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Christianity
Christianity
and antisemitism deals with the hostility of Christian Churches, Christian groups, and by Christians
Christians
in general to Judaism and the Jewish people. Christian rhetoric and antipathy towards Jews
Jews
developed in the early years of Christianity
Christianity
and was reinforced by the belief that Jews
Jews
had killed Christ and ever increasing anti-Jewish measures over the ensuing centuries. The action taken by Christians
Christians
against Jews included acts of ostracism, humiliation and violence, and murder culminating in the Holocaust.[1]:21[2]:169[3] Christian antisemitism has been attributed to numerous factors including theological differences, competition between Church and Synagogue, the Christian drive for converts,[4] decreed by the Great Commission, misunderstanding of Jewish beliefs and practices, and a perceived Jewish hostility toward Christians. These attitudes were reinforced in Christian preaching, art and popular teaching for two millennia, containing contempt for Jews,[5] as well as statutes which were designed to humiliate and stigmatise Jews. Modern antisemitism has been described as primarily hatred against Jews
Jews
as a race with its modern expression rooted in 18th century racial theories, while anti- Judaism
Judaism
is described as hostility to Jewish religion, but in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
it effectively merged into antisemitism during the 12th century.[1]:16 Scholars have debated how Christian antisemitism played a role in the Nazi
Nazi
Third Reich, World War II
World War II
and the Holocaust. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
has driven many within Christianity
Christianity
to reflect on the relationship between Christian theology, practices, and that genocide.[6]

Contents

1 Early differences 2 Issues arising from the New Testament

2.1 Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah 2.2 Criticism of the Pharisees 2.3 Recent studies on antisemitism in the New Testament

3 Church Fathers 4 Middle Ages

4.1 Sicut Judaeis 4.2 Popular antisemitism 4.3 Persecutions and expulsions

4.3.1 Expulsion of Jews
Jews
from Spain

5 Renaissance to the 17th century

5.1 Cum Nimis Absurdum 5.2 Protestant Reformation

6 18th century 7 19th century 8 20th century

8.1 WWI to the eve of WWII 8.2 Nazi
Nazi
antisemitism

8.2.1 Collaborating Christians 8.2.2 Opposition to the Holocaust 8.2.3 Pope Pius XII

8.3 "White Power" movement 8.4 Post World War II
World War II
antisemitism

9 Anti-Judaism 10 Jewish converts 11 Reconciliation between Judaism
Judaism
and Christian groups 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early differences[edit] Main article: Anti- Judaism
Judaism
in early Christianity Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism
Judaism
differed in their legal status in the Roman Empire: Judaism, restricted to the Jewish people
Jewish people
and Jewish proselytes, was generally exempt from obligation to the Roman imperial cult and since the reign of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
enjoyed the status of a "licit religion", though there were also occasional persecutions, for example in 19 Tiberius
Tiberius
expelled the Jews
Jews
from Rome,[7] as Claudius
Claudius
did again in 49.[8] Christianity
Christianity
however was not restricted to one people, and as Jewish Christians
Christians
were excluded from the synagogue (see Council of Jamnia), they also lost the protection of the status of Judaism, though said protection did have its limits (see for example Titus Flavius Clemens (consul), Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva, and Ten Martyrs). From the reign of Nero
Nero
onwards, who is said by Tacitus
Tacitus
to have blamed the Great Fire of Rome
Great Fire of Rome
on Christians, Christianity
Christianity
was considered to be illegal and Christians
Christians
were frequently subjected to persecution, differing regionally. Comparably, Judaism
Judaism
suffered the setbacks of the Jewish-Roman wars, remembered in the legacy of the Ten Martyrs. Robin Lane Fox traces the origin of much later hostility to the period of persecution, where the commonest test by the authorities of a suspected Christian was to require homage to be paid to the deified emperor. Jews
Jews
were exempt from this requirement as long as they paid the Fiscus Judaicus, and Christians
Christians
(many or mostly of Jewish origins) would say they were Jewish but refused to pay the tax. This had to be confirmed by the local Jewish authorities, who were likely to refuse to accept the Christians
Christians
as Jewish, often leading to their execution.[9] The Birkat haMinim
Birkat haMinim
was often brought forward as support for this charge that the Jews
Jews
were responsible for the Persecution of Christians
Christians
in the Roman Empire.[citation needed] In the 3rd century systematic persecution of Christians
Christians
began and lasted until Constantine's conversion to Christianity.[citation needed] In 390 Theodosius I
Theodosius I
made Christianity
Christianity
the state church of the Roman Empire. While pagan cults and Manichaeism
Manichaeism
were suppressed, Judaism
Judaism
retained its legal status as a licit religion, though anti-Jewish violence still occurred. In the 5th century, some legal measures worsened the status of the Jews
Jews
in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(now more properly called the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
since relocating to Constantinople).[citation needed] Issues arising from the New Testament[edit]

