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Chicken
Chicken
is the most common type of poultry in the world.

In developed countries , chickens are typically subject to intensive farming methods.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Breeding * 3 Edible components

* 4 Health

* 4.1 Use of Roxarsone
Roxarsone
in chicken production * 4.2 Antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance
* 4.3 Fecal matter contamination

* 5 Marketing and sales * 6 Cooking * 7 Freezing * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

The modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
.

Chicken
Chicken
as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken
Chicken
was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was eaten over most of the Eastern hemisphere
Eastern hemisphere
and a number of different kinds of chicken such as capons , pullets and hens were eaten. It was one of the basic ingredients in blancmange , a stew usually consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar . Chicken
Chicken
fry

In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats and it was "sought by the rich because so costly as to be an uncommon dish". Chicken
Chicken
consumption in the U.S. increased during World War II
World War II
due to a shortage of beef and pork . In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease).

BREEDING

Main article: Poultry farming

Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred specifically for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal. The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the U.S. are Cornish and White Rock.

Chickens raised specifically for food are called broilers . In the U.S., broilers are typically butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds.

Capons (castrated cocks) produce more and fattier meat. For this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were particularly popular in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

EDIBLE COMPONENTS

See also: Poultry § Cuts of poultry Oven-roasted rosemary and lemon chicken

* Main

* Breast: These are white meat and are relatively dry.

* Leg: Comprises two segments:

* The "drumstick"; this is dark meat and is the lower part of the leg, * the "thigh"; also dark meat, this is the upper part of the leg.

* Wing: Often served as a light meal or bar food. Buffalo wings
Buffalo wings
are a typical example. Comprises three segments:

* the "drumette", shaped like a small drumstick, this is white meat, * the middle "flat" segment, containing two bones, and * the tip, often discarded.

* Other

* Chicken
Chicken
feet : These contain relatively little meat, and are eaten mainly for the skin and cartilage. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines, especially in the Caribbean and China . * Giblets : organs such as the heart, gizzards, and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately. * Head: Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, and the brains and other tissue is eaten. * Kidneys: Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. * Neck: This is served in various Asian dishes. It is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews . * Oysters : Located on the back, near the thigh, these small, round pieces of dark meat are often considered to be a delicacy. * Pygostyle (chicken's buttocks) and testicles: These are commonly eaten in East Asia
East Asia
and some parts of South East Asia
East Asia
.

* By-products

* Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, which is then used in various products. In many Asian countries, the blood is poured into low, cylindrical forms, and left to congeal into disc-like cakes for sale. These are commonly cut into cubes, and used in soup dishes. * Carcase and back: After the removal of the flesh, this is used for soup stock. * Chicken
Chicken
eggs : The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. * Heart and gizzard : in Brazilian churrascos , chicken hearts are an often seen delicacy. * Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, and is used in such dishes as Pâté
Pâté
and chopped liver . * Schmaltz : This is produced by rendering the fat, and is used in various dishes.

HEALTH

Chicken
Chicken
meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat than most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage .

Chicken
Chicken
generally includes low fat in the meat itself (castrated roosters excluded). The fat is highly concentrated on the skin. A 100g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 grams of fat and 31 grams of protein, compared to 10 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein for the same portion of broiled, lean skirt steak.

According to a 2006 Harvard School of Public Health study of 135,000 people, people who ate grilled skinless chicken 5 or more times a week had a 52% higher chance of developing bladder cancer compared to people who did not. However, such strong associations were not found in individuals regularly consuming chicken with skin intact.

USE OF ROXARSONE IN CHICKEN PRODUCTION

In factory farming , chickens are routinely administered with the feed additive Roxarsone
Roxarsone
, an organoarsenic compound which partially decomposes into inorganic arsenic compounded in the flesh of chickens, and in their feces, which are often used as a fertilizer. The compound is used to control stomach pathogens and promote growth. In a 2013 sample conducted by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health of chicken meat from poultry producers that did not prohibit roxarsone , 70% of the samples in the US had levels which exceeded the safety limits as set by the FDA . The FDA has since revised its stance on safe limits to inorganic arsenic in animal feed by stating that "any new animal drug that contributes to the overall inorganic arsenic burden is of potential concern".

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Information obtained by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (CIPARS) "strongly indicates that cephalosporin resistance in humans is moving in lockstep with the use of the drug in poultry production". According to the Canadian Medical Association Journal , the unapproved antibiotic ceftiofur is routinely injected into eggs in Quebec and Ontario to discourage infection of hatchlings. Although the data are contested by the industry, antibiotic resistance in humans appears to be directly related to the antibiotic's use in eggs.

