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Sir
Sir
Christopher Frank Carandini Lee CBE CStJ (27 May 1922 – 7 June 2015) was an English character actor,[1] singer, and author. With a career spanning nearly 70 years, Lee was well known for portraying villains and became best known for his role as Count Dracula
Count Dracula
in a sequence of Hammer Horror films. His other film roles include Francisco Scaramanga
Francisco Scaramanga
in the James Bond
James Bond
film The Man with the Golden Gun (1974), Saruman
Saruman
in The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
film trilogy (2001–2003) and The Hobbit
The Hobbit
film trilogy (2012–2014), and Count Dooku in the second and third films of the Star Wars
Star Wars
prequel trilogy (2002 & 2005). Lee was knighted for services to drama and charity in 2009, received the BAFTA Fellowship in 2011, and received the BFI Fellowship in 2013.[2] Lee considered his best performance to be that of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
in the biopic Jinnah (1998), and his best film to be the British cult film The Wicker Man (1973).[3] He frequently appeared opposite Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
in many horror films, and late in his career had roles in six Tim Burton
Tim Burton
films.[4] Always noted as an actor for his deep, strong voice, Lee was also known for his singing ability, recording various opera and musical pieces between 1986 and 1998, and the symphonic metal album Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross in 2010, after having worked with several metal bands since 2005. The heavy metal follow-up Charlemagne: The Omens of Death was released on 27 May 2013, Lee's 91st birthday.[5][6] He was honoured with the "Spirit of Metal" award at the 2010 Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards ceremony. Lee died from complications of respiratory problems and heart failure on the morning of 7 June 2015, at the age of 93.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Military service during the Second World War 3 Career

3.1 1947–1957: Career beginnings 3.2 1957–1976: Work with Hammer 3.3 Various roles: The Wicker Man and James Bond 3.4 1977: Move to Hollywood 3.5 2000s: The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
and Star Wars 3.6 2010s: Later roles 3.7 Voice work 3.8 Music career

4 Personal life 5 Death 6 Honours and legacy 7 Ancestry 8 Filmography 9 Audiobooks 10 Discography

10.1 Albums 10.2 EPs 10.3 Singles 10.4 Guest appearances

11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Early life[edit] Lee was born in Belgravia, London,[7] the son of Lieutenant Colonel Geoffrey Trollope Lee (1879–1941) of the 60th King's Royal Rifle Corps, and his wife, Countess Estelle Marie (née Carandini di Sarzano; 1889–1981).[8] Lee's father fought in the Boer War
Boer War
and First World War,[9] and his mother was an Edwardian beauty who was painted by Sir
Sir
John Lavery, Oswald Birley, and Olive Snell, and sculpted by Clare Sheridan;[10][11] her lineage can be traced to Charlemagne.[12] Lee's maternal great-grandfather was an Italian political refugee, whose wife, Lee's great-grandmother, was English-born opera singer Marie Carandini
Marie Carandini
(née Burgess). He had one sister, Xandra Carandini Lee (1917–2002).[13] Lee's parents separated when he was four and divorced two years later.[14] During this time, his mother took him and his sister to Wengen
Wengen
in Switzerland.[15] After enrolling in Miss Fisher's Academy in Territet, he played his first role, as Rumpelstiltskin.[16] They then returned to London, where Lee attended Wagner's private school in Queen's Gate, and his mother married Harcourt George St-Croix Rose, a banker and uncle of Ian Fleming.[17] Fleming, author of the James Bond novels, thus became Lee's step-cousin. The family moved to Fulham, living next door to the actor Eric Maturin.[18] One night, he was introduced to Prince Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, the assassins of Grigori Rasputin, whom Lee was to play many years later.[19] When Lee was nine, he was sent to Summer Fields School, a preparatory school in Oxford whose pupils often later attended Eton.[20] He continued acting in school plays, though "the laurels deservedly went to Patrick Macnee".[21] Lee applied for a scholarship to Eton, where his interview was in the presence of the ghost story author M. R. James.[22] Sixty years later, Lee played the part of James for the BBC.[23] His poor maths skills meant that he placed eleventh, and thus missed out on being a King's Scholar by one place. His step-father was not prepared to pay the higher fees that being an Oppidan Scholar meant, and so he did not attend.[22] Instead, Lee attended Wellington College, where he won scholarships in the classics, studying Ancient Greek and Latin.[24] Aside from a "tiny part" in a school play, he didn't act while at Wellington.[25] He was a "passable" racquets player and fencer and a competent cricketer but did not do well at the other sports played: hockey, football, rugby and boxing.[26] He disliked the parades and weapons training and would always "play dead" as soon as possible during mock battles.[27] Lee was frequently beaten at school, including once at Wellington for "being beaten too often", though he accepted them as "logical and therefore acceptable" punishments for knowingly breaking the rules.[28] At age 17, and with one year left at Wellington, the summer term of 1939 was his last. His step-father had gone bankrupt, owing £25,000.[29] His mother separated from Rose, and Lee had to get a job, his sister already working as a secretary for the Church of England Pensions Board.[30] With most employers on or preparing to go on summer holidays, there were no immediate opportunities for Lee, and so he was sent to the French Riviera, where his sister was on holiday with friends.[30] On his way there he stopped briefly in Paris, where he stayed with the journalist Webb Miller, a friend of Rose, and witnessedEugen Weidmann’s, beheading by the guillotine the last person to be executed in public in France.[31] Arriving in Menton, he stayed with the Russian Mazirov family, living among exiled princely families.[32] It was arranged that he should stay on in Menton
Menton
after his sister had returned home, but with Europe on the brink of war, he returned to London
London
instead.[33] He worked as an office clerk for United States Lines, taking care of the mail and running errands.[34][35] Military service during the Second World War[edit] When the Second World War broke out, Lee volunteered to fight for the Finnish forces during the Winter War
Winter War
in 1939.[36] He and other British volunteers were kept away from actual fighting, but they were issued winter gear and were posted on guard duty a safe distance from the front lines. After a fortnight, they returned home.[37] Lee returned to work at United States Lines
United States Lines
and found his work more satisfying, feeling that he was contributing. In early 1940, he joined Beecham's, at first as an office clerk, then as a switchboard operator.[38] When Beecham's moved out of London, he joined the Home Guard.[39] In the winter, his father fell ill with bilateral pneumonia and died on 12 March 1941. Realising that he had no inclination to follow his father into the Army, Lee decided to join up while he still had some choice of service, and volunteered for the Royal Air Force.[40] Lee reported to RAF Uxbridge
RAF Uxbridge
for training and was then posted to the Initial Training Wing at Paignton.[41] After he had passed his exams in Liverpool, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
meant that he travelled on the Reina del Pacifico to South Africa, then to his posting at Hillside, at Bulawayo
Bulawayo
in Southern Rhodesia.[42] Training with de Havilland Tiger Moths, Lee was having his penultimate training session before his first solo flight, when he suffered from headaches and blurred vision. The medical officer hesitantly diagnosed a failure of his optic nerve, and he was told he would never be allowed to fly again.[43] Lee was devastated, and the death of a fellow trainee from Summer Fields only made him more despondent. His appeals were fruitless, and he was left with nothing to do.[44] He was moved around to different flying stations before being posted to Southern Rhodesia's capital, Salisbury, in December 1941.[45] He then visited the Mazowe Dam, Marandellas, the Wankie Game Reserve and the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. Thinking he should "do something constructive for my keep", he applied to join RAF Intelligence. His superiors praised his initiative, and he was seconded into the Rhodesian Police Force and was posted as a warder at Salisbury Prison.[46] He was then promoted to leading aircraftman and moved to Durban
Durban
in South Africa, before travelling to Suez
Suez
on the Nieuw Amsterdam.[47] After "killing time" at RAF Kasfareet near the Great Bitter Lake
Great Bitter Lake
in the Suez
Suez
Canal Zone, he resumed intelligence work in the city of Ismaïlia.[48] He was then attached to No. 205 Group RAF before being commissioned as a pilot officer at the end of January 1943,[49] and attached to No. 260 Squadron RAF
No. 260 Squadron RAF
as an intelligence officer.[50] As the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
progressed, the squadron "leapfrogged" between Egyptian airstrips, from RAF El Daba
RAF El Daba
to Maaten Bagush and on to Mersa Matruh. They lent air support to the ground forces and bombed strategic targets. Lee, "broadly speaking, was expected to know everything".[51] The Allied advance continued into Libya, through Tobruk
Tobruk
and Benghazi
Benghazi
to the Marble Arch and then through El Agheila, Khoms and Tripoli, with the squadron averaging five missions a day.[52] As the advance continued into Tunisia, with the Axis forces digging themselves in at the Mareth Line, Lee was almost killed when the squadron's airfield was bombed.[53] After breaking through the Mareth Line, the squadron made their final base in Kairouan.[54] After the Axis surrender in North Africa in May 1943, the squadron moved to Zuwarah
Zuwarah
in Libya in preparation for the Allied invasion of Sicily.[55] They then moved to Malta, and, after its capture by the British Eighth Army, the Sicilian town of Pachino, before making a permanent base in Agnone Bagni.[56] At the end of July 1943, Lee received his second promotion of the year, this time to flying officer.[57] After the Sicilian campaign was over, Lee came down with malaria for the sixth time in under a year, and was flown to a hospital in Carthage
Carthage
for treatment. When he returned, the squadron was restless, frustrated with a lack of news about the Eastern Front and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in general, and with no mail from home or alcohol. Unrest spread and threatened to turn into mutiny. Lee, by now an expert on Russia, talked them into resuming their duties, which much impressed his commanding officer.[58]

