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Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(/ˌsɪnsɪˈnæti/ SIN-sih-NAT-ee) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
and seat of Hamilton County.[7] Settled in 1788, the city was located at the north side of the confluence of the Licking River to the Ohio. The city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census.[8] With a population of 298,800, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the third-largest city proper in Ohio
Ohio
and the 65th-biggest in the United States. It is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States[9] and the 28th-biggest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is also within one day's drive of two-thirds of the United States populace.[10] In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was an American boomtown in the heart of the country; it rivaled the larger coastal cities in size and wealth. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans
New Orleans
and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard; and sixth-biggest city for a period spanning reports from 1840 until 1860. As Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was the first city founded after the American Revolution
American Revolution
as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is thought of as the first purely "American" city.[11] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
developed with fewer European immigrants or influence than eastern cities attracted in the same period; however, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly Chicago, which developed based on commodity exploitation and the railroads, and St. Louis, for decades after the Civil War the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is home to two major sports clubs, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds, the oldest team in Major League Baseball, and the Cincinnati Bengals
Cincinnati Bengals
of the National Football League. The University of Cincinnati, founded in 1819, is one of the 50 largest in the United States.[12] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is known for its historic architecture. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was commonly referred to as " Paris
Paris
of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, and Shillito Department Store.[13] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is also the birthplace of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Industrial takeoff and Gilded years 1.2 During the Great Depression

2 Society

2.1 Economy 2.2 Food

2.2.1 Brands 2.2.2 Cincinnati
Cincinnati
chili

2.3 Dialect 2.4 Demographics

3 Cityscape

3.1 Landscape 3.2 Waterscape 3.3 Climate

4 Sports 5 Police and emergency services 6 Politics

6.1 Populace strife 6.2 Present officeholders

7 Schools 8 Theater and song 9 Media

9.1 Newspapers 9.2 Television 9.3 Radio

10 Pedestrians and passengers 11 Notable people 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1812 with a population of 2,000[14]

Main article: History of Cincinnati See also: Timeline of Cincinnati
Timeline of Cincinnati
and History of Ohio Cincinnati
Cincinnati
began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow
Israel Ludlow
landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville".[15] In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member;[16] which was in turn named for Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, a dictator in the early Roman Republic who saved Rome from a crisis, and then retired to farming because he didn't want to remain in power.[17] The introduction of steamboats on the Ohio
Ohio
in 1811 opened up its trade to more rapid shipping, and the city established commercial ties with St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
and especially New Orleans
New Orleans
downriver. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831.[18] Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal
Miami and Erie Canal
in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio
Ohio
further stimulated businesses, and employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions. The city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 persons by 1850.[16] Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal
Miami and Erie Canal
began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River. The first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827.[19] In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati
Cincinnati
to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached Toledo. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
began referring to the city as the Queen City. Industrial takeoff and Gilded years[edit] After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered.[20] Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati
Cincinnati
with the Mad River and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay
Sandusky Bay
on Lake Erie.[19]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1841 with the Miami and Erie Canal
Miami and Erie Canal
in the foreground.

In 1859, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city.[20] By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year.[19] In 1880, the city government completed the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Southern Railway to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the only municipality-owned interstate railway in the United States. In 1884, outrage over a manslaughter verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over 300 were injured.[21] The riots ended the regime of political bosses John Roll McLean
John Roll McLean
and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati. In 1889, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to electric streetcars.[22] During the Great Depression[edit] An early rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and the large Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Suburban Telephone Company Building. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
weathered the Great Depression
Great Depression
better than most American cities because of its size, largely due to a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. The flood in 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the Ohio
Ohio
Valley. Afterward the city built protective flood walls. Society[edit] Main article: Culture of Cincinnati Like all major cities in the United States, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was proliferated by Americans, but also Ulster Scots known as the Scots Irish, frontiersmen, and keelboaters. Most of Cincinnati's longtime residents have kinships rooted throughout the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana tristate and deeper. The first Methodist class was founded about in 1798, as many city residents were inspired by Methodist circuit preachers; among the institutions resulting from their efforts were a German Methodist Church and The Christ Hospital.

Tall Stacks, held every three or four years, celebrates the city's riverboat heritage.

Cincinnati, being on the heartland plane, depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio, at a time when thousands of blacks were settling in the free state of Ohio, most from Kentucky
Kentucky
and Virginia and some of them fugitives seeking freedom in the North. Many came to find work in Cincinnati. In the antebellum years, the majority of native-born whites in the city came from northern states, most of all Pennsylvania. In 1841, twenty-six percent of whites were from the South and fifty-seven percent from the eastern states, mostly Penna.[23] They retained their cultural support for slavery. This led to tensions between pro-slavery residents and those in favor of abolitionism and lifting restrictions on free people of color, as codified in the "Black Code" of 1804.[24] Germans were among the earliest newcomers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington. After the conclusion of the Northwest Indian Wars and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as the mayor of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1802.[25] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was influenced by Irishmen, and Prussians and Saxons (northern German), seeking to emigrate away from crowding and strife. In 1830 residents with German roots made up 5% of the population, as many had migrated from Pennsylvania; ten years later this had increased to 30%.[26] Thousands of German immigrants entered the city after the Prussian revolution of 1848 and by 1900, more than 60 percent of its population was of German background.[27] The menial-jobbed, aggravated Irish often organized mobs and the Germans, faraway from their Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch connexion, dealt alike—leaders of the city had to use fortifying measures against arrivals' clashes.

The Tyler Davidson Fountain, a symbol of Cincinnati, was dedicated in 1871.