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Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah[edit] See also: Rejection of Jesus Jesus
Jesus
was considered by Christians
Christians
to be the Messiah, while for most Jews
Jews
the death of Jesus
Jesus
would have been sufficient proof that he was not the Jewish Messiah. The fact that Jesus
Jesus
had been a Jew and Christianity
Christianity
emerged from Judaism
Judaism
played a pivotal role in the way Christians
Christians
perceived Jews
Jews
and Judaism. Because Jews
Jews
didn't believe Jesus
Jesus
was the son of God and rejected Christian beliefs such as the Eucharist
Eucharist
(the bread being the body of Jesus
Jesus
and the wine being his blood), this provided an existential dilemma within Christianity. If Christianity
Christianity
had come from Judaism
Judaism
and Jesus
Jesus
was a Jew, how and why did the Jews
Jews
reject such core elements of Christianity? The most widely held explanation was that Jews
Jews
had been the chosen people but broke the covenant with God and therefore bore the mark of Cain, and were condemned to spend the rest of eternity suffering on earth, a symbol of degradation and sub-humanity. It was because of this belief that many Medieval European rulers protected the Jews, but considered them property of the king.[10] Criticism of the Pharisees[edit] Main article: Woes of the Pharisees Many New Testament
New Testament
passages criticise the Pharisees
Pharisees
and it has been argued that these passages have shaped the way that Christians
Christians
viewed Jews. Like most Bible passages, however, they can and have been interpreted in a variety of ways. Mainstream Talmudic Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
today directly descends from the Pharisees
Pharisees
who Jesus
Jesus
often criticized.[11][12] During Jesus' life and at the time of his execution, the Pharisees
Pharisees
were only one of several Jewish groups such as the Sadducees, Zealots, and Essenes who mostly died out not long after the period;[13] indeed, Jewish scholars such as Harvey Falk and Hyam Maccoby have suggested that Jesus
Jesus
was himself a Pharisee. Arguments by Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples against the Pharisees
Pharisees
and what he saw as their hypocrisy were most likely examples of disputes among Jews
Jews
and internal to Judaism
Judaism
that were common at the time, see for example Hillel and Shammai. Recent studies on antisemitism in the New Testament[edit] Professor Lillian C. Freudmann, author of Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the New Testament (University Press of America, 1994) has published a detailed study of the description of Jews
Jews
in the New Testament, and the historical effects that such passages have had in the Christian community throughout history. Similar studies of such verses have been made by both Christian and Jewish scholars, including, Professors Clark Williamsom (Christian Theological Seminary), Hyam Maccoby (The Leo Baeck Institute), Norman A. Beck (Texas Lutheran College), and Michael Berenbaum (Georgetown University). Most rabbis feel that these verses are antisemitic, and many Christian scholars, in America and Europe, have reached the same conclusion. Another example is John Dominic Crossan's 1995 Who Killed Jesus? Exposing the Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Gospel Story of the Death of Jesus. Some biblical scholars have also been accused of holding antisemitic beliefs. Bruce J. Malina, founding member of The Context Group, has come under criticism for going as far as to deny the Semitic ancestry of modern Israelis. He then ties this back to his work on first century cultural anthropology.[14] Church Fathers[edit] Further information: Adversus Judaeos and John Chrysostom

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After Paul's death, Christianity
Christianity
emerged as a separate religion, and Pauline Christianity
Pauline Christianity
emerged as the dominant form of Christianity, especially after Paul, James and the other apostles agreed on a compromise set of requirements.[Acts 15] Some Christians
Christians
continued to adhere to aspects of Jewish law, but they were few in number and often considered heretics by the Church. One example is the Ebionites, who seem to have denied the virgin birth of Jesus, the physical Resurrection of Jesus, and most of the books that were later canonized as the New Testament. For example, the Ethiopian Orthodox
Ethiopian Orthodox
still continue Old Testament
Old Testament
practices such as the Sabbath. As late as the 4th century Church Father
Church Father
John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
complained that some Christians
Christians
were still attending Jewish synagogues. The Church Fathers
Church Fathers
identified Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
with heresy and declared the people of Israel to be extra Deum (lat. "outside of God"). Saint Peter
Saint Peter
of Antioch referred to Christians
Christians
that refused to worship religious images as having "Jewish minds".[15] Patristic bishops of the patristic era such as Augustine argued that the Jews
Jews
should be left alive and suffering as a perpetual reminder of their murder of Christ. Like his anti-Jewish teacher, Ambrose of Milan, he defined Jews
Jews
as a special subset of those damned to hell. As "Witness People", he sanctified collective punishment for the Jewish deicide and enslavement of Jews
Jews
to Catholics: "Not by bodily death, shall the ungodly race of carnal Jews
Jews
perish ... 'Scatter them abroad, take away their strength. And bring them down O Lord'". Augustine claimed to "love" the Jews
Jews
but as a means to convert them to Christianity. Sometimes he identified all Jews
Jews
with the evil Judas and developed the doctrine (together with St. Cyprian) that there was "no salvation outside the Church".[16] Other Church Fathers, such as John Chrysostom, went further in their condemnation. The Catholic editor Paul Harkins wrote that St. John Chrysostom's anti-Jewish theology "is no longer tenable (..) For these objectively unchristian acts he cannot be excused, even if he is the product of his times." John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
held, as most Church Fathers did, that the sins of all Jews
Jews
were communal and endless, to him his Jewish neighbours were the collective representation of all alleged crimes of all preexisting Jews. All Church Fathers
Church Fathers
applied the passages of the New Testament
New Testament
concerning the alleged advocation of the crucifixion of Christ to all Jews
Jews
of his day, the Jews
Jews
were the ultimate evil. However, John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
went so far to say that because Jews
Jews
rejected the Christian God in human flesh, Christ, they therefore deserved to be killed: "grew fit for slaughter." In citing the New Testament,[Luke 19:27] he claimed that Jesus
Jesus
was speaking about Jews
Jews
when he said, "as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them before me."[16] St. Jerome
St. Jerome
identified Jews
Jews
with Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
and the immoral use of money ("Judas is cursed, that in Judas the Jews
Jews
may be accursed... their prayers turn into sins"). Jerome's homiletical assaults, that may have served as the basis for the anti-Jewish Good Friday liturgy, contrasts Jews
Jews
with the evil, and that "the ceremonies of the Jews
Jews
are harmful and deadly to Christians", whoever keeps them was doomed to the devil: "My enemies are the Jews; they have conspired in hatred against Me, crucified Me, heaped evils of all kinds upon Me, blasphemed Me."[16] Ephraim the Syrian
Ephraim the Syrian
wrote polemics against Jews
Jews
in the 4th century, including the repeated accusation that Satan dwells among them as a partner. The writings were directed at Christians
Christians
who were being proselytized by Jews. Ephraim feared that they were slipping back into Judaism; thus, he portrayed the Jews
Jews
as enemies of Christianity, like Satan, to emphasize the contrast between the two religions, namely, that Christianity
Christianity
was Godly and true and Judaism
Judaism
was Satanic and false. Like John Chrysostom, his objective was to dissuade Christians from reverting to Judaism
Judaism
by emphasizing what he saw as the wickedness of the Jews
Jews
and their religion.[17][18] However, there are also positive remarks from the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
on the issue, such as Eusebius of Caesarea (circa. 263-340 A.D) in his Ecclesiastical History, who said, "The race of the Hebrews is not new, but is honoured among all men for its antiquity and is itself well known to all." Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Medieval antisemitism