Flying Officer C. F. C. Lee in Vatican City, 1944, soon after the Liberation of Rome

After the Allied invasion of Italy, the squadron was based in Foggia and Termoli
Termoli
during the winter of 1943. Lee was then seconded to the Army during an officer's swap scheme.[59] He spent most of this time with the Gurkhas of the 8th Indian Infantry Division during the Battle of Monte Cassino.[60] While spending some time on leave in Naples, Lee climbed Mount Vesuvius, which erupted three days later.[61] During the final assault on Monte Cassino, the squadron was based in San Angelo, and Lee was nearly killed when one of the planes crashed on takeoff, and he tripped over one of its live bombs.[62] After the battle, the squadron moved to airfields just outside Rome, and Lee visited the city, where he met his mother's cousin, Nicolò Carandini, who had fought in the Italian resistance movement.[63] In November 1944, Lee was promoted to flight lieutenant and left the squadron in Iesi
Iesi
to take up a posting at Air Force HQ.[64] Lee took part in forward planning and liaison, in preparation for a potential assault into the rumoured German Alpine Fortress.[65] After the war ended, Lee was invited to go hunting near Vienna and was then billeted in Pörtschach am Wörthersee.[66] For the final few months of his service, Lee, who spoke fluent French and German, among other languages, was seconded to the Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects.[67] Here, he was tasked with helping to track down Nazi war criminals.[68] Of his time with the organisation, Lee said: "We were given dossiers of what they'd done and told to find them, interrogate them as much as we could and hand them over to the appropriate authority ... We saw these concentration camps. Some had been cleaned up. Some had not."[68] He retired from the RAF in 1946 with the rank of flight lieutenant.[67] Lee's stepfather served as a captain in the Intelligence Corps, but it is unlikely he had any influence over Lee's military career. Lee saw him for the last time on a bus in London
London
in 1940, by then divorced from Lee's mother, though Lee did not speak to him.[69] Lee mentioned that during the war he was attached to the Special
Special
Operations Executive and the Long Range Desert Group, the precursor of the SAS,[70][71] but always declined to go into details.

I was attached to the SAS from time to time but we are forbidden – former, present, or future – to discuss any specific operations. Let's just say I was in Special
Special
Forces and leave it at that. People can read in to that what they like.[72]

Career[edit] 1947–1957: Career beginnings[edit] Returning to London
London
in 1946, Lee was offered his old job back at Beecham's, with a significant raise, but he turned them down as "I couldn't think myself back into the office frame of mind." The Armed Forces were sending veterans with an education in the Classics
Classics
to teach at universities, but Lee felt his Latin
Latin
was too rusty and didn't care for the strict curfews.[73] Having lunch with his cousin Nicolò Carandini, now the Italian Ambassador to Britain, Lee was detailing his war wounds when Carandini said, "Why don't you become an actor, Christopher?"[74] Lee liked the idea and after assuaging his mother's protests by pointing to the successful Carandini performers in Australia, which included his great-grandmother Marie Carandini, who had been a successful opera singer, he met Nicolò's friend Filippo Del Giudice, a lawyer-turned-film producer. The head of Two Cities Films, part of the Rank Organisation, Giudice, "looked me up and down... [and] concluded that I was just what the industry had been looking for". He was sent to see Josef Somlo for a contract, who immediately announced that he was "much too tall to be an actor". Somlo sent him to see Rank's David Henley and Olive Dodds, who signed him on a seven-year contract.[75] A student at Rank's "Charm School", Lee and many of the others had difficulty finding work.[76] He finally made his film début in Terence Young's Gothic romance Corridor of Mirrors (1947).[77] He played Charles; the director got around his height by placing him at a table in a nightclub alongside Lois Maxwell, Mavis Villiers, Hugh Latimer and John Penrose. Lee had a single line, "a satirical shaft meant to qualify the lead's bravura".[76] His "apprenticeship" lasted ten years, as he mostly played supporting and background characters.

I was around a long time – nearly ten years. Initially, I was told I was too tall to be an actor. That's a quite fatuous remark to make. It's like saying you're too short to play the piano. I thought, "Right, I'll show you..." At the beginning I didn't know anything about the technique of working in front of a camera, but during those 10 years, I did the one thing that's so vitally important today – I watched, I listened and I learned. So when the time came I was ready... Oddly enough, to play a character who said nothing [The Creature in The Curse of Frankenstein].[3]

Also in this early period, he made an uncredited appearance in Laurence Olivier's film version of Hamlet (1948), as a spear carrier (his later co-star and close friend Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
played Osric). A few years later, he appeared in Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N.
Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N.
(1951) as a Spanish captain. He was cast when the director asked him if he could speak Spanish and fence, which he was able to do.[78] Lee appeared uncredited in the American epic Quo Vadis (also 1951), which was shot in Rome, playing a chariot driver and was injured when he was thrown from it at one point during the shoot.[3] He recalled that his breakthrough came in 1952, when Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. began making films at the British National Studios. He said in 2006, "I was cast in various roles in 16 of them and even appeared with Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
and it proved an excellent training ground."[78] The same year, he appeared in John Huston's Oscar-nominated Moulin Rouge.[77] Throughout the next decade, he made nearly 30 films, including Cockleshell Heroes, playing mostly stock action characters. 1957–1976: Work with Hammer[edit]

Lee as the title character in Dracula
Dracula
(1958). Lee fixed the image of the fanged vampire in popular culture.[79]

Lee's first film for Hammer was The Curse of Frankenstein
The Curse of Frankenstein
(1957), in which he played Frankenstein's monster, with Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
as Baron Victor Frankenstein.[77] It was the first film to co-star Lee and Cushing, who ultimately appeared together in over twenty films and became close friends.[3] When he arrived at a casting session for the film, "they asked me if I wanted the part, I said yes and that was that".[78] A little later, Lee co-starred with Boris Karloff
Boris Karloff
in the film Corridors of Blood (1958). Lee had previously appeared with Karloff in 1955 in the "At Night, All Cats are Grey" episode of the British television series Colonel March of Scotland Yard.[80] Lee's own appearance as Frankenstein's monster
Frankenstein's monster
led to his first appearance as the Transylvanian vampire Count Dracula
Count Dracula
in the film Dracula
Dracula
(1958, known as Horror of Dracula
Dracula
in the United States).[77] A critically acclaimed film that saw Lee fix the image of the fanged vampire in popular culture,[81] Dracula
Dracula
has been ranked among the best British films.[82] The film magazine Empire ranked Lee's portrayal as Dracula
Dracula
the 7th Greatest Horror Movie Character of All Time.[83] Lee accepted a similar role in an Italian-French horror picture called Uncle Was a Vampire
Uncle Was a Vampire
(1959). Lee returned to the role of Dracula
Dracula
in Hammer's Dracula: Prince of Darkness (1965).[77] Lee's role has no lines, he merely hisses his way through the film. Stories vary as to the reason for this: Lee states he refused to speak the poor dialogue he was given, but screenwriter Jimmy Sangster
Jimmy Sangster
claims that the script did not contain any lines for the character. This film set the standard for most of the Dracula sequels in the sense that half the film's running time was spent on telling the story of Dracula's resurrection and the character's appearances were brief. Lee went on record to state that he was virtually "blackmailed" by Hammer into starring in the subsequent films; unable or unwilling to pay him his going rate, they would resort to reminding him of how many people he would put out of work, if he did not take part.

