SIR CHRISTOPHER FRANK CARANDINI LEE CBE CStJ (27 May 1922 – 7 June
2015) was an English character actor , singer , and author . With a
career spanning nearly 70 years, Lee was well known for portraying
villains and became best known for his role as
Count Dracula in a
sequence of Hammer Horror films. His other film roles include
Francisco Scaramanga in the
James Bond film The Man with the Golden
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings film trilogy
The Hobbit film trilogy (2012–2014), and Count
Dooku in the second and third films of the
Star Wars prequel trilogy
Lee was knighted for services to drama and charity in 2009, received
BAFTA Fellowship in 2011, and received the BFI Fellowship in 2013.
Lee considered his best performance to be that of Pakistan's founder
Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the biopic Jinnah (1998), and his best film to
be the British horror film The Wicker Man (1973). He frequently
Peter Cushing in Hammer Horror films, and late in
his career had roles in six
Tim Burton films .
Always noted as an actor for his deep, strong voice, Lee was also
known for his singing ability, recording various opera and musical
pieces between 1986 and 1998, and the symphonic metal album
Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross in 2010, after having worked
with several metal bands since 2005. The heavy metal follow-up
Charlemagne: The Omens of Death was released on 27 May 2013, Lee's
91st birthday. He was honoured with the "Spirit of Metal" award at
Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards ceremony. Lee died from
complications of respiratory problems and heart failure on the morning
of 7 June 2015, at the age of 93.
* 1 Early life
* 2 Military service during the Second World War
* 3 Career
* 3.1 1947–1957: Career beginnings
* 3.2 1957–1976: Work with Hammer
* 3.3 Various roles: The Wicker Man and
* 3.4 1977: Move to Hollywood
* 3.5 2000s:
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings and
* 3.6 2010s: Later roles
* 3.7 Voice work
* 3.8 Music career
* 4 Personal life
* 5 Death
* 6 Honours and legacy
* 7 Ancestry
* 8 Filmography
* 9 Discography
* 9.1 Albums
* 9.2 EPs
* 9.3 Singles
* 9.4 Guest appearances
* 10 References
* 11 Bibliography
* 12 External links
Lee was born in Belgravia,
London , the son of Lieutenant Colonel
Geoffrey Trollope Lee (1879–1941) of the 60th King\'s Royal Rifle
Corps , and his wife, Countess Estelle Marie (née Carandini di
Sarzano; 1889–1981). Lee's father fought in the
Boer War and First
World War , and his mother was an Edwardian beauty who was painted by
John Lavery ,
Oswald Birley , and Olive Snell , and sculpted by
Clare Sheridan ; her lineage can be traced to
Charlemagne . Lee's
maternal great-grandfather was an Italian political refugee, whose
wife, Lee's great-grandmother, was English-born opera singer Marie
Carandini (née Burgess). He had one sister, Xandra Carandini Lee
Lee's parents separated when he was four and divorced two years
later. During this time, his mother took him and his sister to Wengen
in Switzerland. After enrolling in Miss Fisher's Academy in Territet,
he played his first role, as
Rumpelstiltskin . They then returned to
London, where Lee attended Wagner's private school in Queen\'s Gate ,
and his mother married Harcourt George St-Croix Rose, a banker and
Ian Fleming . Fleming, author of the
James Bond novels, thus
became Lee's step-cousin. The family moved to
Fulham , living next
door to the actor
Eric Maturin . One night, he was introduced to
Prince Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich , the assassins of
Grigori Rasputin , whom Lee was to play many years later.
When Lee was nine, he was sent to
Summer Fields School , a
preparatory school in Oxford whose pupils often later attended Eton .
He continued acting in school plays, though "the laurels deservedly
Patrick Macnee ". Lee applied for a scholarship to Eton,
where his interview was in the presence of the ghost story author M.
R. James . Sixty years later, Lee played the part of James for the
BBC . His poor maths skills meant that he placed eleventh, and thus
missed out on being a King\'s Scholar by one place. His step-father
was not prepared to pay the higher fees that being an Oppidan Scholar
meant, and so he did not attend. Instead, Lee attended Wellington
College , where he won scholarships in the classics , studying Ancient
Latin . Aside from a "tiny part" in a school play, he
didn't act while at Wellington. He was a "passable" racquets player
and fencer and a competent cricketer but did not do well at the other
sports played: hockey, football, rugby and boxing. He disliked the
parades and weapons training and would always "play dead" as soon as
possible during mock battles. Lee was frequently beaten at school,
including once at Wellington for "being beaten too often", though he
accepted them as "logical and therefore acceptable" punishments for
knowingly breaking the rules. At age 17, and with one year left at
Wellington, the summer term of 1939 was his last. His step-father had
gone bankrupt, owing £25,000.
His mother separated from Rose, and Lee had to get a job, his sister
already working as a secretary for the Church of England Pensions
Board. With most employers on or preparing to go on summer holidays,
there were no immediate opportunities for Lee, and so he was sent to
French Riviera , where his sister was on holiday with friends. On
his way there he stopped briefly in Paris, where he stayed with the
journalist Webb Miller , a friend of Rose, and witnessed the execution
Eugen Weidmann , the last person to be executed in public in
France. Arriving in
Menton , he stayed with the Russian Mazirov
family, living among exiled princely families . It was arranged that
he should stay on in
Menton after his sister had returned home, but
with Europe on the brink of war , he returned to
London instead. He
worked as an office clerk for
United States Lines , taking care of the
mail and running errands.
MILITARY SERVICE DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR
When the Second World War broke out, Lee volunteered to fight for the
Finnish forces during the
Winter War in 1939. He and other British
volunteers were kept away from actual fighting, but they were issued
winter gear and were posted on guard duty a safe distance from the
front lines. After a fortnight, they returned home. Lee returned to
United States Lines and found his work more satisfying,
feeling that he was contributing. In early 1940, he joined Beecham\'s
, at first as an office clerk, then as a switchboard operator. When
Beecham's moved out of London, he joined the Home Guard . In the
winter, his father fell ill with bilateral pneumonia and died on 12
March 1941. Realising that he had no inclination to follow his father
into the Army, Lee decided to join up while he still had some choice
of service, and volunteered for the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force .