A miniature from Grandes Chroniques de France
Grandes Chroniques de France
depicting the expulsion of Jews
Jews
from France
France
in 1182.

Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(1090-1153), a Doctor of the Catholic Church, said "For us the Jews
Jews
are Scripture's living words, because they remind us of what Our Lord suffered. They are not to be persecuted, killed, or even put to flight."[19] Jews
Jews
were subject to a wide range of legal disabilities and restrictions in Medieval Europe. Jews
Jews
were excluded from many trades, the occupations varying with place and time, and determined by the influence of various non-Jewish competing interests. Often Jews
Jews
were barred from all occupations but money-lending and peddling, with even these at times forbidden. Jews' association to money lending would carry on throughout history in the stereotype of Jews
Jews
being greedy and perpetuating capitalism. In the later medieval period, the number of Jews
Jews
permitted to reside in certain places was limited; they were concentrated in ghettos, and were not allowed to own land; they were subject to discriminatory taxes on entering cities or districts other than their own,[citation needed] The Oath More Judaico, the form of oath required from Jewish witnesses, in some places developed bizarre or humiliating forms, e.g. in Swabian law of the 13th century, the Jew would be required to stand on the hide of a sow or a bloody lamb.[citation needed] The Fourth Lateran Council
Fourth Lateran Council
in 1215 was the first to proclaim the requirement for Jews
Jews
to wear something that distinguished them as Jews (and Muslims the same). On many occasions, Jews
Jews
were accused of a blood libel, the supposed drinking of blood of Christian children in mockery of the Christian Eucharist.[20] Sicut Judaeis[edit] Sicut Judaeis
Sicut Judaeis
(the "Constitution for the Jews") was the official position of the papacy regarding Jews
Jews
throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and later. The first bull was issued in about 1120 by Calixtus II, intended to protect Jews
Jews
who suffered during the First Crusade, and was reaffirmed by many popes, even until the 15th century although they were not always strictly upheld. The bull forbade, besides other things, Christians
Christians
from coercing Jews to convert, or to harm them, or to take their property, or to disturb the celebration of their festivals, or to interfere with their cemeteries, on pain of excommunication.[21] Popular antisemitism[edit] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in popular European Christian culture escalated beginning in the 13th century. Blood libels
Blood libels
and host desecration drew popular attention and led to many cases of persecution against Jews. Many believed Jews
Jews
poisoned wells to cause plagues. In the case of blood libel it was widely believed that the Jews
Jews
would kill a child before Easter and needed Christian blood to bake matzo.Throughout history if a Christian child was murdered accusations of blood libel would arise no matter how small the Jewish population. The Church often added to the fire by portraying the dead child as a martyr who had been tortured and child had powers like Jesus
Jesus
was believed to. Sometimes the children were even made into Saints.[10] Antisemitic
Antisemitic
imagery such as Judensau
Judensau
and Ecclesia et Synagoga
Ecclesia et Synagoga
recurred in Christian art and architecture. In Iceland, one of the hymns repeated in the days leading up to Easter includes the lines,[22]

The righteous Law of Moses The Jews
Jews
here misapplied, Which their deceit exposes, Their hatred and their pride. The judgement is the Lord's. When by falsification The foe makes accusation, It's His to make awards.

Persecutions and expulsions[edit] During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Europe
Europe
persecutions and formal expulsions of Jews
Jews
were liable to occur at intervals, although it should be said that this was also the case for other minority communities, regardless of whether they were religious or ethnic. There were particular outbursts of riotous persecution during the Rhineland massacres
Rhineland massacres
of 1096 in Germany accompanying the lead-up to the First Crusade, many involving the crusaders as they travelled to the East. There were many local expulsions from cities by local rulers and city councils. In Germany the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
generally tried to restrain persecution, if only for economic reasons, but he was often unable to exert much influence. In the Edict of Expulsion, King Edward I expelled all the Jews
Jews
from England in 1290 (only after ransoming some 3,000 among the most wealthy of them), on the accusation of usury and undermining loyalty to the dynasty. In 1306 there was a wave of persecution in France, and there were widespread Black Death Jewish persecutions as the Jews
Jews
were blamed by many Christians
Christians
for the plague, or spreading it.[23][24] As late as 1519, the Imperial city of Regensburg
Regensburg
took advantage of the recent death of Emperor Maximilian I to expel its 500 Jews.[25] Expulsion of Jews
Jews
from Spain[edit] Main article: Alhambra Decree

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Much the largest expulsion of Jews
Jews
followed the Reconquista
Reconquista
or reunification of Spain, and preceded the expulsion of the Muslims who would not convert, whose religious rights were protected by the Treaty of Granada (1491). On 31 March 1492 Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Isabella I of Castile, the rulers of Spain
Spain
who financed Christopher Columbus' voyage to the New World just a few months later in 1492, declared that all Jews
Jews
in their territories should either convert to Christianity
Christianity
or leave the country. While some converted, many others left for Portugal, France, Italy
Italy
(including the Papal States), Netherlands, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, and North Africa. Many of those who had fled to Portugal
Portugal
were later expelled by King Manuel in 1497 or left to avoid forced conversion and persecution. Renaissance to the 17th century[edit]