Volatile social conditions saw riots in 1829, when many blacks lost their homes and property. As the Irish entered the city in the late 1840s, they competed with blacks at the lower levels of the economy. White-led riots against blacks occurred in 1836, when an abolitionist press was twice destroyed; and in 1842.[24] More than one thousand blacks abandoned the city after the 1829 riots. Blacks in Philadelphia and other major cities raised money to help the refugees recover from the destruction. By 1842 blacks had become better established in the city; they defended their persons and property in the riot, and worked politically as well.[28] The emigres, while having been widely discussed, never overtook settlers in population. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has a great preservative quality which, despite fierce sugarcoating of late, piques interest throughout United States as a great city of the North, South, East, and West. Waynesville, Ohio, hosts the yearly Ohio
Ohio
Sauerkraut Festival,[29] and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
hosts several big yearly events which commemorate connections to the Old World. Oktoberfest Zinzinnati,[30] Bockfest,[31] and the Taste of Cincinnati
Taste of Cincinnati
that feature local restaurateurs. Cincinnati's Jewish community was developed by those from England and Germany.[citation needed] They developed Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
in response to the influences of the Enlightenment and making their new lives in the United States.[citation needed] Isaac M. Wise Temple
Isaac M. Wise Temple
was the first Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
temple to be built, breaking away from Conservative and Orthodox Judaism.[citation needed] Society, in a finer sense, and then the greater aspect of society which also deals in business, both have stayed communal in Cincinnati compared to metropolises along the United States coasts. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is a national city: The NRHP-listed Potter Stewart United States Courthouse is a federal court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Cincinnati Branch
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Cincinnati Branch
is located across the street from the East Fourth Street Historic District. Economy[edit] See also: List of companies in Greater Cincinnati

Procter & Gamble is one of many large corporations with headquarters in the city.

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has the fastest-growing Midwestern economic capital.[9] The gross metropolitan product is $124 billion, and median household income is $73,868 (according to another source it was $33,604 in 2011-2015[32]). The median home price is $158,200, and the cost of living in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is 8% below national average. The unemployment rate is also below the average at 4.2%.[33] Several Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Cincinnati, such as Procter & Gamble, The Kroger
Kroger
Company, and Macy's, Inc., among others. General Electric
General Electric
has headquartered their Global Operations[34] center in Cincinnati. The Kroger Company
The Kroger Company
employs 21,646 people locally, making it the largest employer in the city, and the University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
is the second largest at 16,000.[35]

Approximately 1,000,000 attend Taste of Cincinnati
Taste of Cincinnati
yearly, making it one of the largest street festivals in the United States.[36]

Food[edit] Brands[edit] Frisch's
Frisch's
Big Boy Salad Bar, Graeter's
Graeter's
Ice Cream, Kroger, LaRosa's, Montgomery Inn, and United Dairy Farmers
United Dairy Farmers
(UDF/Trauth) are Cincinnati eateries that sell their brand commodities in grocery markets and fuel stations. The 'Wich on Sycamore offers lunches during the workweek. Other Cincinnati
Cincinnati
fare includes the National Exemplar in Mariemont, the Schoolhouse Restaurant near Camp Dennison, and Rockbottom Café, which serves vegan, next to the square.[citation needed] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has many[quantify] gourmet restaurants. The Maisonette in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was Mobil
Mobil
Travel Guide's longest-running five-star restaurant in the United States, holding that distinction for 41 consecutive years until it closed in 2005. Jean-Robert de Cavel
Jean-Robert de Cavel
has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001. One of the United States's oldest[37] and most celebrated[38] bars, Arnold's Bar and Grill in downtown Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has won awards from Esquire magazine's "Best Bars in America",[39] Thrillist's "Most Iconic Bar in Ohio",[40] The Daily Meal's "150 Best bars in America"[41] and Seriouseats.com's "The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
10".[42] America's Foremost Cocktail Guru,[43] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
chili[edit] Main article: Cincinnati
Cincinnati
chili Cincinnati
Cincinnati
chili, a spiced sauce served over noodles or rice, and often with diced onions, is the area's "best-known regional food."[44][45] A variety of recipes are served by respective parlors, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli, plus independent chili parlors including Camp Washington Chili and Moonlight Chili.[46] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has been called July 2016
July 2016
the "Chili Capital of America" and "of the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the United States or in the world.[47] Dialect[edit] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
speaks General American. Unlike the rest of the Midwest, Southwest Ohio
Ohio
shares some aspects of its vowel system with northern New Jersey English.[48][49] Cincinnatians, it is said, over-pronounce "O" so the affect comes to be heard with a rounded "w," perhaps from living on the Ohio
Ohio
whose four-letter name carries two "o"s. Most of the distinctive local features among speakers float as Midland American.[50] There is also some influence from the Southern American dialect found in Kentucky.[51] A touch of northern German is audible in the local vernacular: some residents use the word please when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. This usage is taken from the German practice, when bitte (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte?" or "How please?" rendered word for word from German into English), was used as shorthand for asking someone to repeat.[52][53] The metro area hosts many call centers for a "lack of accent." Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Cincinnati

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 850

1810 2,540

198.8%

1820 9,642

279.6%

1830 24,831

157.5%

1840 46,338

86.6%

1850 115,435

149.1%

1860 161,044

39.5%

1870 216,239

34.3%

1880 255,139

18.0%

1890 296,908

16.4%

1900 325,902

9.8%

1910 363,591

11.6%

1920 401,247

10.4%

1930 451,160

12.4%

1940 455,610

1.0%

1950 503,998

10.6%

1960 502,550

−0.3%

1970 452,525

−10.0%

1980 385,460

−14.8%

1990 364,040

−5.6%

2000 331,285

−9.0%

2010 296,945

−10.4%

Est. 2016 298,800 [54] 0.6%

[2] Population 1810–1970.[18] Population 1980–2000.[55][56] Population 2010.[57]

Demographic profile 2010[58] 2000[59] 1990[60] 1970[60] 1950[60]

White 49.3% 53.0% 60.5% 71.9% 84.4%

 —Non-Hispanic 48.1% 51.7% 60.2% 71.4%[61] n/a

Black or African American 44.8% 42.9% 37.9% 27.6% 15.5%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 2.8% 1.3% 0.7% 0.6% n/a

Asian 1.8% 1.5% 1.1% 0.2% 0.1%

For decades the Census Bureau
Census Bureau
had been reporting a steady decline in the city's population as residents moved out to new suburbs in the postwar years, aided by newly built highways. In addition, industrial restructuring cost a loss of jobs in the late 20th century. But, according to the Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the population was 332,252, representing a slight increase from 331,310 in 2005.[62] The city had officially challenged the original census numbers. Mayor Mark Mallory repeatedly argued that the city's population is 378,259, after a drill-down study was performed by an independent, non-profit group based in Washington, D.C.[63]