Lee reported to
RAF Uxbridge for training and was then posted to the
Initial Training Wing at
Paignton . After he had passed his exams in
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan meant that he
travelled on the Reina del Pacifico to South Africa, then to his
posting at Hillside, at
Southern Rhodesia . Training with
de Havilland Tiger Moths , Lee was having his penultimate training
session before his first solo flight, when he suffered from headaches
and blurred vision. The medical officer hesitantly diagnosed a failure
of his optic nerve , and he was told he would never be allowed to fly
again. Lee was devastated, and the death of a fellow trainee from
Summer Fields only made him more despondent. His appeals were
fruitless, and he was left with nothing to do. He was moved around to
different flying stations before being posted to Southern Rhodesia's
capital, Salisbury , in December 1941. He then visited the Mazowe Dam
, Marandellas , the Wankie Game Reserve and the ruins of Great
Zimbabwe . Thinking he should "do something constructive for my keep",
he applied to join
RAF Intelligence . His superiors praised his
initiative, and he was seconded into the Rhodesian Police Force and
was posted as a warder at Salisbury Prison. He was then promoted to
leading aircraftman and moved to
Durban in South Africa, before
Suez on the Nieuw Amsterdam .
After "killing time" at RAF Kasfareet near the
Great Bitter Lake in
Suez Canal Zone, he resumed intelligence work in the city of
Ismaïlia . He was then attached to
No. 205 Group RAF before being
commissioned as a pilot officer at the end of January 1943, and
No. 260 Squadron RAF as an intelligence officer. As the
North African Campaign
North African Campaign progressed, the squadron "leapfrogged" between
Egyptian airstrips, from
RAF El Daba to
Maaten Bagush and on to Mersa
Matruh . They lent air support to the ground forces and bombed
strategic targets. Lee, "broadly speaking, was expected to know
everything". The Allied advance continued into Libya, through Tobruk
Benghazi to the Marble Arch and then through
El Agheila , Khoms
Tripoli , with the squadron averaging five missions a day. As the
advance continued into Tunisia, with the Axis forces digging
themselves in at the
Mareth Line , Lee was almost killed when the
squadron's airfield was bombed. After breaking through the Mareth
Line , the squadron made their final base in
Kairouan . After the
Axis surrender in North Africa in May 1943, the squadron moved to
Zuwarah in Libya in preparation for the
Allied invasion of Sicily .
They then moved to
Malta , and, after its capture by the British
Eighth Army , the Sicilian town of
Pachino , before making a permanent
base in Agnone Bagni. At the end of July 1943, Lee received his
second promotion of the year, this time to flying officer . After the
Sicilian campaign was over, Lee came down with malaria for the sixth
time in under a year, and was flown to a hospital in
treatment. When he returned, the squadron was restless, frustrated
with a lack of news about the Eastern Front and the
Soviet Union in
general, and with no mail from home or alcohol. Unrest spread and
threatened to turn into mutiny. Lee, by now an expert on Russia,
talked them into resuming their duties, which much impressed his
commanding officer. Flying Officer C. F. C. Lee in Vatican City
, 1944, soon after the
Liberation of Rome
Allied invasion of Italy
Allied invasion of Italy , the squadron was based in Foggia
Termoli during the winter of 1943. Lee was then seconded to the
Army during an officer's swap scheme. He spent most of this time with
the Gurkhas of the 8th Indian Infantry Division during the Battle of
Monte Cassino . While spending some time on leave in
Naples , Lee
Mount Vesuvius , which erupted three days later . During the
final assault on Monte Cassino, the squadron was based in San Angelo,
and Lee was nearly killed when one of the planes crashed on takeoff,
and he tripped over one of its live bombs. After the battle, the
squadron moved to airfields just outside Rome, and Lee visited the
city, where he met his mother's cousin,
Nicolò Carandini , who had
fought in the
Italian resistance movement . In November 1944, Lee was
promoted to flight lieutenant and left the squadron in
Iesi to take up
a posting at Air Force HQ. Lee took part in forward planning and
liaison, in preparation for a potential assault into the rumoured
Alpine Fortress . After the war ended, Lee was invited to go
hunting near Vienna and was then billeted in Pörtschach am
Wörthersee . For the final few months of his service, Lee, who spoke
fluent French and German, among other languages, was seconded to the
Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects . Here, he
was tasked with helping to track down Nazi war criminals. Of his time
with the organisation, Lee said: "We were given dossiers of what
they'd done and told to find them, interrogate them as much as we
could and hand them over to the appropriate authority ... We saw these
concentration camps. Some had been cleaned up. Some had not." He
retired from the RAF in 1946 with the rank of flight lieutenant.
Lee's stepfather served as a captain in the Intelligence Corps , but
it is unlikely he had any influence over Lee's military career. Lee
saw him for the last time on a bus in
London in 1940, by then divorced
from Lee's mother, though Lee did not speak to him. Lee mentioned
that during the war he was attached to the
Executive and the
Long Range Desert Group , the precursor of the SAS ,
but always declined to go into details.
I was attached to the SAS from time to time but we are forbidden –
former, present, or future – to discuss any specific operations.
Let's just say I was in
Special Forces and leave it at that. People
can read in to that what they like.
1947–1957: CAREER BEGINNINGS
London in 1946, Lee was offered his old job back at
Beecham's, with a significant raise, but he turned them down as "I
couldn't think myself back into the office frame of mind." The Armed
Forces were sending veterans with an education in the
teach at universities, but Lee felt his
Latin was too rusty and didn't
care for the strict curfews. Having lunch with his cousin Nicolò
Carandini , now the Italian Ambassador to Britain, Lee was detailing
his war wounds when Carandini said, "Why don't you become an actor,
Christopher?" Lee liked the idea and after assuaging his mother's
protests by pointing to the successful Carandini performers in
Australia, which included his great-grandmother
Marie Carandini , who
had been a successful opera singer, he met Nicolò's friend Filippo
Del Giudice , a lawyer-turned-film producer. The head of Two Cities
Films , part of the
Rank Organisation , Giudice, "looked me up and
down... concluded that I was just what the industry had been looking
for". He was sent to see
Josef Somlo for a contract, who immediately
announced that he was "much too tall to be an actor". Somlo sent him
to see Rank's David Henley and Olive Dodds, who signed him on a
A student at Rank's "Charm School ", Lee and many of the others had
difficulty finding work. He finally made his film début in Terence
Young 's Gothic romance Corridor of Mirrors (1947). He played
Charles; the director got around his height by placing him at a table
in a nightclub alongside
Lois Maxwell ,
Mavis Villiers , Hugh Latimer
and John Penrose . Lee had a single line, "a satirical shaft meant to
qualify the lead's bravura".
His "apprenticeship" lasted ten years, as he mostly played supporting
and background characters.
I was around a long time – nearly ten years. Initially, I was told
I was too tall to be an actor. That's a quite fatuous remark to make.
It's like saying you're too short to play the piano. I thought,
"Right, I'll show you..." At the beginning I didn't know anything
about the technique of working in front of a camera, but during those
10 years, I did the one thing that's so vitally important today – I
watched, I listened and I learned. So when the time came I was
ready... Oddly enough, to play a character who said nothing .