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Cum Nimis Absurdum[edit] On 14 July 1555, Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
issued papal bull Cum nimis absurdum which revoked all the rights of the Jewish community and placed religious and economic restrictions on Jews
Jews
in the Papal States, renewed anti-Jewish legislation and subjected Jews
Jews
to various degradations and restrictions on their personal freedom. The bull established the Roman Ghetto
Ghetto
and required Jews
Jews
of Rome, which had existed as a community since before Christian times and which numbered about 2,000 at the time, to live in it. The Ghetto
Ghetto
was a walled quarter with three gates that were locked at night. Jews
Jews
were also restricted to one synagogue per city. Paul IV's successor, Pope Pius IV, enforced the creation of other ghettos in most Italian towns, and his successor, Pope Pius V, recommended them to other bordering states. Protestant Reformation[edit]

Luther's 1543 pamphlet On the Jews
Jews
and Their Lies

See also: Luther and antisemitism Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at first made overtures towards the Jews, believing that the "evils" of Catholicism had prevented their conversion to Christianity. When his call to convert to his version of Christianity was unsuccessful, he became hostile to them.[26][citation needed] In his book On the Jews
Jews
and their Lies, Luther excoriates them as "venomous beasts, vipers, disgusting scum, canders, devils incarnate." He provided detailed recommendations for a pogrom against them, calling for their permanent oppression and expulsion, writing "Their private houses must be destroyed and devastated, they could be lodged in stables. Let the magistrates burn their synagogues and let whatever escapes be covered with sand and mud. Let them be forced to work, and if this avails nothing, we will be compelled to expel them like dogs in order not to expose ourselves to incurring divine wrath and eternal damnation from the Jews
Jews
and their lies." At one point he wrote: "...we are at fault in not slaying them..." a passage that "may be termed the first work of modern antisemitism, and a giant step forward on the road to the Holocaust."[27] Luther's harsh comments about the Jews
Jews
are seen by many as a continuation of medieval Christian antisemitism. In his final sermon shortly before his death, however, Luther preached: "We want to treat them with Christian love and to pray for them, so that they might become converted and would receive the Lord."[28] 18th century[edit] In accordance with the anti-Jewish precepts of the Russian Orthodox Church,[29]:14 Russia's discriminatory policies towards Jews intensified when the partition of Poland
Poland
in the 18th century resulted, for the first time in Russian history, in the possession of land with a large Jewish population.[29]:28 This land was designated as the Pale of Settlement from which Jews
Jews
were forbidden to migrate into the interior of Russia.[29]:28 In 1772 Catherine II, the empress of Russia, forced the Jews
Jews
living in the Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement
to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland.[30] 19th century[edit] See also: Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism
Judaism
and Relations between Catholicism and Judaism

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Throughout the 19th century and into the 20th, the Roman Catholic Church still incorporated strong antisemitic elements, despite increasing attempts to separate anti- Judaism
Judaism
(opposition to the Jewish religion on religious grounds) and racial antisemitism. Pope Pius VII (1800–1823) had the walls of the Jewish ghetto in Rome rebuilt after the Jews
Jews
were emancipated by Napoleon, and Jews
Jews
were restricted to the ghetto through the end of the Papal States
Papal States
in 1870. Official Catholic organizations, such as the Jesuits, banned candidates "who are descended from the Jewish race unless it is clear that their father, grandfather, and great-grandfather have belonged to the Catholic Church" until 1946. Brown University historian David Kertzer, working from the Vatican archive, has argued in his book The Popes Against the Jews
Jews
that in the 19th and early 20th centuries the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
adhered to a distinction between "good antisemitism" and "bad antisemitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews
Jews
because of their descent. This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian. The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accumulation of wealth, etc. Many Catholic bishops wrote articles criticizing Jews
Jews
on such grounds, and, when they were accused of promoting hatred of Jews, they would remind people that they condemned the "bad" kind of antisemitism. Kertzer's work is not without critics. Scholar of Jewish-Christian relations Rabbi
Rabbi
David G. Dalin, for example, criticized Kertzer in the Weekly Standard
Weekly Standard
for using evidence selectively. 20th century[edit] WWI to the eve of WWII[edit] Main article: Pope Benedict XV and Judaism In 1916, in the midst of the First World War, American Jews
Jews
petitioned Pope Benedict XV on behalf of the Polish Jews. Nazi
Nazi
antisemitism[edit] Further information: Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
and Judaism On April 26, 1933 Hitler declared during a meeting with Roman Catholic Bishop Wilhelm Berning (de) of Osnabrück:

“I have been attacked because of my handling of the Jewish question. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
considered the Jews
Jews
pestilent for fifteen hundred years, put them in ghettos, etc., because it recognized the Jews
Jews
for what they were. In the epoch of liberalism the danger was no longer recognized. I am moving back toward the time in which a fifteen-hundred-year-long tradition was implemented. I do not set race over religion, but I recognize the representatives of this race as pestilent for the state and for the Church, and perhaps I am thereby doing Christianity
Christianity
a great service by pushing them out of schools and public functions.”