Map of racial distribution in Cincinnati, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 2014 estimate, the population was 298,165, down nearly 35,000 from 2006 but up slightly from 296,918 in July 2010. As of the 2010 census, the racial demographics for the city of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
were: 49.3% white (48.1% non-Hispanic white), 44.8% black or African-American, 0.3% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 2.5% two or more races, and 2.8% Hispanic (of any race).[64] As of the 2000 census, the Cincinnati-Middletown−Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
has a population of 2,155,137 people, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the country. It includes the Ohio
Ohio
counties of Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont, Clinton and Brown, as well as the Kentucky
Kentucky
counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, and Pendleton, and the Indiana
Indiana
counties of Dearborn, Franklin, and Ohio. Cityscape[edit] Main article: Cityscape of Cincinnati

Aerial view of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
during twilight

The city is undergoing significant changes due to new development and private investment. This includes buildings of the long-stalled Banks project, that include apartments, retail, restaurants, and offices and will stretch from Great American Ball Park
Great American Ball Park
to Paul Brown Stadium. Phase 1A is already complete and 100 percent occupied as of early 2013. Smale Riverfront Park is being developed along with The Banks and is Cincinnati's newest park. Nearly $3.5 billion has been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(including Northern Kentucky). Much of this development has been undertaken by 3CDC. The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bell Connector began in September 2016.[65][66]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is in the bluegrass region of Ohio.

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is midway by river between the cities of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Cairo, Illinois. The downtown lies near the mouth of the Licking, a confluence whereabout the city settlement.[67] Greater Cincinnati
Cincinnati
spans southern Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana, and northern Kentucky; the census bureau has measured the city proper at 79.54 square miles (206.01 km2), of which 77.94 square miles (201.86 km2) are land and 1.60 square miles (4.14 km2) are water.[1] The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio
Ohio
in the Bluegrass region
Bluegrass region
of the country.[68] The tristate is geographically located within the Midwest
Midwest
and is on the far northern periphery of the Upland South. Three municipalities are ensconced within the City: Norwood, Elmwood Place, and Saint Bernard. Norwood is a significant business and industrial city, while Elmwood Place and Saint Bernard are small, primarily residential, villages. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
does not have an exclave, but the city government does own several properties outside the corporation limits: French Park in Amberley Village, the disused runway at the former Blue Ash Airport in Blue Ash, and the 337-mile-long (542 km) Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Southern Railway, which runs between Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Chattanooga, Tennessee. Landscape[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Cincinnati

Macy's Jazz Festival held in Fountain Square

The PNC Tower, with the Carew Tower
Carew Tower
in the background.

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is home to numerous embankments that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations, as well as the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Museum Center at Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple.[69] Queen City Square opened in January 2011. The building is the tallest in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 665 feet.[70] The mile-long Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Skywalk, which was completed in 1997, was shortened to bring more commerce, yet remains the viable way to walk downtown in bad weather.[71] The Cincinnati Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo
in Avondale is the second oldest zoo in the United States.[72]

Downtown Cincinnati

Waterscape[edit]

Cincinnati's East End neighborhood during the Great Flood of 1913.

Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati
towers about Fountain Square, the public square and event locale. Fountain Square was renovated in 2006.[73] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
rests along 22 miles (35 km) of riverfront about northern banks of the Ohio, stretching from California to Sayler Park, giving the mighty Ohio
Ohio
and its movements a prominent place in the life of the city.[74] Frequent flooding has hampered the growth of Cincinnati's municipal airport at Lunken Field and the Coney Island amusement park.[75] Downtown Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati
is protected from flooding by the Serpentine Wall at Yeatman's Cove and another flood wall built into Fort Washington Way.[76] Parts of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
also experience flooding from the Little Miami River
Little Miami River
and Mill Creek. Since April 1, 1922, the Ohio
Ohio
flood stage at Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has officially been set at 52 feet (16 m), as measured from the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge. At this depth, the pumping station at the mouth of Mill Creek is activated.[77][78] From 1873 to 1898, the flood stage was 45 feet (14 m). From 1899 to March 31, 1922, it was 50 feet (15 m).[78] The Ohio
Ohio
reached its lowest level, less than 2 feet (0.61 m), in 1881; conversely, its all-time high water mark is 79 feet 11 7⁄8 inches (24.381 m), having crested January 26, 1937.[77][79] Various parts of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
flood at different points: Riverbend Music Center in the California neighborhood floods at 42 feet (13 m), while Sayler Park floods at 71 feet (22 m) and the Freeman Avenue flood gate closes at 75 feet (23 m).[77] Climate[edit] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is at the southern limit of the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa).[80] Summers are warm to hot and humid, with significant rainfall in each month and highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above on 21 days per year, often with high dew points and humidity. July is the warmest month, with a daily average temperature of 75.9 °F (24.4 °C).[81] Winters tend to be cold and snowy, with January, the coldest month, averaging at 30.8 °F (−0.7 °C).[81] Lows reach 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 2.6 nights yearly.[81] An average winter will see around 22.1 inches (56 cm) of snowfall, contributing to the yearly 42.5 inches (1,080 mm) of weatherfall, with rainfall peaking in spring.[82] Extremes range from −25 °F (−32 °C) on January 18, 1977 up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 21 and 22, 1934.[83] Severe thunderstorms are common in the warmer months, and tornadoes, while infrequent, are not unknown, with such events striking the Greater Cincinnati
Greater Cincinnati
area most recently in 1974, 1999, 2012, and 2017.[84]

Climate data for Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
Int'l), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 79 (26) 88 (31) 90 (32) 95 (35) 102 (39) 108 (42) 103 (39) 102 (39) 91 (33) 82 (28) 75 (24) 108 (42)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 60.7 (15.9) 65.3 (18.5) 75.7 (24.3) 81.8 (27.7) 85.8 (29.9) 91.4 (33) 94.0 (34.4) 93.4 (34.1) 89.8 (32.1) 82.0 (27.8) 72.7 (22.6) 62.1 (16.7) 95.5 (35.3)

Average high °F (°C) 38.7 (3.7) 42.9 (6.1) 53.2 (11.8) 64.7 (18.2) 73.7 (23.2) 82.1 (27.8) 85.6 (29.8) 84.9 (29.4) 78.1 (25.6) 66.2 (19) 54.0 (12.2) 41.6 (5.3) 63.9 (17.7)

Average low °F (°C) 23.0 (−5) 26.0 (−3.3) 34.0 (1.1) 43.7 (6.5) 53.2 (11.8) 62.0 (16.7) 66.1 (18.9) 64.8 (18.2) 57.0 (13.9) 45.5 (7.5) 36.2 (2.3) 26.6 (−3) 44.9 (7.2)