Also in this early period, he made an uncredited appearance in
Laurence Olivier 's film version of Hamlet (1948), as a spear carrier
(his later co-star and close friend
Peter Cushing played Osric ). A
few years later, he appeared in
Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N.
Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N. (1951)
as a Spanish captain. He was cast when the director asked him if he
could speak Spanish and fence , which he was able to do. Lee appeared
uncredited in the American epic Quo Vadis (also 1951), which was shot
in Rome, playing a chariot driver and was injured when he was thrown
from it at one point during the shoot.
He recalled that his breakthrough came in 1952, when Douglas
Fairbanks, Jr. began making films at the
British National Studios . He
said in 2006, "I was cast in various roles in 16 of them and even
Buster Keaton and it proved an excellent training
ground." The same year, he appeared in
John Huston 's Oscar-nominated
Moulin Rouge . Throughout the next decade, he made nearly 30 films,
Cockleshell Heroes , playing mostly stock action characters.
1957–1976: WORK WITH HAMMER
Lee as the title character in
Lee's first film for Hammer was
The Curse of Frankenstein (1957), in
which he played Frankenstein\'s monster , with
Peter Cushing as Baron
Victor Frankenstein . It was the first film to co-star Lee and
Cushing, who ultimately appeared together in over twenty films and
became close friends. When he arrived at a casting session for the
film, "they asked me if I wanted the part, I said yes and that was
that". A little later, Lee co-starred with
Boris Karloff in the film
Corridors of Blood (1958), but Lee's own appearance as Frankenstein's
monster led to his first appearance as the Transylvanian vampire in
Dracula (1958, known as Horror of
Dracula in the United
States). Lee accepted a similar role in an Italian-French horror
Uncle Was a Vampire (1959).
Lee returned to the role of
Dracula in Hammer's Dracula: Prince of
Darkness (1965). Lee's role has no lines, he merely hisses his way
through the film. Stories vary as to the reason for this: Lee states
he refused to speak the poor dialogue he was given, but screenwriter
Jimmy Sangster claims that the script did not contain any lines for
the character. This film set the standard for most of the Dracula
sequels in the sense that half the film's running time was spent on
telling the story of Dracula's resurrection and the character's
appearances were brief. Lee went on record to state that he was
virtually "blackmailed" by Hammer into starring in the subsequent
films; unable or unwilling to pay him his going rate, they would
resort to reminding him of how many people he would put out of work,
if he did not take part.
The process went like this: The telephone would ring and my agent
would say, "Jimmy Carreras has been on the phone, they've got another
Dracula for you." And I would say, "Forget it! I don't want to do
another one." I'd get a call from Jimmy Carreras, in a state of
hysteria. "What's all this about?!" "Jim, I don't want to do it, and I
don't have to do it." "No, you have to do it!" And I said, "Why?" He
replied, "Because I've already sold it to the American distributor
with you playing the part. Think of all the people you know so well,
that you will put out of work!" Emotional blackmail. That's the only
reason I did them.
His roles in the films
Dracula Has Risen from the Grave (1968), Taste
the Blood of
Dracula (1969), and Scars of
Dracula (1970) all gave the
Count very little to do. Lee said in an interview in 2005, "all they
do is write a story and try and fit the character in somewhere, which
is very clear when you see the films. They gave me nothing to do! I
pleaded with Hammer to let me use some of the lines that Bram Stoker
had written. Occasionally, I sneaked one in." Although Lee may not
have liked what Hammer was doing with the character, worldwide
audiences embraced the films, which were all commercially successful.
Lee starred in two further
Dracula films for Hammer in the early
1970s, both of which attempted to bring the character into the
modern-day era. These were not commercially successful:
1972 (1972) and The Satanic Rites of
Dracula (1973). The film was
Dracula Is Dead... and Well and Living in London, a
parody of the stage and film musical revue Jacques Brel Is Alive and
Well and Living in Paris , but Lee was not amused. Speaking at a press
conference in 1973 to announce the film, Lee said, "I'm doing it under
protest... I think it is fatuous. I can think of twenty adjectives –
fatuous, pointless, absurd. It's not a comedy, but it's got a comic
title. I don't see the point." The Satanic Rites Of
Dracula was the
Dracula film that
Christopher Lee played the
Dracula role in, as
he felt he had played the part too many times and that the Dracula
films had deteriorated in quality. Hammer went on to make one more
Dracula film without him:
The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires (1974),
with John Forbes-Robertson playing the Count and David de Keyser
In all, Lee played
Dracula ten times: seven films for Hammer
Productions, once for Jesse Franco 's
Count Dracula (1970), uncredited
Jerry Lewis 's One More Time (1970) and
Édouard Molinaro 's
Dracula and Son (1976).
Lee's other work for Hammer included The Mummy (1959). Lee portrayed
Rasputin, the Mad Monk (1966) and Sir Henry Baskerville
Sherlock Holmes ) in The Hound of the Baskervilles
(1959). Lee later played Holmes himself in 1962's
Sherlock Holmes and
the Deadly Necklace , and returned to Holmes films with Billy Wilder
's British-made The Private Life of
Sherlock Holmes (1970), in which
he plays Sherlock's smarter brother, Mycroft . Lee considers this film
to be the reason he stopped being typecast: "I've never been typecast
since. Sure, I've played plenty of heavies, but as Anthony Hopkins
says, "I don't play villains, I play people."" Lee played a leading
role in the German film
The Puzzle of the Red Orchid (1962), speaking
German, which he had learned during his education in Switzerland. He
auditioned for a part in the film The Longest Day (1962), but was
turned down because he did not "look like a military man". Some film
books incorrectly credit him with a role in the film, something he had
to correct for the rest of his life.
Dennis Wheatley , a noted author, was responsible for
bringing the occult to him. The company made two films from
Wheatley's novels, both starring Lee. The first, The Devil Rides Out
(1967), is generally considered to be one of Hammer's crowning
achievements. According to Lee, Wheatley was so pleased with it, that
he offered the actor the film rights to his remaining black magic
novels, free of charge. However, the second film, To the Devil a
Daughter (1976), was fraught with production difficulties and was
disowned by its author. Although financially successful, it was
Hammer's last horror film, and marked the end of Lee's long
association with the studio that had a major impact on his career.