The transcript of this discussion contains no response by Bishop Berning. Martin Rhonheimer does not consider this unusual since, in his opinion, for a Catholic Bishop in 1933 there was nothing particularly objectionable "in this historically correct reminder".[31] The Nazis used Martin Luther's book, On the Jews
Jews
and Their Lies (1543), to claim a moral righteousness for their ideology. Luther even went so far as to advocate the murder of those Jews
Jews
who refused to convert to Christianity, writing that "we are at fault in not slaying them".[32] Archbishop Robert Runcie
Robert Runcie
has asserted that: "Without centuries of Christian antisemitism, Hitler's passionate hatred would never have been so fervently echoed...because for centuries Christians
Christians
have held Jews
Jews
collectively responsible for the death of Jesus. On Good Friday Jews, have in times past, cowered behind locked doors with fear of a Christian mob seeking 'revenge' for deicide. Without the poisoning of Christian minds through the centuries, the Holocaust
Holocaust
is unthinkable."[1]:21 The dissident Catholic priest Hans Küng
Hans Küng
has written that " Nazi
Nazi
anti- Judaism
Judaism
was the work of godless, anti-Christian criminals. But it would not have been possible without the almost two thousand years' pre-history of 'Christian' anti-Judaism..."[2]:169 The document Dabru Emet was issued by over 220 rabbis and intellectuals from all branches of Judaism
Judaism
in 2000 as a statement about Jewish-Christian relations. This document states,

" Nazism
Nazism
was not a Christian phenomenon. Without the long history of Christian anti- Judaism
Judaism
and Christian violence against Jews, Nazi ideology could not have taken hold nor could it have been carried out. Too many Christians
Christians
participated in, or were sympathetic to, Nazi atrocities against Jews. Other Christians
Christians
did not protest sufficiently against these atrocities. But Nazism
Nazism
itself was not an inevitable outcome of Christianity."

According to American historian Lucy Dawidowicz, antisemitism has a long history within Christianity. The line of "antisemitic descent" from Luther, the author of On the Jews
Jews
and Their Lies, to Hitler is "easy to draw." In her The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945, she contends that Luther and Hitler were obsessed by the "demonologized universe" inhabited by Jews. Dawidowicz writes that the similarities between Luther's anti-Jewish writings and modern antisemitism are no coincidence, because they derived from a common history of Judenhass, which can be traced to Haman's advice to Ahasuerus. Although modern German antisemitism also has its roots in German nationalism and the liberal revolution of 1848, Christian antisemitism she writes is a foundation that was laid by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and "upon which Luther built."[3] Collaborating Christians[edit]

German Christians Gleichschaltung Hanns Kerrl, Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs Positive Christianity
Christianity
(the approved Nazi
Nazi
version of Christianity) Protestant Reich Church

Opposition to the Holocaust[edit] The Confessing Church
Confessing Church
was, in 1934, the first Christian opposition group. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
officially condemned the Nazi
Nazi
theory of racism in Germany in 1937 with the encyclical "Mit brennender Sorge", signed by Pope Pius XI, and Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber
Michael von Faulhaber
led the Catholic opposition, preaching against racism. Many individual Christian clergy and laypeople of all denominations had to pay for their opposition with their life, including:

Catholic priest, Maximilian Kolbe. Lutheran pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer the Catholic parson of Berlin Cathedral, Bernhard Lichtenberg. the mostly Catholic members of the Munich
Munich
resistance group White Rose around Hans and Sophie Scholl.

By the 1940s fewer Christians
Christians
were willing to oppose Nazi
Nazi
policy publicly, but many secretly helped save the lives of Jews. There are many sections of Israel's Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Museum, Yad Vashem, dedicated to honoring these "Righteous Among the Nations". Pope Pius XII[edit] Further information: Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
and Judaism Before becoming Pope, Cardinal Pacelli addressed the International Eucharistic Congress in Budapest
Budapest
on 25–30 May 1938 during which he made reference to the Jews
Jews
"whose lips curse [Christ] and whose hearts reject him even today"; at this time antisemitic laws were in the process of being formulated in Hungary.[33]:92 The 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge
Mit brennender Sorge
was issued by Pope Pius XI,[34] but drafted by the future Pope Pius XII[35] and read from the pulpits of all German Catholic churches, it condemned Nazi
Nazi
ideology and has been characterized by scholars as the "first great official public document to dare to confront and criticize Nazism" and "one of the greatest such condemnations ever issued by the Vatican."[36] In the summer of 1942, Pius explained to his college of Cardinals the reasons for the great gulf that existed between Jews
Jews
and Christians
Christians
at the theological level: "Jerusalem has responded to His call and to His grace with the same rigid blindness and stubborn ingratitude that has led it along the path of guilt to the murder of God." Historian
Historian
Guido Knopp describes these comments of Pius as being "incomprehensible" at a time when "Jerusalem was being murdered by the million".[37] This traditional adversarial relationship with Judaism
Judaism
would be reversed in Nostra aetate
Nostra aetate
issued during the Second Vatican Council.[38] Prominent members of the Jewish community have contradicted the criticisms of Pius and spoke highly of his efforts to protect Jews.[39] The Israeli historian Pinchas Lapide
Pinchas Lapide
interviewed war survivors and concluded that Pius XII "was instrumental in saving at least 700,000, but probably as many as 860,000  Jews
Jews
from certain death at Nazi
Nazi
hands". Some historians dispute this estimate.[40] "White Power" movement[edit]

In Proper Hands. The Protestant Christian dominated KKK hinting at violence against Jews
Jews
and Catholics. Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from Heroes of the Fiery Cross
Heroes of the Fiery Cross
(1928), by Bishop Alma White
Alma White
and published by the Pillar of Fire Church
Pillar of Fire Church
in Zarephath, New Jersey.

