STOCK is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes , particularly soups and sauces . Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor.
* 1 Preparation * 2 Comparison with broth * 3 Types * 4 Preparing stock * 5 See also * 6 Bibliography * 7 References
Traditionally, stock is made by simmering various ingredients in
water. A newer approach is to use a pressure cooker . The ingredients
may include some or all of the following: Meat Leftover cooked meat,
such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is often used along with
the bones of the bird or joint. Fresh meat makes a superior stock, and
cuts rich in connective tissue such as shin or shoulder of beef or
veal are commonly recommended, either alone or added in lower
proportions to the remains of cooked poultry, to provide a richer and
fresher-tasting stock. Quantities recommended are in the ratio of 1
part fresh meat to 2 parts water.
Today, ready-made stock and stock cubes consisting of dried, compressed stock ingredients are readily available. These are commonly known as bouillon cubes , as cooking base in the US, or as Oxo cubes in Britain, after a common brand of stock cube sold there.
COMPARISON WITH BROTH
The difference between broth and stock is one of both cultural and colloquial terminology but certain definitions prevail. Stock is the liquid produced by simmering raw ingredients: solids are removed, leaving a highly flavored liquid. This yields classic stock as made from beef, veal, chicken, fish and vegetables.
Traditionally, broth contained some form of meat or fish; however, nowadays it is acceptable to refer to a strictly vegetable soup as a broth.
Pouring fish stock on a stuffed fish
* CHICKEN STOCK is usually cooked for several hours.
* FISH STOCK is made with fish bones and finely chopped mirepoix .
Fish stock should be cooked for 20–25 minutes—cooking any longer
spoils the flavour. Concentrated fish stock is called "fish fumet." In
Japanese cooking , a fish and kelp stock called dashi is made by
briefly (a few minutes) cooking skipjack tuna (bonito ) flakes called
katsuobushi in nearly boiling water.
* FOND BLANC, or white stock, is made by using raw bones and white
A few basic rules are commonly prescribed for preparing stock:
* The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water. The collagen from connective tissue and skin is denatured into gelatin through gentle, long simmering, thickening the stock somewhat. * Stocks are simmered gently, with bubbles just breaking the surface, and not boiled. If a stock is boiled, it will be cloudy. * Salt is usually not added or only minimally added to the stock, since most stocks are reduced to make soups and sauces , and excessive salt will make the final dish too salty. * Meat is added to a stock before vegetables, and the "scum" that rises to the surface is skimmed off before further ingredients are added. * If the cook wants to remove the fat, after the stock is finished it is cooled and the fat, which floats, separates and solidifies into globs within the stock, which can be removed with ease. * Stocks can be frozen and kept indefinitely but are better fresh. * The refrigerator shelf life of a stock is three to four days, but the stock can be boiled at the end of this period and the life extended another three to four days. Stock can be kept for extended periods in this manner.
* Food portal
* Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le Guide culinaire. Aide mémoire de
cuisine pratique. Paris, France: Flammarion.
* Escoffier, A (1941). The Escoffier Cook Book. New York, NY, USA:
Fannie Merritt Farmer (1896). The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book.
Boston, MA, USA: Little, Brown and Company.
* Beck, Simone; Louisette Bertholle;
* ^ Spaull, Susan; Lucinda Bruce-Gardyne (2003). Leith's Techniques Bible. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3 HB: Bloomsbury. p. 683. ISBN 0-7475-6046-3 . * ^ Barham, Peter (2001). The Science of Cooking. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer. p. 127. ISBN 3-540-67466-7 . * ^ Smith, Delia (1992). Delia Smith's Complete Cookery Course. BBC Enterprises Ltd., Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane, London W12 0TT: BBC Books. p. 61. ISBN 0-563-3