VARIOUS ROLES: THE WICKER MAN AND JAMES BOND
Lee in The Oblong Box (1969)
Like Cushing, Lee also appeared in horror films for other companies
during the 20-year period from 1957 to 1977. Other films in which Lee
performed include the series of
Fu Manchu films made between 1965 and
1969, in which he starred as the villain in heavy oriental make-up; I,
Monster (1971), in which he played Jekyll and Hyde; The Creeping Flesh
(1972); and his personal favourite, The Wicker Man (1973), in which he
played Lord Summerisle. Lee wanted to break free of his image as
Dracula and take on more interesting acting roles. He met with
screenwriter Anthony Shaffer , and they agreed to work together. Film
director Robin Hardy and British Lion head Peter Snell became involved
in the project. Shaffer had a series of conversations with Hardy, and
the two decided that it would be fun to make a horror film centering
on "old religion", in sharp contrast to the popular Hammer films of
the day. Shaffer read the David Pinner novel Ritual , in which a
devout Christian policeman is called to investigate what appears to be
the ritual murder of a young girl in a rural village, and decided that
it would serve well as the source material for the project. Shaffer
and Lee paid Pinner £15,000 for the rights to the novel, and Schaffer
set to work on the screenplay. However, he soon decided that a direct
adaptation would not work well, and began to craft a new story, using
only the basic outline of the novel. Lee was so keen to get the film
made, he gave his services for free, as the budget was so small. He
would later refer to the film as the best he had ever made.
Lee appeared as the on-screen narrator in
Jess Franco 's Eugenie
(1970) as a favour to producer
Harry Alan Towers , unaware that it was
softcore pornography, as the sex scenes were shot separately.
I had no idea that was what it was when I agreed to the role. I was
told it was about the Marquis de Sade. I flew out to Spain for one
day's work playing the part of a narrator. I had to wear a crimson
dinner jacket. There were lots of people behind me. They all had their
clothes on. There didn't seem to be anything peculiar or strange. A
friend said: 'Do you know you are in a film in
Old Compton Street ?'
In those days that was where the mackintosh brigade watched their
films . 'Very funny,' I said. So I crept along there heavily disguised
in dark glasses and scarf, and found the cinema and there was my name.
I was furious! There was a huge row. When I had left Spain that day
everyone behind me had taken their clothes off! Lee and his
Peter Cushing in
Horror Express (1972)
In addition to making films in the United Kingdom, Lee made films in
mainland Europe: he appeared in two German films, Count Dracula
(1970), where he again played the vampire count, and The Torture
Chamber of Dr. Sadism (1967). Other films in Europe he made include
Castle of the Living Dead (1964) and
Horror Express (1972). Lee was a
producer of the horror film
Nothing But the Night (also 1972), in
which he also starred. It was the first and last film he ever
produced, as he did not enjoy the process.
Lee appeared as the
Comte de Rochefort in
Richard Lester 's The Three
Musketeers (1973). He was wounded in his left knee during filming, an
injury he still felt many years later. He also appeared in the sequel
film The Four Musketeers (1974), which was actually shot at the same
time. Although "killed" in the latter film, he reprised the role in
The Return of the Musketeers (1989), with his character given token
dialogue explaining that his wound in the earlier film's climactic
sword fight wasn't fatal.
After the mid-1970s, Lee eschewed horror roles almost entirely. Ian
Fleming, author of the
James Bond spy novels and Lee's step-cousin,
had offered him the role of the titular antagonist in the first
Eon-produced Bond film Dr. No (1962). Lee enthusiastically accepted,
but by the time Fleming told the producers, they had already chosen
Joseph Wiseman for the role. Lee finally got to play a James Bond
villain in The Man with the Golden Gun (1974), in which he was cast as
the deadly assassin
Francisco Scaramanga . Lee said of his
performance, "In Fleming's novel he's just a West Indian thug, but in
the film he's charming, elegant, amusing, lethal... I played him like
the dark side of Bond."
Because of his filming schedule in
Bangkok , film director Ken
Russell was unable to sign Lee to play the Specialist in Tommy (1975).
That role was eventually given to
Jack Nicholson . In an AMC
documentary on Halloween (1978),
John Carpenter states that he offered
the role of
Samuel Loomis to
Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee, before
Donald Pleasence took the role. Years later, Lee met Carpenter, and
told him that the biggest regret of his career was not taking the role
of Dr. Loomis.
Lee appeared on the cover of the Wings album
Band on the Run (1973),
along with others including chat show host
Michael Parkinson , singer
Kenny Lynch , film actor
James Coburn , world boxing champion John
Conteh , and broadcaster
Clement Freud .
1977: MOVE TO HOLLYWOOD
In 1977, Lee left Britain for the US, concerned at being typecast in
horror films, as had happened to his close friends
Peter Cushing and
Vincent Price . He said in an interview in 2011:
Peter and Vincent made some wonderful serious movies but are only
known for horror. That was why I went to America. I couldn't see
anything happening here except a continuation of what had gone before.
A couple of friends, Dick Widmark and
Billy Wilder , told me I had to
get away from
London otherwise I would always be typecast.
His first American film was the disaster film Airport \'77 (1977). In
1978, Lee surprised many people with his willingness to go along with
a joke, by appearing as guest host on NBC's
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live . As
a result of his appearance on SNL,
Steven Spielberg , who was in the
audience, cast him in 1941 (1979). Meanwhile, Lee co-starred with
Bette Davis in the Disney film
Return from Witch Mountain (1978). He
turned down the role of Dr. Barry Rumack (finally played by Leslie
Nielsen ) in the disaster spoof
Airplane! (1980), a decision he later
called "a big mistake".
Lee appeared in
The Return of Captain Invincible (1982), a
comedy-musical film. Lee plays a fascist who plans to rid America (and
afterwards, the world) of all non-whites. Lee sings on two tracks in
the film ("Name Your Poison" and "Mister Midnight"), written by
Richard O\'Brien (who had written
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Rocky Horror Picture Show seven
years previously) and
Richard Hartley . Later, he appeared alongside
Reb Brown and
Sybil Danning in Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf
(1985). Lee made his last appearances as
Sherlock Holmes in Incident
at Victoria Falls (1991) and
Sherlock Holmes and the Leading Lady
(1992). Lee at the Aubagne International Film Festival in
In addition to more than a dozen feature films together for Hammer
Amicus Productions , and other companies, Lee and Peter
Cushing both appeared in Hamlet (1948) and
Moulin Rouge (1952), albeit
in separate scenes; and in separate instalments of the Star Wars
films, Cushing as
Grand Moff Tarkin in the original film, Lee decades
later as Count Dooku. The last project which united them in person was
a documentary, Flesh and Blood: The Hammer Heritage of Horror (1994),
which they jointly narrated. It was the last time they saw each other,
as Cushing died two months later.
In 1998, Lee starred in the role of
Muhammad Ali Jinnah , founder of
modern Pakistan, in the film Jinnah . In 2002, while talking about his
favourite role in film at a press conference at the Brussels
International Fantastic Film Festival , he declared that his role in
Jinnah was by far his best performance.