Mean minimum °F (°C) −1.1 (−18.4) 4.6 (−15.2) 14.8 (−9.6) 26.2 (−3.2) 37.0 (2.8) 48.0 (8.9) 54.3 (12.4) 53.8 (12.1) 40.8 (4.9) 28.7 (−1.8) 19.3 (−7.1) 5.4 (−14.8) −5.8 (−21)

Record low °F (°C) −25 (−32) −17 (−27) −11 (−24) 15 (−9) 27 (−3) 39 (4) 47 (8) 43 (6) 31 (−1) 16 (−9) 0 (−18) −20 (−29) −25 (−32)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.00 (76.2) 2.81 (71.4) 3.96 (100.6) 3.89 (98.8) 4.93 (125.2) 4.03 (102.4) 3.76 (95.5) 3.41 (86.6) 2.63 (66.8) 3.30 (83.8) 3.43 (87.1) 3.37 (85.6) 42.52 (1,080)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 6.5 (16.5) 6.5 (16.5) 3.0 (7.6) 0.5 (1.3) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.4 (1) 0.4 (1) 4.8 (12.2) 22.1 (56.1)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.4 11.6 12.5 12.7 12.8 11.5 10.6 9.1 7.7 8.4 10.6 12.5 132.4

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 6.5 5.4 2.4 0.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 4.9 20.8

Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 70.1 67.0 62.8 66.9 69.2 71.5 72.3 72.7 69.2 71.0 73.8 69.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.8 128.4 170.1 211.0 249.9 275.5 277.0 261.5 234.4 188.8 118.7 99.3 2,335.4

Percent possible sunshine 40 43 46 53 56 62 61 62 63 55 39 34 52

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[82][81][83][85]

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Cincinnati Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has two major league teams, eight minor league teams, five college institutions with sports teams, and seven major sports venues. The Reds are the first professional baseball team, before, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Red Stockings;[86][87][88] and the Bengals of the National Football League. On Opening Day, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
keeps the "traditional opener" each year, due to its baseball. Many children skip school on Opening Day, and it is commonly thought of as a holiday.[89] The Flying Pig Marathon
Flying Pig Marathon
is a yearly event attracting many runners and so is the Cincinnati Masters
Cincinnati Masters
Western & Southern tennis tourney. The Cincinnati Marlins
Cincinnati Marlins
are the swimmers club.

View of downtown Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 2010 showing city arenas

The Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
have won five World Series titles and had one of the most successful baseball teams of all time in the mid-1970s, known as The Big Red Machine. The Bengals have made two Super Bowl appearances since its founding, in 1981 and 1988, but have yet to win a championship. As of 2016, the Bengals have the longest active playoff win drought (26 years) despite making five straight playoff appearances from 2011 to 2015. Whenever the Bengals and Carolina Panthers play against each other (an interconference matchup that occurs every four years), their games are dubbed the "Queen City Bowl", as Charlotte, North Carolina, the home city of the Panthers, is also known as the Queen City.[90] The Bengals enjoy strong rivalries with the Cleveland Browns
Cleveland Browns
and Pittsburgh Steelers
Pittsburgh Steelers
(both of whom are also members of the AFC North). Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is also home to two very successful men's college basketball teams: The Cincinnati Bearcats
Cincinnati Bearcats
and Xavier Musketeers
Xavier Musketeers
that face off in one of the fiercest college basketball rivalries known as the Crosstown Shootout. In 2011, the rivalry game erupted in an on-court brawl at the end of the game that saw multiple suspensions follow. The Musketeers have made 10 of the last 11 NCAA
NCAA
tournaments while the Bearcats have made six consecutive appearances. Previously, the Cincinnati Royals
Cincinnati Royals
competed in the National Basketball
Basketball
Association from 1957 to 1972; they are now known as the Sacramento Kings. FC Cincinnati
FC Cincinnati
is a soccer team that plays in the USL. FC Cincinnati made its home debut on April 9, 2016, before a crowd of more than 14,000 fans.[91] On their next home game vs Louisville City FC, FC Cincinnati
Cincinnati
broke the all-time USL attendance record with a crowd of 20,497; on May 14, 2016, it broke its own record, bringing in an audience of 23,375 on its 1–0 victory against the Pittsburgh Riverhounds.[92] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is home to three other professional soccer teams—two outdoor teams, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Kings (men's) and Cincinnati LadyHawks (women's), and one indoor team, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Excite (men's). The table below shows sports teams in the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
area that average more than 5,000 fans per game:

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Teams (yearly attendance > 5,000)

Club Sport Founded League Venue Avg Attend Ref

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds Baseball 1882 Major League Baseball Great American Ball Park 23,383 [93]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bearcats Football 1885 NCAA
NCAA
Division I Nippert Stadium 33,871 [94]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bearcats Basketball 1901 NCAA
NCAA
Division I Fifth Third Arena 9,415 [95]

Xavier Musketeers Basketball 1920 NCAA
NCAA
Division I Cintas Center 10,281 [95]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bengals Football 1968 National Football League Paul Brown Stadium 60,511 [96]

FC Cincinnati Soccer 2015 United Soccer
Soccer
League Nippert Stadium 21,199 [97]

The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Masters, an historic international men's and women's tennis tournament that is part of the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 Series and the WTA Tour Premier 5, was established in the city in 1899, and has been held in suburban Mason since 1979. The Cincinnati Sizzle
Cincinnati Sizzle
is a women's minor professional tackle football team that plays in the Women's Football Alliance. The team was established in 2003, by former Cincinnati Bengals
Cincinnati Bengals
running back Ickey Woods. In 2016 the team claimed their first National Championship Title in the United States Women's Football League. The Cincinnati Cyclones
Cincinnati Cyclones
are a minor league AA-level professional hockey team playing in the ECHL. Founded in 1990, the team play at U.S. Bank Arena. They won the 2010 Kelly Cup Finals, their 2nd championship in three seasons. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is also home to the first American based Australian rules football team, The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Dockers, established in 1996.[citation needed] Police and emergency services[edit] See also: Crime in Cincinnati

Crime in Cincinnati
Crime in Cincinnati
increased after the 2001 riots, but has been decreasing since.