The process went like this: The telephone would ring and my agent would say, "Jimmy Carreras [President of Hammer Films] has been on the phone, they've got another Dracula
Dracula
for you." And I would say, "Forget it! I don't want to do another one." I'd get a call from Jimmy Carreras, in a state of hysteria. "What's all this about?!" "Jim, I don't want to do it, and I don't have to do it." "No, you have to do it!" And I said, "Why?" He replied, "Because I've already sold it to the American distributor with you playing the part. Think of all the people you know so well, that you will put out of work!" Emotional blackmail. That's the only reason I did them.[84]

His roles in the films Dracula
Dracula
Has Risen from the Grave (1968), Taste the Blood of Dracula
Dracula
(1969), and Scars of Dracula
Dracula
(1970) all gave the Count very little to do. Lee said in an interview in 2005, "all they do is write a story and try and fit the character in somewhere, which is very clear when you see the films. They gave me nothing to do! I pleaded with Hammer to let me use some of the lines that Bram Stoker had written. Occasionally, I sneaked one in."[3] Although Lee may not have liked what Hammer was doing with the character, worldwide audiences embraced the films, which were all commercially successful. Lee starred in two further Dracula
Dracula
films for Hammer in the early 1970s, both of which attempted to bring the character into the modern-day era. These were not commercially successful: Dracula
Dracula
A.D. 1972 (1972) and The Satanic Rites of Dracula
Dracula
(1973). The latter film was tentatively titled Dracula
Dracula
Is Dead... and Well and Living in London, a parody of the stage and film musical revue Jacques Brel Is Alive and Well and Living in Paris, but Lee was not amused. Speaking at a press conference in 1973 to announce the film, Lee said, "I'm doing it under protest... I think it is fatuous. I can think of twenty adjectives – fatuous, pointless, absurd. It's not a comedy, but it's got a comic title. I don't see the point."[85] The Satanic Rites Of Dracula
Dracula
was the last Dracula
Dracula
film that Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
played the Dracula
Dracula
role in, as he felt he had played the part too many times and that the Dracula
Dracula
films had deteriorated in quality.[86] Hammer went on to make one more Dracula
Dracula
film without him: The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires (1974), with John Forbes-Robertson playing the Count and David de Keyser dubbing him. In all, Lee played Dracula
Dracula
ten times: seven films for Hammer Productions, once for Jesse Franco's Count Dracula
Count Dracula
(1970), uncredited in Jerry Lewis's One More Time (1970) and Édouard Molinaro's Dracula and Son (1976).[87] Lee's other work for Hammer included The Mummy (1959). Lee portrayed Rasputin in Rasputin, the Mad Monk
Rasputin, the Mad Monk
(1966) and Sir
Sir
Henry Baskerville (to Cushing's Sherlock Holmes) in The Hound of the Baskervilles (1959). Lee later played Holmes himself in 1962's Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
and the Deadly Necklace, and returned to Holmes films with Billy Wilder's British-made The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
(1970), in which he plays Sherlock's smarter brother, Mycroft. Lee considers this film to be the reason he stopped being typecast: "I've never been typecast since. Sure, I've played plenty of heavies, but as Anthony Hopkins says, "I don't play villains, I play people.""[3] Lee played a leading role in the German film The Puzzle of the Red Orchid
The Puzzle of the Red Orchid
(1962), speaking German, which he had learned during his education in Switzerland. He auditioned for a part in the film The Longest Day (1962), but was turned down because he did not "look like a military man". Some film books incorrectly credit him with a role in the film, something he had to correct for the rest of his life.[88] Lee's friend Dennis Wheatley, a noted author, was responsible for bringing the occult to him.[89] The company made two films from Wheatley's novels, both starring Lee. The first, The Devil Rides Out (1967), is generally considered to be one of Hammer's crowning achievements.[90] According to Lee, Wheatley was so pleased with it, that he offered the actor the film rights to his remaining black magic novels, free of charge. However, the second film, To the Devil a Daughter (1976), was fraught with production difficulties and was disowned by its author. Although financially successful, it was Hammer's last horror film, and marked the end of Lee's long association with the studio that had a major impact on his career. Various roles: The Wicker Man and James Bond[edit]

Lee in The Oblong Box (1969)

Like Cushing, Lee also appeared in horror films for other companies during the 20-year period from 1957 to 1977. Other films in which Lee performed include the series of Fu Manchu
Fu Manchu
films made between 1965 and 1969, in which he starred as the villain in heavy oriental make-up; I, Monster (1971), in which he played Jekyll and Hyde; The Creeping Flesh (1972); and his personal favourite, The Wicker Man (1973), in which he played Lord Summerisle. Lee wanted to break free of his image as Dracula
Dracula
and take on more interesting acting roles. He met with screenwriter Anthony Shaffer, and they agreed to work together. Film director Robin Hardy and British Lion head Peter Snell became involved in the project. Shaffer had a series of conversations with Hardy, and the two decided that it would be fun to make a horror film centring on "old religion", in sharp contrast to the popular Hammer films of the day.[91] Shaffer read the David Pinner novel Ritual, in which a devout Christian policeman is called to investigate what appears to be the ritual murder of a young girl in a rural village, and decided that it would serve well as the source material for the project. Shaffer and Lee paid Pinner £15,000 for the rights to the novel, and Schaffer set to work on the screenplay. However, he soon decided that a direct adaptation would not work well, and began to craft a new story, using only the basic outline of the novel.[91][92] Lee was so keen to get the film made, he gave his services for free, as the budget was so small.[93] He would later refer to the film as the best he had ever made.[3] Lee appeared as the on-screen narrator in Jess Franco's Eugenie (1970) as a favour to producer Harry Alan Towers, unaware that it was softcore pornography, as the sex scenes were shot separately.

I had no idea that was what it was when I agreed to the role. I was told it was about the Marquis de Sade. I flew out to Spain for one day's work playing the part of a narrator. I had to wear a crimson dinner jacket. There were lots of people behind me. They all had their clothes on. There didn't seem to be anything peculiar or strange. A friend said: 'Do you know you are in a film in Old Compton Street?' In those days that was where the mackintosh brigade watched their films. 'Very funny,' I said. So I crept along there heavily disguised in dark glasses and scarf, and found the cinema and there was my name. I was furious! There was a huge row. When I had left Spain that day everyone behind me had taken their clothes off![72]

Lee and his close friend Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
in Horror Express
Horror Express
(1972)

In addition to making films in the United Kingdom, Lee made films in mainland Europe: he appeared in two German films, Count Dracula (1970), where he again played the vampire count, and The Torture Chamber of Dr. Sadism (1967). Other films in Europe he made include Castle of the Living Dead
Castle of the Living Dead
(1964) and Horror Express
Horror Express
(1972). Lee was a producer of the horror film Nothing But the Night
Nothing But the Night
(also 1972), in which he also starred. It was the first and last film he ever produced, as he did not enjoy the process.[88] Lee appeared as the Comte de Rochefort in Richard Lester's The Three Musketeers (1973). He was wounded in his left knee during filming, an injury he still felt many years later.[3] He also appeared in the sequel film The Four Musketeers (1974), which was actually shot at the same time. Although "killed" in the latter film, he reprised the role in The Return of the Musketeers
The Return of the Musketeers
(1989), with his character given token dialogue explaining that his wound in the earlier film's climactic sword fight wasn't fatal. After the mid-1970s, Lee eschewed horror roles almost entirely. Ian Fleming, author of the James Bond
James Bond
spy novels and Lee's step-cousin, had offered him the role of the titular antagonist in the first Eon-produced Bond film Dr. No (1962). Lee enthusiastically accepted, but by the time Fleming told the producers, they had already chosen Joseph Wiseman
Joseph Wiseman
for the role.[3] Lee finally got to play a James Bond villain in The Man with the Golden Gun (1974), in which he was cast as the deadly assassin Francisco Scaramanga. Lee said of his performance, "In Fleming's novel he's just a West Indian thug, but in the film he's charming, elegant, amusing, lethal... I played him like the dark side of Bond."[3] Because of his filming schedule in Bangkok, film director Ken Russell was unable to sign Lee to play the Specialist in Tommy (1975). That role was eventually given to Jack Nicholson. In an AMC documentary on Halloween (1978), John Carpenter
John Carpenter
states that he offered the role of Samuel Loomis
Samuel Loomis
to Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
and Christopher Lee, before Donald Pleasence took the role. Years later, Lee met Carpenter, and told him that the biggest regret of his career was not taking the role of Dr. Loomis. Lee appeared on the cover of the Wings album Band on the Run
Band on the Run
(1973), along with others including chat show host Michael Parkinson, singer Kenny Lynch, film actor James Coburn, world boxing champion John Conteh, and broadcaster Clement Freud. 1977: Move to Hollywood[edit] In 1977, Lee left Britain for the US, concerned at being typecast in horror films, as had happened to his close friends Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
and Vincent Price. He said in an interview in 2011:

Peter and Vincent made some wonderful serious movies but are only known for horror. That was why I went to America. I couldn't see anything happening here except a continuation of what had gone before. A couple of friends, Dick Widmark and Billy Wilder, told me I had to get away from London
London
otherwise I would always be typecast.[72]

His first American film was the disaster film Airport '77
Airport '77
(1977). In 1978, Lee surprised many people with his willingness to go along with a joke, by appearing as guest host on NBC's Saturday Night Live.[3] As a result of his appearance on SNL, Steven Spielberg, who was in the audience, cast him in 1941 (1979).[3] Meanwhile, Lee co-starred with Bette Davis
Bette Davis
in the Disney film Return from Witch Mountain
Return from Witch Mountain
(1978).[94] He turned down the role of Dr. Barry Rumack (finally played by Leslie Nielsen) in the disaster spoof Airplane!
Airplane!
(1980), a decision he later called "a big mistake".[3] Lee appeared in The Return of Captain Invincible
The Return of Captain Invincible
(1982), a comedy-musical film. Lee plays a fascist who plans to rid America (and afterwards, the world) of all non-whites. Lee sings on two tracks in the film ("Name Your Poison" and "Mister Midnight"), written by Richard O'Brien
Richard O'Brien
(who had written The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
seven years previously) and Richard Hartley. Later, he appeared alongside Reb Brown and Sybil Danning
Sybil Danning
in Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf (1985). Lee made his last appearances as Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
in Incident at Victoria Falls (1991) and Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
and the Leading Lady (1992).