Lee was considered for the role of comic book villain/hero Magneto in
the screen adaptation of the popular comic book series
X-Men , but he
lost the role to Sir
Ian McKellen , his co-star in The Lord of the
The Hobbit .
2000S: THE LORD OF THE RINGS AND STAR WARS
Lee at Forbidden Planet New Oxford Street, London, signing The
Two Towers in January 2008
He had many television roles, including that of Flay in the BBC
television miniseries , based on
Mervyn Peake 's novels, Gormenghast
Stefan Wyszyński in the
CBS film John Paul the Second
(2005). He played Lucas de Beaumanoir, the Grand Master of the Knights
Templar , in the
BBC /A"> Lee filming The Heavy in
London in 2007
Lee was one of the favourite actors of
Tim Burton , and became a
regular in many of Burton's films, working for the director five
times, starting in 1999, where he had a small role as the Burgomaster
in the film Sleepy Hollow . In 2005, Lee played
Willy Wonka 's strict
dentist father, Dr. Wilbur Wonka, in Burton's reimagining of the Roald
Dahl tale Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , and voiced the character
of Pastor Galswells in
Corpse Bride , co-directed by Burton and Mike
In 2007, Lee collaborated with Burton on Sweeney Todd: The Demon
Barber of Fleet Street , playing the spirit of Sweeney Todd's victims,
called the Gentleman Ghost, alongside
Anthony Head , with both singing
"The Ballad of Sweeney Todd", its reprises and the Epilogue. These
songs were recorded, but eventually cut since Burton felt that the
songs were too theatrical for the film. Lee's appearance was
completely cut from the film, but Head still had an uncredited
one-line cameo. In 2008, he was offered the role of King Balor in
Guillermo del Toro 's Hellboy II: The Golden Army , but had to turn it
down due to prior commitments.
In late November 2009, Lee narrated the Science Fiction Festival in
Trieste , Italy. Also in 2009, Lee starred in
Stephen Poliakoff 's
British period drama
Glorious 39 with
Julie Christie ,
Bill Nighy ,
Romola Garai , and
David Tennant ,
Academy Award -nominated director
Danis Tanović 's war film Triage with
Colin Farrell and
Paz Vega ,
and Duncan Ward's comedy Boogie Woogie alongside
Amanda Seyfried ,
Gillian Anderson ,
Stellan Skarsgård , and
Joanna Lumley .
2010S: LATER ROLES
Lee at the
Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival in February 2012
In 2010, Lee marked his fourth collaboration with
Tim Burton by
Jabberwock in Burton's adaptation of
Lewis Carroll 's
classic book Alice in Wonderland , alongside
Johnny Depp , Helena
Bonham Carter , and
Anne Hathaway . While he only had two lines,
Burton said that he felt Lee to be a good match for the iconic
character, because of Lee himself being "an iconic guy".
Lee won the "Spirit of Metal" award in the
Metal Hammer Golden Gods
2010. The award was presented by
Tony Iommi . In 2010, Lee received
Steiger Award (Germany) and, in February 2011, Lee was awarded the
BAFTA Fellowship .
In 2011, he appeared in a Hammer film for the first time in
thirty-five years, the last being 1976's To the Devil a Daughter. The
film was called The Resident , and he gave a "superbly sinister"
Hilary Swank and
Jeffrey Dean Morgan . Whilst
filming scenes for the film in
New Mexico in early 2009, Lee injured
his back when he tripped over power cables on set. He had to undergo
surgery, and as a result, he was unable to play the role of Sir
Lachlan Morrison in
The Wicker Tree , the sequel to The Wicker Man.
Very disappointed, director Robin Hardy recast the role, but Lee was
determined to appear in the film, so Hardy wrote a small scene
specially for him. Lee appears as the unnamed "Old Gentleman" who
acts as Lachlan's mentor in a flashback. Hardy stated that fans of The
Wicker Man would recognise this character as Lord Summerisle, but Lee
contradicted this, stating that they are two unrelated characters.
Also in 2011, Lee appeared in the critically acclaimed Hugo , directed
Martin Scorsese .
On 11 January 2011, Lee announced on his website that he would be
reprising the role of
Saruman for the prequel film
The Hobbit . Lee
had originally said that he would have liked to have shown Saruman's
Sauron , but that he wouldn't be comfortable flying to
New Zealand at his age. The production was adjusted to accommodate
Lee's travel concerns, thereby allowing him to participate in the film
from London. Lee said he worked on his role for the films over the
course of four days, portraying
Saruman as a kind and noble wizard,
before his subsequent fall into darkness, as depicted in The Lord of
the Rings film trilogy .
In 2012, Lee marked his fifth and final collaboration with Tim
Burton, by appearing in Burton's film adaptation of the gothic soap
opera Dark Shadows , in the small role of a New England fishing
In an interview in August 2013, Lee said that he was "saddened" to
hear his friend
Johnny Depp considering retirement from acting, noting
that he himself had no intention of retiring.
There are frustrations – people who lie to you, people who don't
know what they are doing, films that don't turn out the way you had
wanted them to – so, yes, I do understand . I always ask myself
"well, what else could I do?". Making films has never just been a job
to me, it's my life. I have some interests outside of acting – I
sing and I've written books, for instance – but acting is what keeps
me going, it's what I do, it gives life purpose... I'm realistic about
the amount of work I can get at my age, but I take what I can, even
voice-overs and narration.
Lee narrated the feature-length documentary Necessary Evil:
Super-Villains of DC Comics , which was released on 25 October 2013.
In 2014, he appeared in an episode of the
BBC documentary series
Timeshift called How to Be Sherlock Holmes: The Many Faces of a Master
Detective. Lee and others who had played
Sherlock Holmes discussed the
character and the various interpretations of him. He also appeared in
a web exclusive, reading an excerpt from the short story The Final
Problem . He also narrated an advertising campaign for
Age UK ,
reading a poem by
Roger McGough .
A month before his death, Lee had signed to star with an ensemble
cast in the Danish film The 11th.
His final performance was the independent Angels of Notting Hill
directed by Michael Pakleppa. A comedy about an angel trapped in
London who falls in love with a human being. Lee plays The Boss/Mr.
President and the film premiered in the Regent Street Cinema, London
on Saturday October 29, 2016
Lee recorded his final words for film at his Redwood Studios in Soho,
London on 17 May 2015 just 3 weeks before his death on the 7 June
Lee spoke fluent English, Italian, French, Spanish, and German, and
was moderately proficient in Swedish, Russian, and Greek. He was the
original voice of Thor in the German dubs of the Danish 1986 animated
film Valhalla , and of King Haggard in both the English and German
dubs of the 1982 animated adaptation of The Last Unicorn .