The Christian Identity
Christian Identity
movement, the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
and other White supremacist groups have expressed antisemitic views. They claim that their antisemitism is based on purported Jewish control of the media, international banks, radical left-wing politics, and the Jews' promotion of multiculturalism, anti-Christian groups, liberalism and perverse organizations. They rebuke charges of racism and claim that Jews
Jews
who share their ideology maintain membership in their organizations. A racial belief common among these groups, but not universal among them, is an alternative history doctrine, which is sometimes called British Israelism. In some of its forms, this doctrine absolutely denies the view that modern Jews
Jews
have any racial connection to the Israel of the Bible. Instead, according to extreme forms of this doctrine, the true racial Israel and the true humans are the members of the Adamic (white) race. These groups are often rejected and they are not even considered Christian groups by either mainstream Christian denominations or the vast majority of Christians around the world.[41][42] Post World War II
World War II
antisemitism[edit] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Europe
Europe
remains a substantial problem. Antisemitism exists to a lesser or greater degree in many other nations as well, including Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the increasingly frequent tensions between some Muslim immigrants and Jews across Europe.[43][44] The US State Department
US State Department
reports that antisemitism has increased dramatically in Europe
Europe
and Eurasia since 2000.[45] While in a decline since the 1940s, there is still a measurable amount of antisemitism in the United States of America as well, although acts of violence are rare. For example, the influential evangelical preacher Billy Graham
Billy Graham
and then-president Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
were captured on tape in the early 1970s discussing matters like how to address the Jews' control of the American media.[46][47] This belief in Jewish conspiracies and domination of the media was similar to those of Graham's former mentors: William Bell Riley chose Graham to succeed him as the second president of Northwestern Bible and Missionary Training School and evangelist Mordecai Ham led the meetings where Graham first believed in Christ. Both held strongly antisemitic views.[48] The 2001 survey by the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
reported 1432 acts of antisemitism in the United States that year. The figure included 877 acts of harassment, including verbal intimidation, threats and physical assaults.[49] A minority of American churches engage in anti-Israel activism, including support for the controversial BDS (Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions) movement. While not directly indicative of anti-semitism, this activism often conflates the Israeli government's treatment of Palestinians with that of Jesus, thereby promoting the anti-semitic doctrine of Jewish guilt.[50] Many Christian Zionists are also accused of anti-semitism, such as John Hagee, who argued that the Jews
Jews
brought the Holocaust upon themselves by angering God.[51] Anti-Judaism[edit] Main article: Anti-Judaism Many Christians
Christians
do not consider anti- Judaism
Judaism
to be antisemitism.[according to whom?] They regard anti- Judaism
Judaism
as a disagreement of religiously sincere people with the tenets of Judaism, while regarding antisemitism as an emotional bias or hatred not specifically targeting the religion of Judaism. Under this approach, anti- Judaism
Judaism
is not regarded as antisemitism as it only rejects the religious ideas of Judaism
Judaism
and does not involve actual hostility to the Jewish people.[citation needed] Others see anti- Judaism
Judaism
as the rejection of or opposition to beliefs and practices essentially because of their source in Judaism
Judaism
or because a belief or practice is associated with the Jewish people. (But see supersessionism) The position that "Christian theological anti- Judaism
Judaism
is a phenomenon distinct from modern antisemitism, which is rooted in economic and racial thought, so that Christian teachings should not be held responsible for antisemitism"[6] has been articulated, among other places, by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
in 'We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah,' and the Jewish declaration on Christianity, Dabru Emet.[6] Several scholars, including Susannah Heschel,[6] Gavin I Langmuir[52] and Uriel Tal[6] have challenged this position, arguing that anti- Judaism
Judaism
led directly to modern antisemitism. Although some Christians
Christians
in the past did consider anti- Judaism
Judaism
to be contrary to Christian teaching, this view was not widely expressed by leaders and lay people. In many cases, the practical tolerance towards the Jewish religion and Jews
Jews
prevailed. Some Christian groups, particularly in early years, condemned verbal anti-Judaism.[citation needed] Jewish converts[edit] See also: Jews
Jews
for Jesus The Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
(SBC), the largest Protestant Christian denomination in the U.S., has explicitly rejected suggestions that it should back away from seeking to convert Jews, a position which critics have called antisemitic, but a position which Baptists see as consistent with their view that salvation is found solely through faith in Christ. In 1996 the SBC approved a resolution calling for efforts to seek the conversion of Jews
Jews
"as well as for the salvation of 'every kindred and tongue and people and nation.'" Most Evangelicals agree with the SBC position, and some have been supporting efforts specifically seeking Jews' conversion. At the same time these groups are among the most pro-Israeli groups. (For more, see Christian Zionism.) Among the controversial groups that have found support from some Evangelical churches is Jews
Jews
for Jesus, which claims that Jews
Jews
can "complete" their Jewish faith by accepting Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah. The Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Methodist Church, and the United Church of Canada
United Church of Canada
have ended their efforts to convert Jews. While Anglicans
Anglicans
do not, as a rule, seek converts from other Christian denominations,[53] the General Synod has affirmed that "the good news of salvation in Jesus
Jesus
Christ is for all and must be shared with all including people from other faiths or of no faith and that to do anything else would be to institutionalize discrimination".[54] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
formerly had religious congregations specifically aimed at the conversion of Jews. Some of these were founded by Jewish converts themselves, like the Community of Our Lady of Zion, which was composed of nuns and ordained priests. Many Catholic saints were noted specifically because of their missionary zeal in converting Jews, such as Vincent Ferrer. After the Second Vatican Council many missionary orders aimed at converting Jews
Jews
to Christianity
Christianity
no longer actively sought to missionize (or proselytize) among Jews. Traditionalist Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
groups, congregations and clergymen, however, continue to support missionizing Jews
Jews
according to traditional patterns, sometimes with success (e.g., the Society of St. Pius X which has notable Jewish converts among its faithful, many of whom have become traditionalist priests). Some Jewish organizations have described evangelism and missionary activity directed specifically at Jews
Jews
as antisemitic.[55][56][57] Reconciliation between Judaism
Judaism
and Christian groups[edit] Main article: Christian–Jewish reconciliation In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jews. Most of this reconciliation has occurred between the Jewish community and the Catholic Church. See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and the New Testament Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Europe Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Gospel of John Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Soviet Union Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the United States Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Ukraine Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism Criticisms of Christianity Ecclesia et Synagoga Good Friday Prayer for the Jews History of antisemitism
History of antisemitism
in the United States History of antisemitism History of Jews
Jews
in Ukraine History of the Jews
Jews
and the Crusades History of the Jews
Jews
in Germany History of the Jews
Jews
in Russia Jewish deicide Kishinev pogrom New antisemitism History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance Persecution of Jews Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
and Judaism Racial antisemitism Religious antisemitism Shoah Timeline of antisemitism