Lee at the Aubagne International Film Festival in September 1996

In addition to more than a dozen feature films together for Hammer Films, Amicus Productions, and other companies, Lee and Peter Cushing both appeared in Hamlet (1948) and Moulin Rouge
Moulin Rouge
(1952), albeit in separate scenes; and in separate instalments of the Star Wars
Star Wars
films, Cushing as Grand Moff Tarkin
Grand Moff Tarkin
in the original film, Lee decades later as Count Dooku. The last project which united them in person was a documentary, Flesh and Blood: The Hammer Heritage of Horror (1994), which they jointly narrated. It was the last time they saw each other, as Cushing died two months later. In 1998, Lee starred in the role of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of modern Pakistan, in the film Jinnah. In 2002, while talking about his favourite role in film at a press conference at the Brussels International Fantastic Film Festival, he declared that his role in Jinnah was by far his best performance.[95] Lee was considered for the role of comic book villain/hero Magneto in the screen adaptation of the popular comic book series X-Men, but he lost the role to Sir
Sir
Ian McKellen, his co-star in The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. 2000s: The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
and Star Wars[edit]

Lee at Forbidden Planet New Oxford Street, London, signing The Two Towers in January 2008

He had many television roles, including that of Flay in the BBC television miniseries, based on Mervyn Peake's novels, Gormenghast (2000), and Stefan Wyszyński
Stefan Wyszyński
in the CBS
CBS
film John Paul the Second (2005). He played Lucas de Beaumanoir, the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, in the BBC/A&E co-production of Sir
Sir
Walter Scott's Ivanhoe
Ivanhoe
(1997). He played a role in the made-for-TV series La Révolution française (1989) in part 2, "Les Années Terribles", as the executioner, Charles-Henri Sanson, who beheaded King Louis XVI, Maximilien de Robespierre, and others. Lee played Saruman
Saruman
in The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
film trilogy. In the commentary, he stated he had a decades-long dream to play Gandalf, but that he was now too old, and that his physical limitations prevented him from being considered. The role of Saruman, by contrast, required no horseback riding and much less fighting. Lee had met J. R. R. Tolkien once (making him the only person involved in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy to have done so) and made a habit of reading the novels at least once a year.[96][97][98] In addition, he performed for the album The Lord of the Rings: Songs and Poems by J.R.R. Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien
in 2003.[99] Lee's appearance in the final film in the trilogy, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, was cut from the theatrical release, but the scene was reinstated in the extended edition. The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
marked the beginning of a major career revival that continued in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) and Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (2005), in which he played the villainous Count Dooku. He did most of the swordplay himself, though a double was required for the long shots with more vigorous footwork.[3]

Lee filming The Heavy in Westminster, London
London
in 2007

Lee was one of the favourite actors of Tim Burton, and became a regular in many of Burton's films, working for the director five times, starting in 1999, where he had a small role as the Burgomaster in the film Sleepy Hollow. In 2005, Lee played Willy Wonka's strict dentist father, Dr. Wilbur Wonka, in Burton's reimagining of the Roald Dahl tale Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and voiced the character of Pastor Galswells in Corpse Bride, co-directed by Burton and Mike Johnson. In 2007, Lee collaborated with Burton on Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, playing the spirit of Sweeney Todd's victims, called the Gentleman Ghost, alongside Anthony Head, with both singing "The Ballad of Sweeney Todd", its reprises and the Epilogue. These songs were recorded, but eventually cut since Burton felt that the songs were too theatrical for the film. Lee's appearance was completely cut from the film, but Head still had an uncredited one-line cameo.[100] In 2008, he was offered the role of King Balor in Guillermo del Toro's Hellboy II: The Golden Army, but had to turn it down due to prior commitments. In late November 2009, Lee narrated the Science Fiction Festival in Trieste, Italy.[101] Also in 2009, Lee starred in Stephen Poliakoff's British period drama Glorious 39
Glorious 39
with Julie Christie, Bill Nighy, Romola Garai, and David Tennant, Academy Award-nominated director Danis Tanović's war film Triage with Colin Farrell
Colin Farrell
and Paz Vega, and Duncan Ward's comedy Boogie Woogie alongside Amanda Seyfried, Gillian Anderson, Stellan Skarsgård, and Joanna Lumley.[102] 2010s: Later roles[edit]

Lee at the Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival
in February 2012

In 2010, Lee marked his fourth collaboration with Tim Burton
Tim Burton
by voicing the Jabberwock
Jabberwock
in Burton's adaptation of Lewis Carroll's classic book Alice in Wonderland, alongside Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter, and Anne Hathaway. While he only had two lines, Burton said that he felt Lee to be a good match for the iconic character, because of Lee himself being "an iconic guy".[103] Lee won the "Spirit of Metal" award in the Metal Hammer Golden Gods 2010. The award was presented by Tony Iommi. In 2010, Lee received the Steiger Award (Germany) and, in February 2011, Lee was awarded the BAFTA Fellowship. In 2011, he appeared in a Hammer film for the first time in thirty-five years, the last being 1976's To the Devil a Daughter. The film was called The Resident, and he gave a "superbly sinister" performance[104] alongside Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
and Jeffrey Dean Morgan.[105] Whilst filming scenes for the film in New Mexico
New Mexico
in early 2009, Lee injured his back when he tripped over power cables on set.[68] He had to undergo surgery, and as a result, he was unable to play the role of Sir
Sir
Lachlan Morrison in The Wicker Tree, the sequel to The Wicker Man. Very disappointed, director Robin Hardy recast the role, but Lee was determined to appear in the film, so Hardy wrote a small scene specially for him.[106] Lee appears as the unnamed "Old Gentleman" who acts as Lachlan's mentor in a flashback. Hardy stated that fans of The Wicker Man would recognise this character as Lord Summerisle,[107] but Lee contradicted this, stating that they are two unrelated characters.[108] Also in 2011, Lee appeared in the critically acclaimed Hugo, directed by Martin Scorsese. On 11 January 2011, Lee announced on his website that he would be reprising the role of Saruman
Saruman
for the prequel film The Hobbit.[109] Lee had originally said that he would have liked to have shown Saruman's corruption by Sauron,[110] but that he wouldn't be comfortable flying to New Zealand at his age.[111] The production was adjusted to accommodate Lee's travel concerns, thereby allowing him to participate in the film from London. Lee said he worked on his role for the films over the course of four days,[112] portraying Saruman
Saruman
as a kind and noble wizard, before his subsequent fall into darkness, as depicted in The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings
film trilogy. In 2012, Lee marked his fifth and final collaboration with Tim Burton, by appearing in Burton's film adaptation of the gothic soap opera Dark Shadows, in the small role of a New England fishing captain. In an interview in August 2013, Lee said that he was "saddened" to hear his friend Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
considering retirement from acting, noting that he himself had no intention of retiring.

There are frustrations – people who lie to you, people who don't know what they are doing, films that don't turn out the way you had wanted them to – so, yes, I do understand [why Depp would consider retiring]. I always ask myself "well, what else could I do?". Making films has never just been a job to me, it's my life. I have some interests outside of acting – I sing and I've written books, for instance – but acting is what keeps me going, it's what I do, it gives life purpose... I'm realistic about the amount of work I can get at my age, but I take what I can, even voice-overs and narration.[113]