Lee provided the off-camera voice of "U. N. Owen", the mysterious
host who brings disparate characters together in
Agatha Christie 's
Ten Little Indians (1965). The film was produced by Harry Alan Towers
, for whom Lee had worked repeatedly in the 1960s. Even though he was
not credited on the film, his voice is unmistakable. He also provided
all the voices for the English dub of Monsieur Hulot\'s Holiday
He contributed with his voice as Death in the animated versions of
Terry Pratchett 's Soul Music and
Wyrd Sisters , and reprised the role
Sky1 live action adaptation The Colour of Magic , taking over
the role from the late
Ian Richardson .
Lee provided the voice for the role of
Ansem the Wise /
DiZ in the
Kingdom Hearts II ,
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days , and
Kingdom Hearts 2.5 HD Remix , but veteran voice actor Corey Burton
(who would also take over for Lee in Star Wars: The Clone Wars ) took
over for Kingdom Hearts Re:Chain of Memories , Kingdom Hearts Birth by
Sleep , and Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance , as well as the
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days that was released as part of
Kingdom Hearts 1.5 HD Remix . He was the voice of Lucan D'Lere in the
EverQuest II .
Lee reprised his role as
Saruman in the video game The Lord of the
Rings: The Battle for
Middle-earth along with the other actors of the
films. He also narrated and sang for the Danish musical group The
Tolkien Ensemble , taking the role of
King Théoden and
others in the readings or singing of their respective poems or songs.
In 2007, he voiced the transcript of
The Children of Húrin by J.R.R.
Tolkien for the audiobook version of the novel.
In 2005, Lee provided the voice of Pastor Galswells in The Corpse
Bride , co-directed by
Tim Burton and Mike Johnson . He served as the
The Nightmare Before Christmas ' poem, written by Tim
Burton as well. Lee reprised his role as
Count Dooku in the Star Wars:
The Clone Wars 2008 animated film, but
Corey Burton took his place for
the character in the TV series. In 2010, he collaborated again with
Tim Burton , this time by voicing the
Jabberwocky in Burton's
Lewis Carroll 's classic book Alice in Wonderland .
Some thirty years after playing
Francisco Scaramanga in The Man with
the Golden Gun , Lee provided the voice of Scaramanga in the video
game GoldenEye: Rogue Agent . In 2013, Lee voiced The Earl of
Earl’s Court in the
BBC Radio 4 radio play Neverwhere by Neil Gaiman
. Lee recorded special dialogue, in addition to serving as the
Narrator, for the Lego
The Hobbit video game released in April 2014.
Lee receiving the "Spirit of Metal" award for his album
Charlemagne: By the Sword and the Cross at the 2010 Metal Hammer
Golden Gods ceremony in
With his operatic bass voice, Lee sang on The Wicker Man soundtrack,
Paul Giovanni 's composition, "The Tinker of Rye". He sang
the closing credits song of the 1994 horror film Funny Man . His most
notable musical work on film, however, appears in the superhero
The Return of Captain Invincible (1983), in which
Lee performs a song and dance number called "Name Your Poison",
written by Richard O\'Brien . In 1977 he appeared on Peter Knight and
Bob Johnson 's (from
Steeleye Span ) concept album The King of
Elfland\'s Daughter . In the 1980s, during the height of
Italo disco ,
he provided vocals to Kathy Joe Daylor's song "Little Witch".
Lee's first contact with heavy metal music came by singing a duet
Fabio Lione , lead vocalist of the Italian symphonic power metal
Rhapsody of Fire on the single "The Magic of the Wizard\'s Dream
" from the
Symphony of Enchanted Lands II album. Later he appeared as
a narrator on the band's four albums
Symphony of Enchanted Lands II
The Dark Secret ,
Triumph or Agony ,
The Frozen Tears of Angels ,
From Chaos to Eternity , as well as on the EP The Cold Embrace of
Fear – A Dark Romantic Symphony , portraying the Wizard King. He
also worked with
Manowar while they were recording a new version of
their first album, Battle Hymns . The original voice was done by Orson
Welles (who was long dead at the time of the re-recording). The new
Battle Hymns MMXI , was released on 26 November 2010.
In 2006, he bridged two disparate genres of music by performing a
heavy metal variation of the
Toreador Song from the opera
the band Inner Terrestrials. The song was featured on his album
Revelation in 2007. The same year, he produced a music video for his
cover version of the song "
My Way ".
His first complete metal album was Charlemagne: By the Sword and the
Cross , which was critically acclaimed and awarded with the "Spirit of
Metal" award from the 2010
Metal Hammer Golden Gods ceremony, where
he described himself as "a young man right at the beginning of his
career". It was released on 15 March 2010. In June 2012, he released
a music video for the song "The Bloody Verdict of Verden".
On his 90th birthday (27 May 2012), he announced the release of his
new single "Let Legend Mark Me as the King" from his upcoming album
Charlemagne: The Omens of Death , signifying his move onto "full on"
heavy metal, which makes him the oldest performer in the history of
the genre. The music was arranged by
Richie Faulkner from the band
Judas Priest , and featured World Guitar Idol Champion,
Hedras Ramos .
In December 2012, he released an EP of heavy metal covers of
Christmas songs called A Heavy Metal Christmas. He released a second
in December 2013, entitled A Heavy Metal Christmas Too. With the song
Jingle Hell, Lee entered the
Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100 chart at #22, thus
becoming the oldest living performer to ever enter the music charts,
at 91 years and 6 months. The record was previously held (among living
Tony Bennett , who was 85 when he recorded "Body and Soul
Amy Winehouse in March 2011 (
Louis Armstrong 's "What a
Wonderful World " charted when Armstrong would have been 86 years old
in 1987, but Armstrong had recorded the song 20 years prior, and was
already dead by the time the song became a hit). After media
attention, the song rose to #18.
Lee released a third EP of covers in May 2014, to celebrate his 92nd
birthday, called Metal Knight, in addition to a cover of "
My Way ", it
contains "The Toreador March", inspired by the opera
Carmen , and the
songs "The Impossible Dream " and "I Don Quixote" from the Don Quixote
Man of La Mancha . Lee was inspired to record the latter songs
because, "as far as I am concerned,
Don Quixote is the most metal
fictional character that I know". His fourth EP and third annual
Christmas release came in December 2014, as he put out "Darkest
Carols, Faithful Sing", a playful take on "Hark! The Herald Angels
Sing ". He explained: "It's light-hearted, joyful and fun... At my
age, the most important thing for me is to keep active by doing things
that I truly enjoy. I do not know how long I am going to be around, so
every day is a celebration, and I want to share it with my fans."