References[edit]

^ a b c Richard Harries. After the evil: Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism
Judaism
in the shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0199263134 ^ a b Hans Küng. On Being a Christian. Doubleday, Garden City NY, 1976 ISBN 978-0385027120 ^ a b Lucy Dawidowicz
Lucy Dawidowicz
The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. First published 1975; this Bantam edition 1986, p.23. ISBN 0-553-34532-X ^ Nancy Calvert Koyzis (2004). Paul, monotheism and the people of God : the significance of Abraham traditions for early Judaism and Christianity. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-567-08378-0.  ^ Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. May 5, 2009. The Origins of Christian Anti-Semitism: Interview with Pieter van der Horst ^ a b c d e Heschel, Susannah, The Aryan Jesus: Christian theologians and the Bible in Nazi
Nazi
Germany, p. 20, Princeton University Press, 2008 ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Tiberius
Tiberius
36 ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius
Claudius
XXV.4, referenced in Acts 18:2 ^ In Pagans and Christians ^ a b The Butcher's Tale ^ Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1943); Jewish Encyclopedia (1905), Exhibit 264. ^ "PHARISEES - JewishEncyclopedia.com".  ^ Jewish Encyclopedia (1905) ^ Myles, Robert; James Crossley (Dec 2012). "Biblical Scholarship, Jews
Jews
and Israel: On Bruce Malina, Conspiracy Theories and Ideological Contradictions". The Bible and Interpretation.  ^ Michael, Robert (2011). A history of Catholic antisemitism : the dark side of the church (1st Palgrave Macmillan pbk. ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 28–30. ISBN 978-0230111318. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ a b c Michael, Robert (2011). A history of Catholic antisemitism : the dark side of the church (1st Palgrave Macmillan pbk. ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230111318. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ " Ephraim the Syrian
Ephraim the Syrian
and his polemics against Jews". Syrcom.cua.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ "Analysis of Ephraim's writings". Syrcom.cua.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Catholic Book of Quotations, by Leo Knowles, Copyright 2004 by Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, Our Sunday Visitor, Inc. All rights reserved. ^ Ritual murder in Russia, Eastern Europe, and beyond : new histories of an old accusation. Avrutin, Eugene M.,, Dekel-Chen, Jonathan L.,, Weinberg, Robert,. Bloomington, Indiana. pp. 39–40. ISBN 9780253026576. OCLC 972200793.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "History of Toleration". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Iceland, the Jews, and Anti-Semitism, 1625-2004 - Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson". Jcpa.org. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Anti-Semitism. Jerusalem: Keter Books. 1974. ISBN 9780706513271.  ^ "Map of Jewish expulsions and resettlement areas in Europe". Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. Retrieved 24 December 2012.  ^ Wood, Christopher S., Albrecht Altdorfer and the Origins of Landscape, p. 251, 1993, Reaktion Books, London, ISBN 0948462469 ^ "Luther and the Jews". www.theologian.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-21.  ^ Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews, HarperCollins Publishers, 1987, p.242. ISBN 5-551-76858-9. Paul Johnson. ^ Luther, Martin. D. Martin Luthers Werke: kritische Gesamtausgabe, Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger, 1920, Vol. 51, p. 195. ^ a b c Steven Beller (2007) Antisemitism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press 2007. ISBN 978-0192892775 ^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour By Rebecca Weiner". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Rhonheimer, Martin (November 2003). "The Holocaust: What Was Not Said". First Things Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.  ^ Luther, Martin. On the Jews
Jews
and Their Lies, cited in Robert.Michael. "Luther, Luther Scholars, and the Jews,"Encounter 46 (Autumn 1985) No.4.343–344 ^ Donald J. Dietrich. Christian responses to the Holocaust: moral and ethical issues Religion, theology, and the Holocaust. Syracuse University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8156-3029-8 ^ Coppa, Frank J. (1999). Controversial Concordats. Catholic University of America Press. p. 132 ^ Pham, p. 45, quote: "When Pius XI was complimented on the publication, in 1937, of his encyclical denouncing Nazism, Mit brennender Sorge, his response was to point to his Secretary of State and say bluntly, 'The credit is his.'" ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 389–392, quote "And when Hitler showed increasing belligerence toward the Church, Pius met the challenge with a decisiveness that astonished the world. His encyclical Mit brennender Sorge was the 'first great official public document to dare to confront and criticize Nazism' and 'one of the greatest such condemnations ever issued by the Vatican.' Smuggled into Germany, it was read from all the Catholic pulpits on Palm Sunday in March 1937. It denounced the Nazi
Nazi
"myth of blood and soil" and decried its neopaganism. The Nazis retaliated by closing and sealing all the presses that had printed it and took numerous vindictive measures against the Church, including staging a long series of immorality trials of Catholic clergy." ^ Knopp, Guido. Hitler's Holocaust, Sutton,2000, p. 250, ISBN 0-7509-2700-3 ^ Kessler, Edward, Neil Wenborn. A dictionary of Jewish-Christian relations", p. 86, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-82692-6 ^ Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Doubleday. pp. 480–481, quote: "A recent article by American rabbi, David G. Dalin, challenges this judgment. He calls making Pius XII a target of moral outrage a failure of historical understanding, and he thinks Jews
Jews
should reject any 'attempt to usurp the Holocaust' for the partisan purposes at work in this debate. Dalin surmises that well-known Jews
Jews
such as Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Moshe Sharett, and Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac Herzog would likely have been shocked at these attacks on Pope Pius. ... Dalin points out that Rabbi
Rabbi
Herzog, the chief rabbi of Israel, sent a message in February 1944 declaring 'the people of Israel will never forget what His Holiness ... (is) doing for our unfortunate brothers and sisters in the most tragic hour of our history.'" Dalin cites these tributes as recognition of the work of the Holy See in saving hundreds of thousands of Jews." ^ Deák, István (2001). Essays on Hitler's Europe. University of Nebraska Press. p. 182. ^ Michael Barkun for the Southern Poverty Law Center. The Christian Identity Movement ^ Southern Poverty Law Center. Ku Klux Klan ^ Stone, Andrea (2004-11-22). "As attacks rise in France, Jews
Jews
flock to Israel". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Jews
Jews
for Le Pen by Daniel Ben-Simon. Haaretz. 25/03/07 ^ State Department Report on Anti-Semitism: Europe
Europe
and Eurasia: anti-Semitism in Europe
Europe
increased in recent years (2005 report) ^ "Graham regrets Jewish slur", BBC, March 2, 2002. ^ "Pilgrim's Progress, p. 5". Newsweek. August 14, 2006. Retrieved September 20, 2008.  ^ Himes, A (2011) The Sword of the Lord: The roots of fundamentalism in an American Family [1] ^ ADL Audit: Anti-Semitic Incidents in U.S. Declined in 2001 Americans Reject Conspiracy Theories Blaming Jews
Jews
for 9/11 (2002 report) ^ http://ngo-monitor.org/data/images/File/NGOM_IPMN_June_2014.pdf ^ "My Hagee Problem—And Ours - Tablet Magazine – Jewish News and Politics, Jewish Arts and Culture, Jewish Life and Religion".  ^ Langmuir, AvGavin I., History, Religion, and Antisemitism, p. 40, University of California Press, 1990 ^ "Anglican Communion News Service: European Anglicans
Anglicans
set common goals at Madrid consultation". Anglicancommunion.org. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Owen, Peter (2009-02-11). "General Synod - Uniqueness of Christ in Multi-Faith Britain". Thinking Anglicans. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ Keeping Faith. Scottsdale Progress by Kim Sue Lia Perkes (Religion Editor, The Arizona Republic) December, 1982 ^ 1998 Audit of Antisemitic
Antisemitic
Incidents: Missionaries and Messianic Churches Archived 2006-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. (Bnai Brith Canada) ^ Portland Jews
Jews
Brace for Assault by ' Jews
Jews
for Jesus' Archived 2006-05-15 at the Wayback Machine. by Paul Haist (Jewish Review) May 15, 2002