Lee narrated the feature-length documentary Necessary Evil: Super-Villains of DC Comics, which was released on 25 October 2013.[114] In 2014, he appeared in an episode of the BBC
BBC
documentary series Timeshift called How to Be Sherlock Holmes: The Many Faces of a Master Detective. Lee and others who had played Sherlock Holmes discussed the character and the various interpretations of him.[115] He also appeared in a web exclusive, reading an excerpt from the short story The Final Problem.[116] He also narrated an advertising campaign for Age UK, reading a poem by Roger McGough.[117] A month before his death, Lee had signed to star with an ensemble cast in the Danish film The 11th.[118] His final performance was the independent Angels of Notting Hill directed by Michael Pakleppa.[119] A comedy about an angel trapped in London
London
who falls in love with a human being. Lee plays The Boss/Mr. President and the film premiered in the Regent Street Cinema, London
London
on Saturday 29 October 2016 [120] Lee recorded his final words for film at his Redwood Studios in Soho, London
London
on 17 May 2015 just 3 weeks before his death on 7 June 2015.[121] Voice work[edit] Lee spoke fluent English, Italian, French, Spanish, and German, and was moderately proficient in Swedish, Russian, and Greek.[122] He was the original voice of Thor in the German dubs of the Danish 1986 animated film Valhalla, and of King Haggard in both the English and German dubs of the 1982 animated adaptation of The Last Unicorn.[123] Lee provided the off-camera voice of "U. N. Owen", the mysterious host who brings disparate characters together in Agatha Christie's Ten Little Indians (1965). The film was produced by Harry Alan Towers, for whom Lee had worked repeatedly in the 1960s. Even though he was not credited on the film, his voice is unmistakable. He also provided all the voices for the English dub of Monsieur Hulot's Holiday
Monsieur Hulot's Holiday
(1953). He contributed with his voice as Death in the animated versions of Terry Pratchett's Soul Music and Wyrd Sisters, and reprised the role in the Sky1
Sky1
live action adaptation The Colour of Magic, taking over the role from the late Ian Richardson. Lee provided the voice for the role of Ansem the Wise/ DiZ
DiZ
in the video games Kingdom Hearts II, Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days, and Kingdom Hearts 2.5 HD Remix, but veteran voice actor Corey Burton (who would also take over for Lee in Star Wars: The Clone Wars) took over for Kingdom Hearts Re:Chain of Memories, Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep, and Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance, as well as the version of Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days
that was released as part of Kingdom Hearts 1.5 HD Remix. He was the voice of Lucan D'Lere in the trailers for EverQuest II. Lee reprised his role as Saruman
Saruman
in the video game The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth
Middle-earth
along with the other actors of the films. He also narrated and sang for the Danish musical group The Tolkien Ensemble, taking the role of Treebeard, King Théoden
King Théoden
and others in the readings or singing of their respective poems or songs.[124] In 2007, he voiced the transcript of The Children of Húrin by J.R.R. Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien
for the audiobook version of the novel. In 2005, Lee provided the voice of Pastor Galswells in The Corpse Bride, co-directed by Tim Burton
Tim Burton
and Mike Johnson. He served as the narrator on The Nightmare Before Christmas' poem, written by Tim Burton as well. Lee reprised his role as Count Dooku
Count Dooku
in the Star Wars: The Clone Wars 2008 animated film, but Corey Burton took his place for the character in the TV series. From 2008 until 2010, Lee was the host and narrator of "Mystery Theater" which aired on radio worldwide. Lee introduced American classic radio mystery, sci-fi and detective programs in a series produced, written and directed by Carl Amari. In 2010, he collaborated again with Tim Burton, this time by voicing the Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
in Burton's adaptation of Lewis Carroll's classic book Alice in Wonderland. Some thirty years after playing Francisco Scaramanga
Francisco Scaramanga
in The Man with the Golden Gun, Lee provided the voice of Scaramanga in the video game GoldenEye: Rogue Agent.[125] In 2013, Lee voiced The Earl of Earl’s Court in the BBC
BBC
Radio 4 radio play Neverwhere by Neil Gaiman.[126] Lee recorded special dialogue, in addition to serving as the Narrator, for the Lego The Hobbit
The Hobbit
video game released in April 2014. Music career[edit]

Lee receiving the "Spirit of Metal" award for his album Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross at the 2010 Metal Hammer Golden Gods ceremony in London

With his operatic bass voice, Lee sang on The Wicker Man soundtrack, performing Paul Giovanni's composition, "The Tinker of Rye".[127] He sang the closing credits song of the 1994 horror film Funny Man.[128] His most notable musical work on film, however, appears in the superhero comedy/rock musical The Return of Captain Invincible
The Return of Captain Invincible
(1983), in which Lee performs a song and dance number called "Name Your Poison", written by Richard O'Brien. In 1977 he appeared on Peter Knight and Bob Johnson's (from Steeleye Span) concept album The King of Elfland's Daughter. In the 1980s, during the height of Italo disco, he provided vocals to Kathy Joe Daylor's song "Little Witch". Lee's first contact with heavy metal music came by singing a duet with Fabio Lione, lead vocalist of the Italian symphonic power metal band Rhapsody of Fire
Rhapsody of Fire
on the single "The Magic of the Wizard's Dream" from the Symphony of Enchanted Lands
Symphony of Enchanted Lands
II album. Later he appeared as a narrator on the band's four albums Symphony of Enchanted Lands
Symphony of Enchanted Lands
II – The Dark Secret, Triumph or Agony, The Frozen Tears of Angels, and From Chaos to Eternity, as well as on the EP The Cold Embrace of Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony, portraying the Wizard King. He also worked with Manowar
Manowar
while they were recording a new version of their first album, Battle Hymns. The original voice was done by Orson Welles (who was long dead at the time of the re-recording).[129] The new album, Battle Hymns MMXI, was released on 26 November 2010. In 2006, he bridged two disparate genres of music by performing a heavy metal variation of the Toreador Song
Toreador Song
from the opera Carmen
Carmen
with the band Inner Terrestrials. The song was featured on his album Revelation in 2007.[130] The same year, he produced a music video for his cover version of the song "My Way".[131] His first complete metal album was Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross, which was critically acclaimed and awarded with the "Spirit of Metal" award from the 2010 Metal Hammer Golden Gods ceremony,[132] where he described himself as "a young man right at the beginning of his career". It was released on 15 March 2010.[133] In June 2012, he released a music video for the song "The Bloody Verdict of Verden".[134] On his 90th birthday (27 May 2012), he announced the release of his new single "Let Legend Mark Me as the King" from his upcoming album Charlemagne: The Omens of Death, signifying his move onto "full on" heavy metal, which makes him the oldest performer in the history of the genre. The music was arranged by Richie Faulkner
Richie Faulkner
from the band Judas Priest, and featured World Guitar Idol Champion, Hedras Ramos.[135] In December 2012, he released an EP of heavy metal covers of Christmas songs called A Heavy Metal Christmas.[136] He released a second in December 2013, entitled A Heavy Metal Christmas Too.[137] With the song Jingle Hell, Lee entered the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
chart at #22, thus becoming the oldest living performer to ever enter the music charts, at 91 years and 6 months. The record was previously held (among living artists) by Tony Bennett, who was 85 when he recorded "Body and Soul" with Amy Winehouse
Amy Winehouse
in March 2011 (Louis Armstrong's "What a Wonderful World" charted when Armstrong would have been 86 years old in 1987, but Armstrong had recorded the song 20 years prior, and was already dead by the time the song became a hit).[138] After media attention, the song rose to #18.[139] Lee released a third EP of covers in May 2014, to celebrate his 92nd birthday, called Metal Knight, in addition to a cover of "My Way", it contains "The Toreador March", inspired by the opera Carmen, and the songs "The Impossible Dream" and "I Don Quixote" from the Don Quixote musical Man of La Mancha. Lee was inspired to record the latter songs because, "as far as I am concerned, Don Quixote
Don Quixote
is the most metal fictional character that I know".[140] His fourth EP and third annual Christmas release came in December 2014, as he put out "Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing", a playful take on "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing".[141] He explained: "It's light-hearted, joyful and fun... At my age, the most important thing for me is to keep active by doing things that I truly enjoy. I do not know how long I am going to be around, so every day is a celebration, and I want to share it with my fans."[142] On the self-titled debut album by Hollywood Vampires, a supergroup consisting of Johnny Depp, Alice Cooper, and Joe Perry, Lee is featured as a narrator in the track "The Last Vampire". Being recorded shortly before his death, this marks Lee's final appearance on a musical record.[143] Personal life[edit]

Lee with his wife, the Danish former model Birgit Krøncke Lee, March 2009

The Carandinis, Lee's maternal ancestors, were given the right to bear the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Cinemareview notes: " Cardinal Consalvi
Cardinal Consalvi
was Papal Secretary of State at the time of Napoleon, and is buried at the Pantheon in Rome, next to the painter Raphael. His painting, by Lawrence, hangs in Windsor Castle."[122][144] Lee was a step-cousin of Ian Fleming, author of the James Bond
James Bond
spy novels, and a distant relative of Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
and the astronomer John Lee.[3] Lee was engaged for a time in the late 1950s to Henriette von Rosen, whom he had met at a nightclub in Stockholm.[145] Her father, Count Fritz von Rosen, proved demanding, getting them to delay the wedding for a year, asking his London-based friends to interview Lee, hiring private detectives to investigate him, and asking Lee to provide him with references, which Lee obtained from Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., John Boulting, and Joe Jackson.[146] Lee found the meeting of her extended family to be like something from a surrealist Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
film, and thought they were "killing me with cream".[147] Finally, Lee had to have the permission of the King of Sweden to marry. Lee had met him some years before whilst filming Tales of Hans Anderson, where he received his blessing.[147] However, shortly before the wedding, Lee ended the engagement. He was concerned that his financial insecurity in his chosen profession meant that she "deserved better" than being "pitched into the dishevelled world of an actor". She understood, and they called the wedding off.[148] Lee was introduced to Danish painter and former model Birgit "Gitte" Krøncke by a Danish friend in 1960.[149] They were engaged soon after, and married on 17 March 1961.[150] They had a daughter, Christina Erika Carandini Lee (b. 1963),[144][151] Lee was also the uncle of the British actress Dame Harriet Walter.[122] Both Lee and his daughter Christina provided spoken vocals on Rhapsody of Fire's album From Chaos to Eternity. Lee was also known for his imposing height[152]: he was 6 ft 5 in (1.96 m) tall.[72] Lee and his wife Birgit were listed among the fifty best-dressed over 50s by the Guardian in March 2013.[153] Lee was a supporter of the British Conservative Party. He described Michael Howard
Michael Howard
as "the ideal person to lead the party" in 2003,[154] and also supported William Hague
William Hague
and David Cameron.[68] Contrary to popular belief, Lee did not have a vast library of occult books. When giving a speech at the University College Dublin
University College Dublin
on 8 November 2011, he said: "Somebody wrote I have 20,000 books. I'd have to live in a bath! I have maybe four or five [occult books]." He further admonished the students against baneful occult practices, warning them that he had met "people who claimed to be Satanists. Who claimed to be involved with black magic."; however, he himself had certainly never been involved: "I warn all of you: never, never, never. You will not only lose your mind, you'll lose your soul."[155] Death[edit]