A recent study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute showed that nearly half (47%) of the meat and poultry in US grocery stores was contaminated with S. aureus , with more than half (52%) of those bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Furthermore, as per the FDA , more than 25% of retail chicken is resistant to 5 or more different classes of antibiotic treatment drugs in the United States. An estimated 90–100% of conventional chicken contains, at least, one form of antibiotic resistance microorganism, while organic chicken has been found to have a lower incidence at 84%.

FECAL MATTER CONTAMINATION

In random surveys of chicken products across the United States in 2012, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine found 48% of samples to contain fecal matter. On most commercial chicken farms (CAFO), the chickens spend their entire life standing in, laying on, and living in their own manure, which is somewhat mixed in with the bedding material (e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, chopped straw, etc.).

During shipping from the CAFO farm to the abattoir , the chickens are usually placed inside shipping crates that usually have slatted floors. Those crates are then piled 5 to 10 rows high on the transport truck to the abattoir. During shipment, the chickens tend to defecate, and that chicken manure tends to sit inside the crowded cages, contaminating the feathers and skin of the chickens, or rains down upon the chickens and crates on the lower levels of the transport truck. By the time the truck gets to the abattoir, most chickens have had their skin and feathers contaminated with feces.

There is also fecal matter in the intestines. While the slaughter process removes the feathers and intestines, only visible fecal matter is removed. The high speed automated processes at the abattoir are not designed to remove this fecal contamination on the feather and skin. The high speed processing equipment tend to spray the contamination around to the birds going down the processing line, and the equipment on the line itself. At one or more points on most abattoirs, chemical sprays and baths (e.g. bleach, acids, peroxides, etc.) are used to partially rinse off or kill this bacterial contamination. Unfortunately, the fecal contamination, once it has occurred, especially in the various membranes between the skin and muscle, is impossible to completely remove.

With slaughter lines processing up to 140 birds/minute, safety inspectors do not have adequate time to properly examine visible fecal matter. The USDA
USDA
is currently allowing some abattoirs to process at unlimited line speeds (i.e. in excess of 140 birds/minute), further exasperating the fecal contamination issue.

MARKETING AND SALES

A poussin, or juvenile chicken

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Juvenile chickens, of less than 28 days of age at slaughter in the United Kingdom are marketed as poussin . Mature chicken is sold as small, medium or large.

Whole mature chickens are marketed in the United States as fryers, broilers, and roasters. Fryers are the smallest size (2.5-4 lbs dressed for sale), and the most common, as chicken reach this size quickly (about 7 weeks). Most dismembered packaged chicken would be sold whole as fryers. Broilers are larger than fryers. They are typically sold whole. Roasters, or roasting hens, are the largest chickens commonly sold (3–5 months and 6-8 lbs) and are typically more expensive. Even larger and older chickens are called stewing chickens but these are no longer usually found commercially. The names reflect the most appropriate cooking method for the surface area to volume ratio . As the size increases, the volume (which determines how much heat must enter the bird for it to be cooked) increases faster than the surface area (which determines how fast heat can enter the bird). For a fast method of cooking, such as frying, a small bird is appropriate: frying a large piece of chicken results in the inside being undercooked when the outside is ready.

Chicken
Chicken
is also sold in dismembered pieces. Pieces may include quarters, or fourths of the chicken. A chicken is typically cut into two leg quarters and two breast quarters. Each quarter contains two of the commonly available pieces of chicken. A leg quarter contains the thigh, drumstick and a portion of the back; a leg has the back portion removed. A breast quarter contains the breast, wing and portion of the back; a breast has the back portion and wing removed. Pieces may be sold in packages of all of the same pieces, or in combination packages. Whole chicken cut up refers to either the entire bird cut into 8 individual pieces. (8-piece cut); or sometimes without the back. A 9-piece cut (usually for fast food restaurants) has the tip of the breast cut off before splitting. Pick of the chicken, or similar titles, refers to a package with only some of the chicken pieces. Typically the breasts, thighs, and legs without wings or back. Thighs and breasts are sold boneless and/or skinless. Dark meat (legs, drumsticks and thighs) pieces are typically cheaper than white meat pieces (breast, wings). Chicken
Chicken
livers and/or gizzards are commonly available packaged separately. Other parts of the chicken, such as the neck, feet, combs, etc. are not widely available except in countries where they are in demand, or in cities that cater to ethnic groups who favor these parts.

There are many fast food restaurant chains on both a national and global scale that sell exclusively or primarily in poultry products including KFC
KFC
(global), Red Rooster ( Australia
Australia
), Hector Chicken ( Belgium
Belgium
) and CFC ( Indonesia
Indonesia
). Most of the products on the menu in such eateries are fried or breaded and are served with french fries .