On the self-titled debut album by Hollywood Vampires , a supergroup
Johnny Depp ,
Alice Cooper , and Joe Perry , Lee is
featured as a narrator in the track "The Last Vampire". Being recorded
shortly before his death, this marks Lee's final appearance on a
Lee with his wife, the Danish former model Birgit Krøncke Lee,
The Carandinis, Lee's maternal ancestors, were given the right to
bear the coat of arms of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire by the Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa . Cinemareview notes: "
Cardinal Consalvi was
Papal Secretary of State at the time of
Napoleon , and is buried at
the Pantheon in Rome, next to the painter
Raphael . His painting, by
Lawrence, hangs in
Windsor Castle ."
Lee was a step-cousin of
Ian Fleming , author of the
James Bond spy
novels, and a distant relative of
Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee and the astronomer
John Lee .
Lee was engaged for a time in the late 1950s to Henriette von Rosen,
whom he had met at a nightclub in Stockholm. Her father, Count Fritz
von Rosen, proved demanding, getting them to delay the wedding for a
year, asking his London-based friends to interview Lee, hiring private
detectives to investigate him, and asking Lee to provide him with
references, which Lee obtained from
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. , John
Boulting , and Joe Jackson . Lee found the meeting of her extended
family to be like something from a surrealist
Luis Buñuel film, and
thought they were "killing me with cream". Finally, Lee had to have
the permission of the King of Sweden to marry. Lee had met him some
years before whilst filming Tales of Hans Anderson, where he received
his blessing. However, shortly before the wedding, Lee ended the
engagement. He was concerned that his financial insecurity in his
chosen profession meant that she "deserved better" than being "pitched
into the dishevelled world of an actor". She understood, and they
called the wedding off.
Lee was introduced to Danish painter and former model Birgit "Gitte"
Krøncke by a Danish friend in 1960. They were engaged soon after,
and married on 17 March 1961. They had a daughter, Christina Erika
Carandini Lee (b. 1963), who married Juan Francisco Aneiros Rodriguez
in July 2001. Lee was also the uncle of the British actress Dame
Harriet Walter . Both Lee and his daughter Christina provided spoken
Rhapsody of Fire 's album
From Chaos to Eternity .
Lee was also known for his imposing height (he stood at 6 ft 5 in
(1.96 m tall)). Lee and his wife Birgit were listed among the fifty
best-dressed over 50s by the Guardian in March 2013.
Lee was a supporter of the British Conservative Party . He described
Michael Howard as "the ideal person to lead the party" in 2003, and
William Hague and
David Cameron .
Contrary to popular belief, Lee did not have a vast library of occult
books. When giving a speech at the
University College Dublin
University College Dublin on 8
November 2011, he said: "Somebody wrote I have 20,000 books. I'd have
to live in a bath! I have maybe four or five ." He further admonished
the students against baneful occult practices, warning them that he
had met "people who claimed to be Satanists . Who claimed to be
involved with black magic."; however, he himself had certainly never
been involved: "I warn all of you: never, never, never. You will not
only lose your mind, you'll lose your soul."
Wikinews has related news: ENGLISH ACTOR CHRISTOPHER LEE DIES AGED
Lee died at the Chelsea and
Westminster Hospital on 7 June 2015 at
8:30 am after being admitted for respiratory problems and heart
failure , shortly after celebrating his 93rd birthday. His wife
delayed the public announcement until 11 June, in order to break the
news to their family.
Following Lee's death, fans, friends, actors, directors, and others
involved in the film industry publicly gave their personal tributes.
He was also honored by the Academy at the
88th Academy Awards in the
annual In Memoriam section.
HONOURS AND LEGACY
Lee was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1974, where he was
Eamonn Andrews .
In 1997, he was appointed a Commander of the Venerable Order of Saint
John . On 16 June 2001, as part of that year\'s Queen\'s Birthday
Honours , Lee was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British
Empire "for services to Drama". He was made a
Knight Bachelor "For
services to Drama and to Charity" on 13 June as part of the Queen's
Birthday Honours in 2009 . He was knighted by
Prince Charles , but
because of his age he was excused the usual requirement to kneel, and
thus received the knighthood whilst standing. The government of
France made him a Commander of
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2011.
Lee was named 2005's 'most marketable star in the world' in a USA
Today newspaper poll, after three of the films he appeared in grossed
US$640 million. On 13 February 2011, Lee was awarded the BAFTA
Academy Fellowship by
Tim Burton .
In 2011, accompanied by his wife Birgit, and on the 164th anniversary
of the birth of
Bram Stoker , Lee was honoured with a tribute by
University College Dublin
University College Dublin , and described his honorary life membership
of the UCD Law Society as "in some ways as special as the Oscars". He
was awarded the
Bram Stoker Gold Medal by the Trinity College
Philosophical Society, of which Stoker was President, and a copy of
Collected Ghost Stories of MR James by Trinity College's School of
ANCESTORS OF SIR CHRISTOPHER LEE
16. Henry Lee (1764–1837)
8. Henry Lee (1794–1867)
17. Susannah Stubbing (1761–1849)
4. Ellis Lee (1842–1915)
18. Thomas Tilson (1780)
9. Maria Matilda Tilson (1810–1881)
19. Maria Johnson (1780)
2. Geoffrey Trollope Lee (1879–1941)
20. George Trollope (1792–1871)
10. George Francis Trollope (1817–1895)
21. Mary Mann (1792–1876)
5. Constance Helen Trollope (1846–1914)
22. William Hayward
11. Constance Hayward (1820–1878)
23. Constance Stapleton (1797–1868)
Christopher Lee (1922–2015)
24. Francesco Carandini (1773–1839)
12. Jerome Carandini (1803–1870)
25. Rosa Tampellini
6. Frank James Carandini (1847–1920)
26. James Burgess (1797–1835)
13. Marie Burgess (1826–1894)
27. Martha Medwin (1805–1882)
Marie Carandini (1889–1981)
28. Charles Clementson (1799–1871)
14. Charles Doxat Clementson (1825–1898)
29. Juliana Clementson (1800–1878)
7. Florence Annie Clementson (1857–1946)
15. Anne Frederica Beck (1829–1919)
Christopher Lee filmography
Christopher Lee Sings Devils, Rogues -webkit-column-width: 25em;
column-width: 25em; list-style-type: decimal;">
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* ^ "
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* ^ "
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* ^ "New clip from the DC comics villains documentary Necessary
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Retrieved 31 December 2013.