Wikinews has related news: English actor Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dies aged 93

Lee died at the Chelsea and Westminster
Westminster
Hospital on 7 June 2015 at 8:30 am after being admitted for respiratory problems and heart failure, shortly after celebrating his 93rd birthday. His wife delayed the public announcement until 11 June, in order to break the news to their family.[156][157][158] Following Lee's death, fans, friends, actors, directors, and others involved in the film industry publicly gave their personal tributes.[159][160][161][162] The UK Prime Minister David Cameron called Lee a “titan of the golden age of cinema”.[158] He was also honoured by the Academy at the 88th Academy Awards
88th Academy Awards
on 28 February 2016 in the annual In Memoriam section.[163] Honours and legacy[edit] Lee was the subject of the BBC's This Is Your Life in 1974, where he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews.[164] In 1997, he was appointed a Commander of the Venerable Order of Saint John.[165] On 16 June 2001, as part of that year's Queen's Birthday Honours, Lee was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Commander of the Order of the British Empire
"for services to Drama".[166][167] He was made a Knight Bachelor
Knight Bachelor
"For services to Drama and to Charity" on 13 June as part of the Queen's Birthday Honours in 2009.[168] He was knighted by Prince Charles,[169] but because of his age he was excused the usual requirement to kneel, and thus received the knighthood whilst standing.[170] The government of France made him a Commander of Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
in 2011.[171] Lee was named 2005's 'most marketable star in the world' in a USA Today newspaper poll, after three of the films he appeared in grossed US$640 million.[172] On 13 February 2011, Lee was awarded the BAFTA Academy Fellowship by Tim Burton.[173] In 2011, accompanied by his wife Birgit, and on the 164th anniversary of the birth of Bram Stoker, Lee was honoured with a tribute by University College Dublin, and described his honorary life membership of the UCD Law Society as "in some ways as special as the Oscars".[174] He was awarded the Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
Gold Medal by the Trinity College Philosophical Society, of which Stoker was President, and a copy of Collected Ghost Stories of MR James by Trinity College's School of English.[175] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Christopher Lee[176]

16. Henry Lee (1764–1837)

8. Henry Lee (1794–1867)

17. Susannah Stubbing (1761–1849)

4. Ellis Lee (1842–1915)

18. Thomas Tilson (1780)

9. Maria Matilda Tilson (1810–1881)

19. Maria Johnson (1780)

2. Geoffrey Trollope Lee (1879–1941)

20. George Trollope (1792–1871)

10. George Francis Trollope (1817–1895)

21. Mary Mann (1792–1876)

5. Constance Helen Trollope (1846–1914)

22. William Hayward

11. Constance Hayward (1820–1878)

23. Constance Stapleton (1797–1868)

1. Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(1922–2015)

24. Francesco Carandini (1773–1839)

12. Jerome Carandini (1803–1870)

25. Rosa Tampellini

6. Frank James Carandini (1847–1920)

26. James Burgess (1797–1835)

13. Marie Burgess (1826–1894)

27. Martha Medwin (1805–1882)

3. Estelle Marie Carandini
Marie Carandini
(1889–1981)

28. Charles Clementson (1799–1871)

14. Charles Doxat Clementson (1825–1898)

29. Juliana Clementson (1800–1878)

7. Florence Annie Clementson (1857–1946)

15. Anne Frederica Beck (1829–1919)

Filmography[edit] Main article: Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
filmography Audiobooks[edit]

2007: J. R. R. Tolkien: The Children of Húrin, HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0007263455

Discography[edit] Albums[edit]

Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Sings Devils, Rogues & Other Villains (1998) Revelation (2006) Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross (2010)[177] Charlemagne: The Omens of Death (2013)

EPs[edit]

A Heavy Metal Christmas (2012) A Heavy Metal Christmas Too (2013) Metal Knight (2014)

Singles[edit]

"Let Legend Mark Me as the King" (2012) "The Ultimate Sacrifice" (2012) "Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing" (2014)

Guest appearances[edit]

The Wicker Man soundtrack
The Wicker Man soundtrack
(1973) Hammer Presents "Dracula" With Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(EMI NTS 186 UK/Capitol ST-11340 USA, 1974) The Soldier's Tale by Stravinsky, with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra conducted by Lionel Friend (Nimbus, 1986) Peter and the Wolf
Peter and the Wolf
by Prokofiev, with the English String Orchestra conducted by Yehudi Menuhin
Yehudi Menuhin
(Nimbus, 1989) Annie Get Your Gun (1995) The Rocky Horror Show
The Rocky Horror Show
(1995) The King and I
The King and I
(1998) Musicality of Lerner and Loewe (2002) Lord of the Rings: Songs and Poems by J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien
(2003) Edgar Allan Poe Projekt – Visionen (2006), recites the poem "The Raven" and sings the song "Elenore" Battle Hymns MMXI
Battle Hymns MMXI
(2010), Manowar
Manowar
album Fearless (2013) Hollywood Vampires (2015)

With Rhapsody of Fire:

Symphony of Enchanted Lands II – The Dark Secret
Symphony of Enchanted Lands II – The Dark Secret
(2004), as narrator Triumph or Agony
Triumph or Agony
(2006), as narrator and Lothen The Frozen Tears of Angels
The Frozen Tears of Angels
(2010), as narrator and Lothen The Cold Embrace of Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony
The Cold Embrace of Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony
(2010), as the Wizard King From Chaos to Eternity
From Chaos to Eternity
(2011), as the Wizard King

References[edit]

^ "Christopher Lee's memorable movie roles: 'I dreamed of being a character actor'".  ^ *"Hammer Horror star Lee knighted". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2012

" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
to receive Bafta Fellowship". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2012 "Depp surprises Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
with film award". BBC. Retrieved 14 December 2013

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "The Total Film Interview – Christopher Lee". Total Film. 1 May 2005. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
filmography". AllMovie. AllRovi. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ " Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
releases second heavy metal album". BBC News.  ^ Farrell, John (28 May 2012). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Celebrates 90th Birthday By Recording Heavy Metal". Forbes. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  ^ "Biography – Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
– Official Website". Christopherleeweb.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.  ^ *" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Biography (1922–)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 

"Merchant of menace". The Daily Telegraph. London. 19 May 2002. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 

