian Coast
Circassian Coast
from the occupiers during the Russian-Circassian War, 22 March 1840

Kazbech Tuguzhoko, Circassian resistance leader

The mountaineers leave the aul, P. N. Gruzinsky, 1872

A Circassian noblewoman in the 19th century

See also[edit]

Chorni Klobuky List of Circassians Circassian beauties Circassians
Circassians
in Israel Idar of Kabardia

References[edit]

^ Dalby, Andrew (2015). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More than 400 Languages. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 978-1408102145.  ^ a b Richmond, Walter (2013). The Circassian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0813560694.  ^ Danver, Steven L. (2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. p. 528. ISBN 978-1317464006.  ^ Natho, Kadir I. (2009). Circassian History. Wayne, New Jersey: Xlibris Corporation. p. 505. ISBN 978-1-4415-2389-1.  ^ Zhemukhov, Sufian (2008). "Circassian World Responses to the New Challenges" (PDF). PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 54: 2. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ Alankuş, Sevda (1999). Taymaz, Erol, ed. Kültürel-Etnik Kimlikler ve Çerkesler. Ankara, Turkey: Kafder Yayınları.  ^ Alankuş, Sevda; Taymaz, Erol (2009). "The Formation of a Circassian Diaspora
Diaspora
in Turkey". Adyghe (Cherkess) in the 19th Century: Problems of War and Peace. Adygea, Russia: Maikop State Technology University. p. 2. Retrieved 4 May 2016. Today, the largest communities of Circassians, about 5–7 million, live in Turkey, and about 200,000 Circassians
Circassians
live in the Middle Eastern countries (Jordan, Syria, Egypt, and Israel). The 1960s and 1970s witnessed a new wave of migration from diaspora countries to Europe and the United States. It is estimated that there are now more than 100,000 Circassian living in the European Union countries. The community in Kosovo
Kosovo
expatriated to Adygea
Adygea
after the war in 1998.  ^ a b Всероссийская перепись населения 2010: Национальньый состав населения Российской Федерации: Численность лиц, указавших соответствующую национальную принадлежность [All-Russian Population Census 2010: National composition of the population of the Russian Federation: Number of persons who indicated their ethnicity] (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original (XLS) on 24 April 2012.  ^ a b c d Zhemukhov, Sufian (2008). "Circassian World Responses to the New Challenges" (PDF). PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 54: 2. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ "Syrian Circassians
Circassians
returning to Russia's Caucasus
Caucasus
region". TRTWorld. TRTWorld and agencies. 2015. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. Currently, approximately 80,000 ethnic Circassians
Circassians
live in Syria
Syria
after their ancestors were forced out of the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
by Russians
Russians
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Diaspora
in Turkey: A Political History. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-1317910046.  ^ Torstrick, Rebecca L. (2004). Culture and Customs of Israel. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 978-0313320910.  ^ Louër, Laurence (2007). To be an Arab in Israel. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0231140683.  ^ Prepared by Antoniy Galabov National Report Bulgaria
Bulgaria
p. 20. Council of Europe. ^ Zhemukhov, Sufian, Circassian World: Responses to the New Challenges, archived from the original on 12 October 2009  ^ One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Questia Online Library. 25 August 2010. p. 12.  ^ Gammer, Mos%u030Ce (2004). The Caspian Region: a Re-emerging Region. London: Routledge. p. 67.  ^ "Главная страница проекта 'Арена' : Некоммерческая Исследовательская Служба СРЕДА". Sreda.org. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ "International Circassian Association". Retrieved 26 April 2014.  ^ a b Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
(1998). Mullen, Christopher A.; Ryan, J. Atticus, eds. Yearbook 1997. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. pp. 67–69. ISBN 90-411-1022-4.  ^ Spencer, Edmund, Travels in the Western Caucasus, including a Tour through Imeritia, Mingrelia, Turkey, Moldavia, Galicia, Silesia, and Moravia in 1836. London, H. Colburn, 1838. p. 6. ^ Loewe, Louis. A Dictionary of the Circassian Language: in Two Parts: English-Circassian-Turkish, and Circassian-English-Turkish. London, Bell, 1854. p. 5. ^ a b Latham, R. G. Elements of Comparative Philology. London, Walton and Maberly, 1862. p. 279. ^ Latham, R. G. Descriptive Ethnology. London, J. Van Voorst, 1859. p. 50. ^ Guthrie, William, James Ferguson, and John Knox. A New Geographical, Historical and Commercial Grammar and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World... Philadelphia, Johnson & Warner, 1815. p. 549. ^ Taitbout, De Marigny. Three Voyages in the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Coast of Circassia. London, 1837. pp. 5–6. ^ S. A. Arutyunov. "Conclusion of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
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Insurgency Admits Killing Circassian Ethnographer". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.  ^ Valery Dzutsev. "High-profile Murders in Kabardino-Balkaria Underscore the Government's Inability to Control Situation in the Republic". Eurasia Daily Monitor, volume 8, issue 1, 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2012. ^ "Главная страница проекта "Арена" : Некоммерческая Исследовательская Служба СРЕДА". Sreda.org. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ "Хабзэ. Т-дамыгъэ / Т-символ". Habze.info. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ This section summarizes Walter Richmond, Northwest Caucasus, 2008, Chapter 2 ^ "Jordanian Cuisine(Bedouins, Circassians, & Palestinians)(مترجم للعربية)". YouTube. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ Amjad Jaimoukha (ed.). "Circassian Cuisine" (PDF). Circassianworld.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ "تركى شركسية تقديم الشيف الشربينى". YouTube. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ "Адыгэ 1оры1уатэм ухэзгъэгъозэн тхылъ", Ехъул1э Ат1ыф, Нахэхэр (129–132), гощын (1), Адыгэ ш1уш1э Хасэ, Йордания, 2009. ^ "Circassians". adiga-home.net. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Čerkesses". E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam
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Further reading[edit]

Jaimoukha, Amjad, The Circassians: A Handbook; New York, Palgrave, 2001; London, Routledge Curzon, 2001. ISBN 978-0-312-23994-7. Jaimoukha, Amjad, Circassian Culture and Folklore: Hospitality Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals & Music (Kabardian, Cherkess, Adigean, Shapsugh & Diaspora), Bennett and Bloom, 2010. Bell, James Stanislaus, Journal of a residence in Circassia
Circassia
during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 . Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide, Rutgers University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-8135-6069-4 Rasizade, Alec. Book
Book
review: Let Our Fame be Great, by Oliver Bullough (London: Penguin Books, 2011, 512 pages). = Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (London: Taylor & Francis), December 2011, volume 19, issue 3, pages 689–692.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Circassians.

International Circassian Association. Britannica – "Circassian". Famous Circassians. Map of the diaspora.

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