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Detective". BBC. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
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Christopher Lee dies aged
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* ^ Lindsay, Cam (1 September 2003). "The Wicker Man soundtrack".
Stylus Magazine . Archived from the original on 27 October 2011.
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4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010.
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October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved
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* ^ "
Christopher Lee Is Metal!". Dreadcentral.com. 15 March 2010.
Retrieved 4 October 2010.
* ^ Blabbermouth Archived 6 June 2011 at the
Wayback Machine ..
Retrieved 1 January 2010.
* ^ "Christopher Lee: \'The Bloody Verdict of Verden\' Music Video"
YouTube , 8 June 2012
* ^ Sir
Christopher Lee Celebrates 90th Birthday by Releasing Heavy
Metal Work on
* ^ "Have a heavy metal Christmas with Christopher Lee". Metro.com.
20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
* ^ "If Christopher Lee’s Christmas rock anthem Jingle Hell
doesn’t make you feel festive nothing will". Metro.com. 14 December
2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
* ^ "CHRISTOPHER LEE Lands On Billboard Hot Singles Sales Chart
With Heavy Metal Take On \'Jingle Bells\'". Blabbermouth. 25 December
2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
* ^ "‘DRACULA’ ICON CHRISTOPHER LEE BECOMES OLDEST MUSICIAN TO
CHART ON BILLBOARD AT 91 YEARS OLD". Loudwire. 27 December 2013.
Retrieved 31 December 2013.
* ^ *"
Christopher Lee makes heavy metal Don Quixote".
BBC News. 27
May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
Christopher Lee Celebrates 92nd Birthday With Release of ‘Metal
Knight’ EP". Loudwire. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
Christopher Lee Delivers Heavy Metal Don Quixote". Billboard. 27
May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
* ^ "92-Year-Old Actor
Christopher Lee Offers Metal Christmas Song
‘Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing’". Loudwire. 9 December 2014.
Retrieved 9 December 2014.
* ^ "Legendary Actor CHRISTOPHER LEE Releases New Heavy Metal
Single \'Darkest Carols, Faithful Sing\'". Blabbermouth. 9 December
2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
* ^ "See Johnny Depp, Alice Cooper, Joe Perry Jam With Rock
Royalty". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
* ^ A B Christopher Lee, 'Lord of Misrule'.
* ^ Lee 2003 , p. 181.
* ^ Lee 2003 , p. 182-183.
* ^ A B Lee 2003 , p. 184.
* ^ Lee 2003 , p. 185-186.
* ^ Lee 2003 , p. 196-198.
* ^ Lee 2003 , p. 199.
* ^ Prepolec, Charles (27 July 2001). "To the Bride and Groom!".
Christopher Lee Web. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013.
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* ^ "Stuck on you. Horror star flies into Notts". BBC. 31 July
2001. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
* ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos,
Valerie (28 March 2013). "The 50 best-dressed over 50s". The Guardian.
* ^ "Christopher Lee: You Ask The Questions – Profiles, People".
The Independent. 11 February 2009. Archived from the original on 25
September 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
Christopher Lee discusses rumours of his extensive occult
library ... on
YouTube , in appearance at
University College Dublin
University College Dublin 8
* ^ \'Sir Christopher Lee: Screen legend dies aged 93\'.
BBC News. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2016. * ^
Christopher Lee dead: Legendary actor passes away at the age of 93".
Independent. 11 June 2015.
* ^ *"
Christopher Lee dies at the age of 93". Guardian. 11 June
Christopher Lee dies at 93 – latest reaction and tributes".
The Telegraph. 11 June 2015.
* ^ Christopher Lee: readers\' tributes and memories.
The Guardian . Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Author - Tom Stevens.
Christopher Lee tributes led by Peter Jackson.
The Guardian . Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Author - Ben Child.
Christopher Lee dead: Lord of the Rings co-star Ian McKellen
pays tribute to on-screen rival.
The Independent . Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Author - Kashmira Gander.
* ^ Sir Christopher Lee: tributes to \'titan of cinema\'.
BBC News . Published 11 June 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Christopher Lee honoured in Oscars ceremony.
The Guardian . Published 29 February 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
Author - Benjamin Lee. * ^ "No. 54652". The
London Gazette . 16
January 1997. p. 595.
* ^ "No. 56237". The
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* ^ British Honours, 16 June 2001.
* ^ "No. 59090". The
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* ^ *Veteran horror actor Lee knighted 13 June 2009. BBC.
* UK Honours List 12 June 2009, BBC.
* ^ "
Christopher Lee is knighted" on
* ^ Sir
Christopher Lee receives the insgnia of Commandeur de
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Embassy of France in the UK.
* ^ In brief:
Christopher Lee \'most bankable\' star. The Guardian.
Retrieved 26 April 2006.
* ^ *"
Christopher Lee honoured by UCD". RTÉ Ten. 9 November
2011.Archived 10 November 2011 at the
Wayback Machine .
* Byrne, Luke. "Fangs for the memories as legend Lee honoured".
Irish Independent. 9 November 2011.
* ^ Duncan, Pamela. "Lee receives
Bram Stoker award". The Irish
Times. 9 November 2011.
* ^ William Addams Reitwiesner (2010). "The Ancestors and Relatives
of William Addams Reitwiesner". Retrieved 7 September 2014.
* ^ "
Charlemagne Music Samples
Christopher Lee – Official
Website". Christopherleeweb.com. Archived from the original on 19
September 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
Russ Jones (ed.), Christopher Lee's Treasury of Terror,
Mort Drucker Volume 2, 1976
* Tall, Dark and Gruesome (autobiography),
W.H. Allen , 1977 and
* Marcus Hearn and Alan Barnes , The Hammer Story: The Authorised
History of Hammer Films, Titan Books, 1997 and 2007 – Foreword by
Jonathan Rigby , Christopher Lee: The Authorised Screen History,
Reynolds & Hearn, 2001 and 2003
* Chris Smith, The Lord of the Rings: Weapons and Warfare,
HarperCollins, 2003 – Foreword by Christopher Lee
* Lee, Christopher (2003) . Lord of Misrule: The Autobiography of
Christopher Lee. London:
Orion Publishing Group . ISBN 0-7528-5770-3 .
* Nicolas Stanzick, Dans les griffes de la Hammer, Paris: Le Bord de
l'eau Editions, 2010.
* Laurent Aknin, Sir Christopher Lee, Paris: Nouveau Monde
* Monsters in the Movies: 100 Years of Cinematic Nightmares, by John
Landis , DK Publishing, 2011 – Interview with Christopher Lee
* Le Seigneur du désordre (autobiography, a French version of Lord
of Misrule), Christopher Lee, Camion Blanc (Coll. "Camion Noir"),
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