^ Lee 2003, p. 6-7. ^ Lee 2003, p. 13. ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
– Biography". Talk
Talk
Talk. Retrieved 26 August 2013.  ^ James E. Wise; Scott Baron (January 2002). International Stars at War. Naval Institute Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-55750-965-9.  " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
honoured by UCD Law Society". UCD News. University College Dublin. November 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2015. The Carandini family is one of the oldest in Europe and traces itself back to the first century AD. It is believed to have been connected with the Emperor Charlemagne, and as such was granted the right to bear the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.  Exshaw, John (12 June 2015). " Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee: 'Crown Prince of Terror' whose work with Hammer Horror led the postwar revival of Gothic fantasy". The Independent. United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 June 2015. He inherited his father's dark looks, and from his mother a lineage stretching back possibly to Ancient Rome, and including Charlemagne, along the way to the first Count Carandini in 1184.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 3. ^ Lee 2003, p. 7. ^ Lee 2003, p. 21. ^ Lee 2003, p. 22. ^ Lee 2003, p. 22-23. ^ Lee 2003, p. 23. ^ Lee 2003, p. 24. ^ Lee 2003, p. 25. ^ Lee 2003, p. 32. ^ a b Lee 2003, p. 38. ^ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
playing M.R. James for the BBC
BBC
in 2000 on YouTube ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
biography". Retrieved 18 April 2013.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 44. ^ Lee 2003, p. 45. ^ Lee 2003, p. 46-47. ^ Lee 2003, p. 47. ^ Lee 2003, p. 48. ^ a b Lee 2003, p. 50. ^ Lee 2003, p. 52. ^ Lee 2003, p. 54. ^ Lee 2003, p. 56. ^ Lee 2003, p. 58-59. ^ Louis Paul (6 September 2007). Tales from the Cult Film Trenches: Interviews with 36 Actors from Horror, Science Fiction and Exploitation Cinema. McFarland. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-7864-8402-7.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 59. ^ Lee 2003, p. 60. ^ Lee 2003, p. 62-63. ^ Lee 2003, p. 64. ^ Lee 2003, p. 65. ^ Lee 2003, p. 67-68. ^ Lee 2003, p. 70-71. ^ Lee 2003, p. 72-73. ^ Lee 2003, p. 73. ^ Lee 2003, p. 74. ^ Lee 2003, p. 75. ^ Lee 2003, p. 77. ^ Lee 2003, p. 77-79. ^ "No. 36044". The London
London
Gazette (Supplement). 4 June 1943. pp. 2619–2620.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 81. ^ Lee 2003, p. 84. ^ Lee 2003, p. 85-86. ^ Lee 2003, p. 86. ^ Lee 2003, p. 88. ^ Lee 2003, p. 91. ^ Lee 2003, p. 93-94. ^ "No. 36131". The London
London
Gazette (Supplement). 10 August 1943. pp. 3636–3637.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 96-97. ^ Lee 2003, p. 98. ^ Lee 2003, p. 99-100. ^ Lee 2003, p. 100-101. ^ Lee 2003, p. 101. ^ Lee 2003, p. 102. ^ Lee 2003, p. 104-105. ^ Lee 2003, p. 106. ^ Lee 2003, p. 106-107. ^ a b Lee 2003, p. 107. ^ a b c d "Christopher Lee: a giant among actors". The Times. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 61. ^ Lee 2003, p. 99. ^ Lord of the Rings DVD, audio commentary ^ a b c d Farndale, Nigel (12 February 2011). " Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee interview". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 109. ^ Lee 2003, p. 110. ^ Lee 2003, p. 111. ^ a b Lee 2003, p. 112. ^ a b c d e "Christopher Lee- Biography" Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Yahoo.com. Retrieved 7 May 2012 ^ a b c "A prolific star of the Elstree screen". Boreham Wood & Elstree Times. 16 February 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ J Gordon Melton (2010). "The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead". p. 247. Visible Ink Press ^ Johnson, Tom (2009). "The Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Filmography: All Theatrical Releases, 1948–2003". p. 79. McFarland. ^ "Fangs for the memories: The A-Z of vampires" (31 October 2009). The Independent.  ^ "The 100 best British films". Time Out. Retrieved 24 October 2017 ^ "The 100 best horror movie characters". Empire. Retrieved 2 December 2017 ^ Landis, John (2011). Monsters in the Movies: 100 Years of Cinematic Nightmares. Dorling Kindersley. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4053-6697-7.  ^ Haining, Peter (1992). The Dracula
Dracula
Scrapbook. Chancellor Press. ISBN 1-85152-195-X.  ^ Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
In His Own Words. Empire [online]. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016. Author
Author
- Owen Williams. ^ "IMDB". Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ a b Barrett, Victoria (29 May 2003). "The good, the bad and the Christopher Lee". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Farndale, Nigel (11 June 2005). " Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
interview: 'I'm softer than people think'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ "Hammer House of Horrors". My Existenz. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ a b "Burnt Offerings: – The Cult of the Wicker Man 1/4". YouTube. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ Gore, Will (22 April 2011). "The author who inspired The Wicker Man..." Surrey Comet. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 307. ^ "Return from Witch Mountain". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
talks about his favorite role". YouTube. 21 March 2002. Retrieved 5 August 2009.  ^ Lee 2003, p. 274. ^ Lee 2003, p. 337. ^ Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2002). Cameras in Middle-earth
Middle-earth
(The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Special
Special
Extended Edition documentary) (DVD). New Line Cinema.  ^ "Lord of the Rings: At Dawn in Rivendell". Amazon.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ " Tim Burton
Tim Burton
– KCRW 89.9FM". Kcrw.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ "Science+Fiction Festival Report: Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
on Modern Horror Movies". Dreadcentral.com. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ "Stephen Poliakoff's feature film 1939, featuring stellar line-up of UK's finest acting talent, starts shooting". BBC
BBC
Press Office. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ Salisbury, Mark; Burton, Tim
Burton, Tim
(2010). Alice in Wonderland: A Visual Companion. Disney Editions. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4231-2887-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "The Resident – review". The Guardian. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.  ^ "Hi-Res Look at Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
in Hammer Films' 'The Resident'". Bloody-disgusting.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ "Robin Hardy – director and novelist – Edward Woodward and Christopher Lee". Geek Chocolate. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ Hardy, Robin. "RM-051.mp3 (audio/mpeg Object)". Rue Morgue Radio. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.  ^ Lee, Christopher (27 December 2011). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
2011 Christmas Message Part 1". Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ " Sir
Sir
Christopher Returns in The Hobbit". Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Official Website. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.  ^ Ferris, Glen (4 June 2008). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
on The Hobbit". Empire Online. Retrieved 4 June 2008.  ^ Rappe, Elisabeth (13 July 2008). "Looks Like Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Might Not Return to Middle-Earth". Cinematical. Archived from the original on 14 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.  ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Talks Saruman
Saruman
in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey". Movie Web. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ " Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
Retirement Saddens Christopher Lee". Movie Web. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ "New clip from the DC comics villains documentary Necessary Evil, narrated by Christopher Lee!". JoBlo.com. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ "How to be Sherlock Holmes: The Many Faces of a Master Detective". BBC. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ "Web exclusive: Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
reads The Final Problem". BBC
BBC
Four. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ Shah, Yagana (19 March 2014). "PSA Reminds Us To Love Later Life And Embrace Aging". JoBlo.com. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ Ben Child (19 May 2015). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
and Uma Thurman
Uma Thurman
attached to 9/11 drama set in Denmark". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2015.  ^ Michael Rosser (11 June 2015). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dies aged 93=Screen International". Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ "Regent Street Cinema Listings". 12 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ Christopher Lee's last words in the film Angels in Notting Hill. Michael Pakleppa. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ a b c "Extensive biography at Tiscali UK". Tiscali.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ *Valhalla on IMDb

The Last Unicorn on IMDb

^ The Green Man review website. Retrieved 3 June 2006. ^ The EA Games website, URL accessed 2 May 2006. Archived 14 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The BBC
BBC
Radio 4 website, URL accessed 12 July 2016. ^ Lindsay, Cam (1 September 2003). "The Wicker Man soundtrack". Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Steve Anderson. ""Funny Man" DVD Review". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2007.  ^ "Battle Hymns 2011 – Born To Live Forevermore". Manowar.com. 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.  ^ "Video clip at christopherleeweb.com". Web.archive.org. 11 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ YouTube. youtube.com.  ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Is Metal!". Dreadcentral.com. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.  ^ Blabbermouth Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 1 January 2010. ^ "Christopher Lee: 'The Bloody Verdict of Verden' Music Video" on YouTube, 8 June 2012 ^ Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Celebrates 90th Birthday by Releasing Heavy Metal Work on YouTube ^ "Have a heavy metal Christmas with Christopher Lee". Metro.com. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ "If Christopher Lee's Christmas rock anthem Jingle Hell doesn't make you feel festive nothing will". Metro.com. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.  ^ "CHRISTOPHER LEE Lands On Billboard Hot Singles Sales Chart With Heavy Metal Take On 'Jingle Bells'". Blabbermouth. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ "'DRACULA' ICON CHRISTOPHER LEE BECOMES OLDEST MUSICIAN TO CHART ON BILLBOARD AT 91 YEARS OLD". Loudwire. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ *" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
makes heavy metal Don Quixote". BBC
BBC
News. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 

" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Celebrates 92nd Birthday With Release of 'Metal Knight' EP". Loudwire. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Delivers Heavy Metal Don Quixote". Billboard. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 

^ "92-Year-Old Actor Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Offers Metal Christmas Song 'Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing'". Loudwire. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.  ^ "Legendary Actor CHRISTOPHER LEE Releases New Heavy Metal Single 'Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing'". Blabbermouth. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.  ^ "See Johnny Depp, Alice Cooper, Joe Perry Jam With Rock Royalty". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ a b Christopher Lee, 'Lord of Misrule'. ^ Lee 2003, p. 181. ^ Lee 2003, p. 182-183. ^ a b Lee 2003, p. 184. ^ Lee 2003, p. 185-186. ^ Lee 2003, p. 196-198. ^ Lee 2003, p. 199. ^ Prepolec, Charles (27 July 2001). "To the Bride and Groom!". Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
Web. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2012.  ^ "Stuck on you. Horror star flies into Notts". BBC. 31 July 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos, Valerie (28 March 2013). "The 50 best-dressed over 50s". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Christopher Lee: You Ask The Questions – Profiles, People". The Independent. 11 February 2009. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2009.  ^ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
discusses rumours of his extensive occult library ... on YouTube, in appearance at University College Dublin 8 November 2011 ^ ' Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee: Screen legend dies aged 93'. BBC
BBC
News. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2016. ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dead: Legendary actor passes away at the age of 93". Independent. 11 June 2015.  ^ a b *" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dies at the age of 93". Guardian. 11 June 2015. 

" Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dies at 93 – latest reaction and tributes". The Telegraph. 11 June 2015. 