The city of Cincinnati's emergency services for fire, rescue, EMS, hazardous materials and explosive ordnance disposal is handled by the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Fire Department. On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Fire Department became the first paid professional fire department in United States.[98] The Cincinnati Fire Department
Cincinnati Fire Department
operates out of 26 fire stations, located throughout the city in 4 districts, each commanded by a district chief.[99][100][101] The Cincinnati Fire Department
Cincinnati Fire Department
is organized into 4 bureaus: Operations,[100] Personnel and Training,[102] Administrative Services,[103] and Fire Prevention.[104] Each bureau is commanded by an assistant chief, who in turn reports to the chief of department. The Cincinnati Police Department
Cincinnati Police Department
has more than 1,000 sworn officers. Before the riots of 2001, Cincinnati's overall crime rate had been dropping steadily and by 1995 had reached its lowest point since 1992 but with more murders and rapes.[105] After the riot, violent crime increased, but crime has been on the decline since.[106] In 2015, there were 71 homicides.[107] The Cincinnati Police Department
Cincinnati Police Department
was featured on TLC's Police Women of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and on A&E's reality show The First 48. Politics[edit]

The logo for the City of Cincinnati.

The city proper operates with a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at-large. Prior to 1924, City council members were elected through a system of wards. The ward system was subject to corruption due to partisan rule. From the 1880s to the 1920s, the Republican Party dominated City politics, with the political machine of "Boss" Cox exerting control. A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Seasongood founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to replace the ward system with the current at-large system. They gained approval by voters for a council–manager government form of government, in which the smaller council (compared to the number of previous ward representatives) hires a professional manager to operate daily affairs of the City. From 1924 to 1957, the council was elected by proportional representation and single transfer voting (STV). Starting with Ashtabula in 1915, several major cities in Ohio
Ohio
adopted this electoral system, which had the practical effect of reducing ward boss and political party power. For that reason, such groups opposed it. In an effort to overturn the charter that provided for proportional representation, opponents in 1957 fanned fears of black political power, at a time of increasing civil rights activism.[108] The PR/STV system had enabled minorities to enter local politics and gain seats on the city council more than they had before, in proportion to their share of the population. This made the government more representative of the residents of the city.[109] Overturning that charter, in 1957, all candidates had to run in a single race for the nine city council positions. The top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"), which favored candidates who could appeal to the entire geographic area of the city and reach its residents with campaign materials. The mayor was elected by the council. In 1977, thirty-three-year-old Jerry Springer, later a notable television talk show host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor. Residents continued to work to improve their system.[citation needed] To have their votes count more, starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election was automatically selected as mayor. Mark Mallory, was featured on CBS's Undercover Boss. Starting in 1999, the mayor was elected separately in a general at-large election for the first time. The city manager's role in government was reduced.[citation needed] These reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor" reforms, to make the publicate accountable to voters. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
politics include the participation of the Charter Party, the political party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections.[citation needed] Populace strife[edit] Main article: Race relations of Cincinnati

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
has exhibits on the Underground Railroad

Because of its location on the Ohio
Ohio
River, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was a border town in a free state, across from Kentucky, a slave state. Some residents of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
played a major role in abolitionism. Many fugitive slaves used the Ohio
Ohio
at Cincinnati
Cincinnati
to escape to the North. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
had numerous stations on the Underground Railroad, but there were also runaway slave catchers active in the city, who put escaping slaves at risk of recapture. Given its southern Ohio
Ohio
location, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
had also attracted settlers from the Upper South, who traveled along the Ohio
Ohio
River into the territory. Tensions between abolitionists and slavery supporters broke out in repeated violence, with whites attacking blacks in 1829. Anti-abolitionists attacked blacks in the city in a wave of destruction that resulted in 1,200 blacks leaving the city and the country; they resettled in Canada.[110] The riot and its refugees were topics of discussion throughout the country, and blacks organized the first Negro Convention in 1830 in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to discuss these events. White riots against blacks took place again in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1836 and 1842.[110] In 1836, a mob of 700 pro-slavery men attacked black neighborhoods, as well as a press run by James M. Birney, publisher of the anti-slavery weekly The Philanthropist.[111] Tensions increased after congressional passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act, which required cooperation by citizens in free states and increased penalties for failing to try to recapture escaped slaves. Levi Coffin
Levi Coffin
made the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847.[112] Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe
lived in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
for a time, met escaped slaves, and used their stories as a basis for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1852). The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, which opened in 2004 on the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
riverfront in the middle of "The Banks" area between Great American Ballpark
Great American Ballpark
and Paul Brown Stadium, commemorates the volunteers who aided refugee slaves and their drive for freedom, as well as others who have been leaders for social justice.

Findlay Market, Ohio's oldest operating market

Located in a free state and attracting many European immigrants, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has historically had a predominantly white population.[60] By 1940, the Census Bureau
Census Bureau
reported the city's population as 87.8 percent white and 12.2 percent black.[60] In the second half of the 20th century, Cincinnati, along with other rust belt cities, underwent a vast demographic transformation. By the early 21st century, the city's population was 40% black. Predominantly white, working-class families who constituted the urban core during the European immigration boom in the 19th and early 20th centuries, moved to newly constructed suburbs before and after World War II. Blacks, fleeing the oppression of the Jim Crow
Jim Crow
South in hopes of better socioeconomic opportunity, had moved to these older city neighborhoods in their Great Migration to the industrial North. The downturn in industry in the late 20th century caused a loss of many jobs, leaving many people in poverty. In 1968, passage of national civil rights legislation had raised hopes for positive change, but the assassination of national leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
resulted in riots in many black neighborhoods in Cincinnati; black riots took place in nearly every major U.S. city after King's murder. More than three decades later, in April 2001, racially charged riots occurred after police fatally shot a young unarmed black man, Timothy Thomas, during a foot pursuit to arrest him, mostly for outstanding traffic warrants.[113] After the 2001 riots, the ACLU, Cincinnati Black United Front, the city and its police union agreed upon a community-oriented policing strategy. The agreement has been used as a model across the country for building relationships between police and local communities.[114] On July 19, 2015, Samuel DuBose, an unarmed black motorist, was fatally shot by white University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
Police Officer Ray Tensing after a routine traffic stop for a missing front license plate. The resulting legal proceedings in late 2016[115] have been a recurring focus of national news media.[116] Several peaceful protests involving the Black Lives Matter
Black Lives Matter
movement have been carried out.[117][118] Tensing was indicted on charges of murder and voluntary manslaughter, but a November 2016 trial ended in mistrial[119] after the jury became deadlocked. A retrial began in May 2017, which also ended in mistrial after deadlock. The prosecution then announced they did not plan to try Tensing a third time.[120] The University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has settled with the DuBose family for $4.8 million[121] and free tuition for each of the 12 children. Present officeholders[edit] The present Mayor of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is John Cranley. The nine-member city council is composed of Vice Mayor Christopher Smitherman and Councilmembers Tamaya Dennard (President Pro-Tem), David Mann, Amy Murray, Chris Seelbach, P.G. Sittenfeld, Greg Landsman, Jeff Pastor, and Wendell Young.[122] The city manager is Harry Black, and the manager maintains two assistant city managers. Schools[edit] Main article: Education in Cincinnati In 2009, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was listed fourth on CNN's Top 10 cities for new grads.[123] Keeping college graduates is an important goal of the city, on which it bases its future. The city has an extensive library system, both the city's public one and university facilities. The Public Library of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Hamilton County was the third-largest public library nationally in 1998.[124]