COOKING

Marination
Marination
of chicken for grilling The United States Department of Agriculture classifies cuts of poultry in a manner similar to beef . Chicken
Chicken
with mushrooms, tomatoes and spices. Oven roasted chicken with potatoes. Chicken
Chicken
Peking ( Philippines
Philippines
) Butter chicken masala ( India
India
)

Raw chicken may contain salmonella . The safe minimum cooking temperature recommended by the U.S. Department of Health border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Food portal

* Barbecue chicken * Battery cage * Bush legs * Chickens as pets
Chickens as pets
* Chicken
Chicken
patty * List of chicken dishes

REFERENCES

* ^ "FAOSTAT: Production_LivestockPrimary_E_All_Data". Food and Agriculture Organization . 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2017. * ^ Eriksson J, Larson G, Gunnarsson U, Bed'hom B, Tixier-Boichard M, et al. (2008) Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken. PLoS Genet 23 January 2008. * ^ Chicken
Chicken
facts and origins at Poultrymad * ^ Rude, Emelyn. "How Chicken
Chicken
Conquered the American Dinner Plate". First We Feast. Retrieved 25 August 2016. * ^ Poultry Farming, The History Channel . 2 March 2007. * ^ "BBC survey another blow against UK chicken". FoodProductionDaily.com. * ^ Focus On: Chicken
Chicken
Archived 19 May 2004 at the Wayback Machine ., USDA
USDA
. 2 March 2007. * ^ "How to Carve Chicken
Chicken
and Turkey". Cooks.com. Retrieved 20 May 2010. * ^ Brown, Alton . " Chicken
Chicken
Stock". Food Network. Retrieved 16 August 2016. * ^ "Brazilian barbecued chicken hearts". Bite.co.nz. Retrieved 28 July 2014. * ^ Feinberg School > Nutrition > Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids, Northwestern University Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Nutrition Facts - 100g Chicken
Chicken
Breast". self.com. * ^ "Nutrition Facts - 100g Lean Skirt Steak". self.com. * ^ "Eating Bacon
Bacon
& Skinless Chicken
Chicken
May Cause Bladder Cancer". Drbenkim.com. 2 December 2006. Retrieved 19 August 2010. * ^ "" Arsenic
Arsenic
In Chicken
Chicken
Production", Chemical & Engineering News, April 9, 2007, Volume 85, Number 15, pages 34-35". acs.org. * ^ Nachman, Keeve E.; Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C. (1 July 2013). "Roxarsone, inorganic arsenic, and other arsenic species in chicken: a U.S.-based market basket sample" . Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (7): 818–824. ISSN 1552-9924 . PMC 3701911  . PMID 23694900 . doi :10.1289/ehp.1206245 . * ^ Kawalek, JC (10 February 2011). "Provide data on various arsenic species present in broilers treated with roxarsone: Comparison with untreated birds" (PDF). The Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2016. * ^ Gulli, Cathy (17 June 2009). "Playing chicken with antibiotics Antibiotics injected into chicken eggs is making Canadians resistant to meds". Macleans Magazine. Retrieved 24 June 2009. * ^ "US Meat
Meat
and Poultry Is Widely Contaminated With Drug-Resistant Staph Bacteria". sciencedaily.com. * ^ "Retail Meat
Meat
Report" (PDF). National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Food and Drug Safety Administration. 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2015. * ^ Cohen Stuart, James; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Voets, Guido; Scharringa, Jelle; Fluit, Ad; Hall, Maurine Leverstein-Van (15 March 2012). "Comparison of ESBL contamination in organic and conventional retail chicken meat". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 154 (3): 212–214. ISSN 1879-3460 . PMID 22260927 . doi :10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.12.034 . * ^ Folster, J. P.; Pecic, G.; Singh, A.; Duval, B.; Rickert, R.; Ayers, S.; Abbott, J.; McGlinchey, B.; Bauer-Turpin, J. (1 July 2012). "Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States 2009" . Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 9 (7): 638–645. ISSN 1556-7125 . PMC 4620655  . PMID 22755514 . doi :10.1089/fpd.2012.1130 . * ^ The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (April 2012). "Fecal Contamination in Retail Chicken
Chicken
Products". Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ Bilgili, S. F. (1 February 1999). "Recent advances in electrical stunning". Poultry Science. 78 (2): 282–286. ISSN 0032-5791 . PMID 10051043 . doi :10.1093/ps/78.2.282 . * ^ "Safe Minimum Cooking Temperatures". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 28 February 2014. * ^ "Torisashi and Toriwasa". Seafco. Inc. Retrieved 28 February 2014. * ^ How to Buy: 5 Things to Keep in Mind, Food Network . 2 March 2007. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J Home / Fact Sheets / Safe Food Handling / Freezing and Food Safety from USDA
USDA
Food Safety and Inspection Service. Last Modified: 3 June 2010. * ^ How to Defrost Chicken: Three Safe Methods Last Modified: 27 March 2016. * ^ Julie, Garden-Robinson (January 2012). "Food Safety Basics" (PDF). NDSU Extension Service. Retrieved 1 April 2016.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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