^ Christopher Lee: readers' tributes and memories. The Guardian [online]. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016. Author
Author
- Tom Stevens. ^ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
tributes led by Peter Jackson. The Guardian [online]. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016. Author
Author
- Ben Child. ^ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
dead: Lord of the Rings co-star Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
pays tribute to on-screen rival. The Independent [online]. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016. Author
Author
- Kashmira Gander. ^ Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee: tributes to 'titan of cinema'. BBC
BBC
News [online]. Published 11 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016. ^ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
honoured in Oscars ceremony. The Guardian [online]. Published 29 February 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016. Author
Author
- Benjamin Lee. ^ "Christopher Lee: This Is Your Life. BBC
BBC
1977". YouTube. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ "No. 54652". The London
London
Gazette. 16 January 1997. p. 595.  ^ "No. 56237". The London
London
Gazette (Supplement). 16 June 2001. pp. 7–8.  ^ British Honours, 16 June 2001. BBC
BBC
website. ^ "No. 59090". The London
London
Gazette (Supplement). 13 June 2009. p. 1.  ^ *Veteran horror actor Lee knighted 13 June 2009. BBC.

UK Honours List 12 June 2009, BBC.

^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
is knighted" on YouTube ^ Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
receives the insgnia of Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Embassy of France in the UK. ^ In brief: Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
'most bankable' star. The Guardian. Retrieved 26 April 2006. ^ " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
to receive Bafta Fellowship". BBC
BBC
News. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ *" Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
honoured by UCD". RTÉ Ten. 9 November 2011.Archived 10 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

Byrne, Luke. "Fangs for the memories as legend Lee honoured". Irish Independent. 9 November 2011.

^ Duncan, Pamela. "Lee receives Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
award". The Irish Times. 9 November 2011. ^ William Addams Reitwiesner (2010). "The Ancestors and Relatives of William Addams Reitwiesner". Retrieved 7 September 2014.  ^ " Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Music Samples Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
– Official Website". Christopherleeweb.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

Russ Jones
Russ Jones
(ed.), Christopher Lee's Treasury of Terror, illustrated by Mort Drucker
Mort Drucker
& others, Pyramid Books, 1966 Christopher Lee's New Chamber of Horrors, London: Souvenir Press, 1974 Christopher Lee's Archives of Terror, Warner Books, Volume I, 1975; Volume 2, 1976 Tall, Dark and Gruesome (autobiography), W.H. Allen, 1977 and 1997 Marcus Hearn and Alan Barnes, The Hammer Story: The Authorised History of Hammer Films, Titan Books, 1997 and 2007 – Foreword by Christopher Lee Jonathan Rigby, Christopher Lee: The Authorised Screen History, Reynolds & Hearn, 2001 and 2003 Chris Smith, The Lord of the Rings: Weapons and Warfare, HarperCollins, 2003 – Foreword by Christopher Lee Lee, Christopher (2003) [1977]. Lord of Misrule: The Autobiography of Christopher Lee. London: Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 0-7528-5770-3.  Nicolas Stanzick, Dans les griffes de la Hammer, Paris: Le Bord de l'eau Editions, 2010. Laurent Aknin, Sir
Sir
Christopher Lee, Paris: Nouveau Monde Éditions, 2011. Monsters in the Movies: 100 Years of Cinematic Nightmares, by John Landis, DK Publishing, 2011 – Interview with Christopher Lee Le Seigneur du désordre (autobiography, a French version of Lord of Misrule), Christopher Lee, Camion Blanc (Coll. "Camion Noir"), 2013.

External links[edit]

Biography portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England portal World War II
World War II
portal Film portal Television portal Star Wars
Star Wars
portal Theatre portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christopher Lee.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Christopher Lee

Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
on IMDb Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
at the TCM Movie Database Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
at the British Film Institute's Screenonline Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
at AllMovie Walker, Tim (31 May 2006). "Never Be Terrible In A Terrible Movie". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  Lindrea, Victoria (11 October 2004). " Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
on the making of legends". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 17 December 2015.  Guardian Unlimited Profile BBC
BBC
profile Christopher Lee's appearance on This Is Your Life Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
at Find a Grave

v t e

Rhapsody of Fire

Alex Staropoli Roberto De Micheli Alessandro Sala Giacomo Voli Manu Lotter

Luca Turilli Fabio Lione Alex Holzwarth Oliver Holzwarth Tom Hess Patrice Guers Alessandro Lotta Cristiano Adacher Andrea Furlan Daniele Carbonera

Studio albums

Legendary Tales
Legendary Tales
(1997) Symphony of Enchanted Lands
Symphony of Enchanted Lands
(1998) Dawn of Victory
Dawn of Victory
(2000) Rain of a Thousand Flames
Rain of a Thousand Flames
(2001) Power of the Dragonflame
Power of the Dragonflame
(2002) Symphony of Enchanted Lands II – The Dark Secret
Symphony of Enchanted Lands II – The Dark Secret
(2004) Triumph or Agony
Triumph or Agony
(2006) The Frozen Tears of Angels
The Frozen Tears of Angels
(2010) From Chaos to Eternity
From Chaos to Eternity
(2011) Dark Wings of Steel
Dark Wings of Steel
(2013) Into the Legend
Into the Legend
(2016)

Mini-Albums

The Dark Secret
The Dark Secret
(2004) The Cold Embrace of Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony
The Cold Embrace of Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony
(2010)

Live albums

Live in Canada 2005: The Dark Secret
The Dark Secret
(2006) Live – From Chaos to Eternity
From Chaos to Eternity
(2013) Live in Atlanta (2014)

Compilations

Tales from the Emerald Sword Saga
Tales from the Emerald Sword Saga
(2004) Legendary Years
Legendary Years
(2017)

Singles

"Emerald Sword" (1998) "Holy Thunderforce" (2000) "Unholy Warcry" (2004) "The Magic of the Wizard's Dream" (2005) "A New Saga Begins" (2006) "Silent Dream" (2007) "Reign of Terror" (2010) "Aeons of Raging Darkness" (2011) "Shining Star" (2015) "When Demons Awake" (Remaster) (2017) "Land of Immortals" (Remaster) (2017) "Knightrider of Doom" (Remaster) (2017)

Demos

Eternal Glory
Eternal Glory
(1995)

Related articles

Discography The Emerald Sword Saga The Dark Secret
The Dark Secret
Saga Christopher Lee Luca Turilli
Luca Turilli
Band Luca Turilli's Dreamquest Luca Turilli's Rhapsody 20th Anniversary Farewell Tour

Awards for Christopher Lee

v t e

BAFTA Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

MTV Movie Award for Best Fight

Adam Sandler
Adam Sandler
vs. Bob Barker
Bob Barker
Happy Gilmore
Happy Gilmore
(1996) Fairuza Balk
Fairuza Balk
vs. Robin Tunney
Robin Tunney
– The Craft (1997) Will Smith
Will Smith
vs. Cockroach – Men in Black (1998) Ben Stiller
Ben Stiller
vs. Puffy the Dog – There's Something About Mary
There's Something About Mary
(1999) Keanu Reeves
Keanu Reeves
vs. Laurence Fishburne
Laurence Fishburne
The Matrix
The Matrix
(2000) Zhang Ziyi
Zhang Ziyi
vs. Entire bar – Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
(2001) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
and Chris Tucker
Chris Tucker
vs. Hong Kong gang – Rush Hour 2
Rush Hour 2
(2002) Yoda
Yoda
vs. Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
– Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2003) Uma Thurman
Uma Thurman
vs. Chiaki Kuriyama
Chiaki Kuriyama
– Kill Bill: Volume 1 (2004) Uma Thurman
Uma Thurman
vs. Daryl Hannah
Daryl Hannah
– Kill Bill: Volume 2 (2005) Angelina Jolie
Angelina Jolie
vs. Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
– Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2006) Gerard Butler
Gerard Butler
vs. Robert Maillet
Robert Maillet
– 300 (2007) Sean Faris vs. Cam Gigandet
Cam Gigandet
Never Back Down
Never Back Down
(2008) Robert Pattinson
Robert Pattinson
vs. Cam Gigandet
Cam Gigandet
– Twilight (2009) Beyoncé
Beyoncé
Knowles vs. Ali Larter
Ali Larter
– Obsessed (2010) Robert Pattinson
Robert Pattinson
vs. Bryce Dallas Howard
Bryce Dallas Howard
and Xavier Samuel
Xavier Samuel
– The Twilight Saga: Eclipse (2011) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
and Josh Hutcherson
Josh Hutcherson
vs. Alexander Ludwig
Alexander Ludwig
– The Hunger Games (2012) Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
and Jeremy Renner
Jeremy Renner
vs. Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
– The Avengers (2013) Orlando Bloom
Orlando Bloom
and Evangeline Lilly
Evangeline Lilly
vs. Orcs – The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug (2014) Dylan O'Brien
Dylan O'Brien
vs. Will Poulter
Will Poulter
The Maze Runner
The Maze Runner
(2015) Ryan Reynolds
Ryan Reynolds
vs. Ed Skrein
Ed Skrein
- Deadpool (2016)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 117661392 LCCN: n50039700 ISNI: 0000 0001 2284 3808 GND: 119251930 SUDOC: 059405872 BNF: cb12213529t (data) MusicBrainz: 547038ef-aaef-43db-86fe-29bf25c05712 NLA: 35679693 NKC: js20030220008 BNE: XX1072

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