The University of Cincinnati's McMicken Hall.

The University of Cincinnati, called Cincinnati
Cincinnati
or nicknamed UC, is foremost United States urban public institution of learning. The University is renowned in architecture and engineering, liberal arts, music, nursing, and social science. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is the leading institute for community health in Ohio. The College Conservatory of Music
College Conservatory of Music
taught Kathleen Battle, Al Hirt
Al Hirt
and Faith Prince. Two schools, Miami and Cincinnati, were to be adjoined to be one University. The Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS) include sixteen high schools all with citywide acceptance. CPS, third-largest school cluster by student population, was the biggest one to have an overall 'effective' rating from the State.[125] The district currently includes public Montessori schools, including the first public Montessori high school established in the United States, Clark Montessori.[126] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Public Schools' top-rated school is Walnut Hills High School, ranked 34th on the national list of best public schools by Newsweek. Walnut Hills offers 28 Advanced Placement courses. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is also home to the first Kindergarten – 12th grade Arts School in the country, the School for Creative and Performing Arts. Cincinnati State is a small college that includes the Midwest
Midwest
Culinary School. Also located in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is Cincinnati Christian University. Five hundred years since the Reformation Cincinnati
Cincinnati
provided a global distinguished lecture marking the layout of books and research for stirred citygoers[127] and the Cincinnati Art
Art
Museum staff built Albrecht Durer: The Age of Reformation and Renaissance,[128] with more crafting by the University design, art, and architecture program given for the City.[129] Most of the work explores social ontology of the birth of mainline beliefs and propriety, woven with scripture and pamphlets which launched a widespread European grooming. The Jewish community has several schools, including the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school,[130] and the all-boy Yeshivas Lubavitch High School.[131] Hebrew Union College- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR), founded by Isaac Mayer Wise, is a seminary for training of Reform rabbis and others religious.[132] Xavier University, one of two Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
colleges along with Chatfield College, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Archdiocese. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati
Archdiocese of Cincinnati
operates 10 high schools in Cincinnati; six of which are single-sex: there are four all-female schools and two all-male high schools in the city, with additional schools in the metro areas.[133] and six all-female high schools[134] Antonelli College, a career training school, is based in Cincinnati with several satellite campuses in Ohio
Ohio
and Mississippi. Theater and song[edit]

A photo collage of some of the views of the USITT Conference and Stage Expo in Cincinnati, OH, 2015

Professional theatre has operated in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
since at least as early as the 1800s.[citation needed] Among the professional companies based in the city are Ensemble Theatre Cincinnati, Cincinnati Shakespeare Company, the Know Theatre of Cincinnati, Stage First Cincinnati, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Public Theatre, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Opera, The Performance Gallery and Clear Stage Cincinnati. The city is also home to Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Playhouse in the Park, which hosts regional premieres, and the Aronoff Center, which hosts touring Broadway shows each year via Broadway Across America. The city has community theatres, such as the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Young People's Theatre, the Showboat Majestic
Showboat Majestic
(which is the last surviving showboat in the United States and possibly[original research?] the world), and the Mariemont Players. Since 2011, Cincinnati Opera
Cincinnati Opera
and the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music have partnered to sponsor the Opera Fusion: New Works project. The Opera Fusion: New Works project acts as a program for composers or librettists to workshop an opera in a 10-day residency. This program is headed by the Director of Artistic Operations at Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Opera, Marcus Küchle, and the Head of Opera at CCM, Robin Guarino. Music-related events include the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
May Festival, Bunbury Music Festival, and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bell/WEBN Riverfest. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has hosted the World Choir Games with the catchy mantra "Cincinnati, the City that Sings!" In 2015, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
held the USITT 2015 Conference and Stage Expo at the Duke Energy
Duke Energy
Convention Center, bringing 5,000+ students, university educators, theatrical designers and performers, and other personnel to the city.[citation needed] The USITT Conference is considered the main conference for Theatre, Opera, and Dance in the United States.[citation needed] A Rage in Harlem
A Rage in Harlem
was filmed entirely in the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
neighborhood of Over the Rhine because of its similarity to 1950s Harlem. Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
include The Best Years of Our Lives (aerial footage early in the film), Ides of March, Fresh Horses, The Asphalt Jungle (the opening is shot from the Public Landing and takes place in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
although only Boone County, Kentucky
Kentucky
is mentioned), Rain Man, Miles Ahead, Airborne, Grimm Reality, Little Man Tate, City of Hope, An Innocent Man, Tango & Cash, A Mom for Christmas, Lost in Yonkers, Summer Catch, Artworks, Dreamer, Elizabethtown, Jimmy and Judy, Eight Men Out, Milk Money,Traffic, The Pride of Jesse Hallam, The Great Buck Howard, In Too Deep, Seven Below, Carol, Public Eye, The Last Late Night,[135] and The Mighty.[136] In addition, Wild Hogs
Wild Hogs
is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati.[137] The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the CBS
CBS
daytime drama The Edge of Night
The Edge of Night
from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was replaced by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. The sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati
WKRP in Cincinnati
and its sequel/spin-off The New WKRP in Cincinnati
WKRP in Cincinnati
featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, although was not filmed in Cincinnati. The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's
April Fool's
episode of The Drew Carey Show, which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland. 3 Doors Down's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati, and features the skyline and Fountain Square. Also, Harry's Law, the NBC
NBC
legal dramedy created by David E. Kelley
David E. Kelley
and starring Kathy Bates, was set in Cincinnati.[138]

Local folk band Shiny and the Spoon
Shiny and the Spoon
perform at the Cincinnati Zoo
Cincinnati Zoo
and Botanical Garden.