Further reading[edit]

Beck, Norman A. Mature Christianity: The Recognition and Repudiation of the Anti-Jewish Polemic in the New Testament
New Testament
(Expanded Edition). Crossroad Pub Co 1994. ISBN 978-0824513580 Boyarin, Daniel. The Subversion of the Jews: Moses's Veil and the Hermeneutics of Supersession diacritics 23.2: 16–35 Summer 1993. Boys, Mary Editor. Seeing Judaism
Judaism
Anew: Christianity's Sacred Obligation. Sheed & Ward March 31, 2005 ISBN 978-0742548824 Carmichael, Joel. The Satanizing of the Jews: Origin and development of mystical anti-Semitism. Fromm, 1993 ISBN 978-0880641326 Eckhardt, A. Roy. Elder and Younger Brothers: The Encounter of Jews and Christians, Schocken Books (1973) Eckhardt, A. Roy. Your People, My People: The Meeting of Christians & Jews, Crown Publishing Group (1974); ISBN 0-8129-0412-5 Gager, John C. The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity. Oxford Univ. Press, 1983 ISBN 978-0195036077 Gould, Allan, Editor. What Did They Think of the Jews? Jason Aronson Inc., 1991 ISBN 978-0876687512 Hall III, Sidney G. Christian Anti-Semitism and Paul's Theology. Fortress Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0800626549 Johnson, Luke. The New Testament's Anti-Jewish Slander and Conventions of Ancient Polemic Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 108, No. 3, Autumn, 1989 Lapide, Pinchas E Three Popes and the Jews. Hawthorne Books, 1967 ISBN 978-0285501973 Micklem, Nathaniel. National Socialism and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church: Being an Account of the Conflict between the National Socialist Government of Germany and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, 1933-1938. London: Oxford University Press, 1939. Nicholls, William, Christian Antisemitism: A History of Hate. Jason Aronson Inc., 1993. ISBN 978-0876683989 Ruether, Rosemary Radford Faith and fratricide: the theological roots of anti-Semitism. New York 1974, Seabury Press, ISBN 978-0-8164-2263-0. Synan, Edward A. The Popes and the Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages. Macmillan, New York, 1965 ISBN 978-1597400947 Tausch, Arno, The Effects of 'Nostra Aetate:' Comparative Analyses of Catholic Antisemitism
Antisemitism
More Than Five Decades after the Second Vatican Council (January 8, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3098079 Utz, Richard: Remembering Ritual Murder: The Anti-Semitic Blood Accusation Narrative in Medieval and Contemporary Cultural Memory. Pp. 145–62 in Genre and Ritual: The Cultural Heritage of Medieval Rituals. Ed. Eyolf Østrem. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press/University of Copenhagen, 2005. ISBN 978-8763502412 Wilken, Robert L.. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
and the Jews. The Transformation of the Classical Heritage, Volume 4. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1983 ISBN 978-0520047570

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