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has given rise or been home to popular musicians and singers Lonnie Mack, Doris Day, Odd Nosdam, Dinah Shore, Fats Waller, Rosemary Clooney, Bootsy Collins, The Isley Brothers, Merle Travis, Hank Ballard, Otis Williams, Mood, Midnight Star, Calloway, The Afghan Whigs, Over the Rhine, Blessid Union of Souls, Freddie Meyer, 98 Degrees, The Greenhornes, The Deele, Enduser, Heartless Bastards, The Dopamines, Adrian Belew, The National, Foxy Shazam, Why?, Wussy, H-Bomb Ferguson and Walk the Moon, and alternative hip hop producer Hi-Tek calls the Greater Cincinnati
Greater Cincinnati
region home. Andy Biersack, the lead vocalist for the rock band Black Veil Brides, was born in Cincinnati. The Cincinnati May Festival
Cincinnati May Festival
Chorus is an amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. The city is home to the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Opera, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Boychoir and Cincinnati Ballet. The Greater Cincinnati
Greater Cincinnati
area is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra and the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Symphony Youth Orchestra. Music Director James Conlon
James Conlon
and Chorus Director Robert Porco lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Cincinnati Music Hall
Cincinnati Music Hall
was built to house the May Festival. The Hollows series of books by Kim Harrison
Kim Harrison
is an urban fantasy that takes place in Cincinnati. American Girl's Kit Kittredge
Kit Kittredge
sub-series also took place in the city, although the film based on it was shot in Toronto. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
also has its own chapter (or "Tent") of The Sons of the Desert (The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society), which meets several times per year.[139] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the subject of a Connie Smith
Connie Smith
song written by Bill Anderson, called Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
(song). Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the main scenario for the international music production of Italian artist and songwriter Veronica Vitale called "Inside the Outsider". She embedded the sounds of the trains at Baltimore
Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad Downtown Cincinnati, filmed her music single "Mi Sono innamorato di Te" at the American Sign Museum
American Sign Museum
and recorded her heartbeat sound at the Children's Hospital of Cincinnati
Children's Hospital of Cincinnati
replacing it to the drums for her song "The Pulse of Light" during the broadcasting of Ryan Seacrest's studios. Furthermore, she released the music single "Nobody is Perfect" featuring legendary Cincinnati's bass player Bootsy Collins.[140] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was a major early music recording center, and was home to King Records, which helped launch the career of James Brown, who often recorded there, as well as Jewel Records, which helped launch Lonnie Mack's career, and Fraternity Records. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
had a vibrant jazz scene from the 1920s to today. Louis Armstrong's first recordings were done in the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
area, at Gennett Records, as were Jelly Roll Morton's, Hoagy Carmichael's, and Bix Beiderbecke, who took up residency in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
for a time. Fats Waller was on staff at WLW
WLW
in the 1930s. Media[edit] Main article: Media in Cincinnati Newspapers[edit] Cincinnati's daily newspaper is The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Enquirer, which was established in 1841. The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, among which are free weekly print magazine publications including CityBeat[141] and La Jornada Latina. Television[edit] According to Nielsen Media Research, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the 36th largest television market in the United States as of the 2016-2017 television season.[142] Twelve television stations broadcast from Cincinnati. Major commercial stations in the area include WLWT
WLWT
5 (NBC), WCPO-TV
WCPO-TV
9 (ABC), WKRC-TV
WKRC-TV
12 (CBS, with CW on DT2), WXIX-TV
WXIX-TV
19 (Fox), and WSTR-TV 64 (MyNetworkTV). In addition, locally owned Block Broadcasting has a presence with two low-power outlets: WOTH-CD
WOTH-CD
20 (shutting down January 23, 2018) and WBQC-LD
WBQC-LD
25. WCET channel 48, now known as CET, is the United States' oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951).[143] It is now co-owned with WPTO 14, a satellite of WPTD
WPTD
in nearby Dayton. Radio[edit] Further information: Category:Radio stations in Cincinnati As of December 2017, Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is the 30th largest radio market in the United States, with an estimated 1.8 million listeners aged 12 and above.[144] Major radio station operators include iHeartMedia and Cumulus Media. WLW
WLW
and WCKY, both owned by iHeartMedia, are both clear-channel stations that broadcast at 50,000 watts, covering most of the eastern United States at night. Pedestrians and passengers[edit] Main article: Transportation in Cincinnati

A transit map of Greater Cincinnati.

A system of public staircases known as the Steps of Cincinnati guides pedestrians up and down the many hills in the city. In addition to practical use linking hillside neighborhoods, the 400 stairways provide visitors scenic views of the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
area.[145] Commuters
Commuters
and travelers know light rail has long been a goal in Cincinnati, designs changing over many decades. The city grew rapidly during the streetcar era of the 1800s and early 1900s. Public transit ridership has been in decline for at least several decades and bicycles and walking account for a relatively small portion of all trips. Like many other midwestern cities, however, bicycle use is growing fairly rapidly in the 2000s and 2010s.[146] In 1916 the Mayor and citizens voted to spend $6 million to build the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Subway. The subway was planned to be a 16-mile loop from Downtown to Norwood to Oakley and back to the east side of Downtown. World War I
World War I
delayed the construction in 1920 and inflation raised the costs causing the Oakley portion never to be built. Mayor Seasongood who took office later on argued it would cost too much money to finish the system.[citation needed] A century later, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Bell Connector streetcar line, which opened for service on September 9, 2016,[65][66] crosses directly above the unfinished subway on Central Parkway downtown.[147][148] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is served by Amtrak's Cardinal, an intercity passenger train which makes three weekly trips in each direction between Chicago
Chicago
and New York City through Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Union Terminal. Cincinnati
Cincinnati
is served by the Southwest Ohio
Ohio
Regional Transit Authority (SORTA), the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
(TANK) and the Clermont Transportation Connection. SORTA and TANK primarily operate 40-foot diesel buses, though some lines are served by longer articulated or hybrid-engine buses. In 2012–16, Cincinnati constructed a streetcar line in Downtown and Over-the-Rhine. This modern version of the streetcar opened in September 2016.[65] The Cincinnati Streetcar
Cincinnati Streetcar
project experienced railcar-manufacturing delays and initial funding issues, but was completed on-time and within its budget in mid-2016.[149][150][151]

Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
houses several important museums, like the CRRC Museum of Railroadiana & Photographs.

The city is served by Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
International Airport (IATA: CVG) which is actually located in Hebron, Kentucky. The airport is a hub for major passenger airline Delta Air Lines, as well as a focus city for low cost carriers Allegiant Air
Allegiant Air
and Frontier Airlines. In addition, the airport is the largest global hub for both Amazon Air and DHL Aviation.[152][153] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Municipal Lunken Airport (IATA: LUK), has daily service on commercial charter flights, and is located in Ohio. The airport serves as hub for Ultimate Air Shuttle and Flamingo Air. Bus traffic is heavy in Cincinnati. Megabus and Greyhound as well as several other, smaller motor coach companies operate out of Cincinnati, making trips within the midwest or beyond. The city has an outer-belt, Interstate 275 (which is the longest circle highway in the country at 85 miles) and a spur, Interstate 471, to Kentucky. It is also served by Interstate 71, Interstate 74, Interstate 75 and numerous U.S. highways: US 22, US 25, US 27, US 42, US 50, US 52, and US 127. The Riverfront Transit Center, built under 2nd Street, is about the size of eight football fields. It is only used for sports games and school field trips. When it was built, it was designed for public transit buses, charter buses, school buses, city coach buses, light rail, and possibly commuter rail. On days it is not in use for sports games, it is closed off and rented to a private parking vendor.[154][155][156] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Cincinnati Sister cities[edit] Cincinnati
Cincinnati
has nine sister cities.[157]

– Amman, Jordan – Gifu, Japan – Harare, Zimbabwe – Kharkiv, Ukraine – Liuzhou, Guangxi, People's Republic of China – Munich, Germany – Mysore, Karnataka, India – Nancy, France – New Taipei, Taiwan

See also[edit]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
portal Ohio
Ohio
portal North America portal United States portal

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
nicknames City Plan for Cincinnati Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
metropolitan area – Greater Cincinnati List of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
neighborhoods List of mayors of Cincinnati National Register of Historic Places listings in Cincinnati, Ohio Streetcars in Cincinnati
Streetcars in Cincinnati
(historical) Vine Street, Cincinnati

Notes[edit]

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Cincinnati
Cincinnati
kept at downtown from January 1871 to March 1915, at the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Abbe Observatory just north of downtown from April 1915 to March 1947, and at KCVG near Hebron, Kentucky
Kentucky
since April 1947. For more information, see Threadex and History of Weather Observations Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
1789–1947

References[edit]

^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ "2016 Census population estimates for every U.S. city, county, state (database)".  ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2014.  ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ Thomas, G. Scott (June 22, 2010). "Census: Cincinnati
Cincinnati
62nd-largest U.S. city". Business Courier. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ a b " Cincinnati
Cincinnati
economy fastest-growing in the Midwest". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ "Getting to Cincinnati, USA". CincinnatiUSA. Retrieved January 8, 2018.  ^ Industrial Bureau of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
(1909). The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Industrial Magazine, Volumes 1–2. p. 33. Retrieved May 20, 2013.  ^ Rieselman, Deborah. "Brief history of University of Cincinnati". UC Magazine. University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
University Relations. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ "When Cincinnati
Cincinnati
was 'the Paris
Paris
of America'". Building Cincinnati. April 19, 2010. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012.  ^ Lossing, Benson (1868). The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. Harper & Brothers, Publishers. p. 476.  ^ "History of Cincinnati, Ohio".  ^ a b "How Cincinnati
Cincinnati
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on the Go: History of Mass Transit. Images of America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 9781439615119 – via Google Books.  ^ US Map of the Köppen climate classification
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History and Photos". Retrieved September 25, 2014.  ^ "Personnel & Training – Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014.  ^ "Administrative Services Bureau – Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014.  ^ "Fire Prevention Bureau – Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014.  ^ "Crime Rate Dropping Slightly Murders, Rapes Up, Says New FBI Study".  ^ Semuels, Alana (May 29, 2015). "How to Fix a Broken Police Department". Route Fifty. Atlantic Media.  ^ "Here's where city's shootings occur".  ^ Douglas J. Amy, "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States", revised version of "The Forgotten History of the Single Transferable Vote in the United States," in Representation 34, number 1 (Winter 1996/7), accessed March 30, 2015 ^ Kathleen L. Barber, PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION AND ELECTION REFORM IN OHIO (excerpt), Columbus: Ohio
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State University Press, 1995, pp. Introduction ^ a b Carter G. Woodson, Charles Harris Wesley (1922). The Negro in Our History. Associated Publishers (digitized from original at University of Michigan Library). p. 140. Retrieved October 1, 2013. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "The Pro-Slavery Riot in Cincinnati", Abolitionism
Abolitionism
1830–1850, Uncle Tom's Cabin
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and American Culture, University of Virginia, 1998–2007, accessed January 14, 2009 ^ Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad: being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives, who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents, Cincinnati: Western Tract Society, University of Michigan Library ^ "Cincinnati.Com – Your Key to the City". cincinnati.com.  ^ "Ohio — 2001 riots led to top-down change for Cincinnati police". USA Today. Retrieved January 29, 2015.  ^ Ferrell, Nikki (2016-11-28). "Everything you should know about the Ray Tensing murder mistrial". WLWT. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ CNN, Max Blau. "Ray Tensing trial explained: What to know". CNN. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ " Black Lives Matter
Black Lives Matter
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holds rally on UC campus for Sam Dubose". WLWT. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ CNN, Ray Sanchez. "Mistrial in murder trial of Ex-University of Cincinnati
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Cincinnati
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Cincinnati
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Riverfront Transit Center
Attracts Criticism". July 7, 2009.  ^ " Cincinnati
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Cincinnati
Sister City Association. Retrieved February 5, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

George W. Engelhardt, Cincinnati: The Queen City. Cincinnati, Ohio: George W. Engelhardt Co., 1901. Charles Frederic Goss, Cincinnati: The Queen City, 1788–1912. In Four Volumes. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1912.

Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4

William C. Smith, Queen City Yesterdays: Sketches of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in the Eighties. Crawfordsville, Indiana: R.E. Banta, 1959. Stradling, David (2003). Cincinnati: From River City to Highway Metropolis. Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 67ff. ISBN 0-7385-2440-9. 

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