CHHATTISGARH (CHATīSGAṛH, literally 'Thirty-Six Forts') is one of
the 29 states of
India , located in the centre-east of the country. It
is the 10th largest state in
India , with an area of 135,194 km2
(52,199 sq mi). With a population of 28 million,
Chhattisgarh is the
17th most-populated state in the country . A resource-rich state, it
is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for
15% of the total steel produced.
Chhattisgarh is one of the
fastest-developing states in India.
The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 16
Chhattisgarhi -speaking southeastern districts of
Madhya Pradesh .
The capital city is
Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya
Pradesh in the northwest,
Maharashtra in the southwest,
the south (
East Godavari district
East Godavari district ) in the south,
Odisha in the
Jharkhand in the northeast and
Uttar Pradesh in the north.
Currently the state comprises 27 districts .
* 1 Administration
* 1.1 Districts
* 2 Etymology
* 3 Geography
* 3.2 Temperature
* 4 Transport
* 4.1 Roads
* 4.2 Rail network
* 4.2.1 Rail Network Expansion
* 4.3 Air
* 5 History
* 5.1 Ancient and medieval history
* 5.2 Colonial and Post Independence history
* 5.3 Separation of
* 6 Governance and administration
* 6.1 Districts
* 7 Major cities
* 8 Human Development Indicators (HDIs)
* 8.1 HDI
* 8.2 Standard of living
* 8.3 Education Index
* 8.4 Health Index
* 8.5 Net state domestic product (NSDP)
* 8.6 Urbanisation
* 8.8 Fertility rate
* 8.9 SC and ST population
* 8.10 Poverty
* 8.11 Access to drinking water
* 8.12 Sanitation
* 8.14 Road density
* 9 Demographics
* 9.1 Religion
* 9.1.2 Religious Persecution
* 9.2 Language
* 9.3 Status of women
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Literature
* 10.2 Crafts
* 10.3 Dance
* 10.3.1 Panthi
* 10.3.2 Pandwani
* 10.3.3 Raut Nacha
* 10.3.4 Soowa Nacha
* 10.3.5 Karma
* 11 Festivals of
* 11.1 Theatre
* 11.2 Film Industry
* 11.3 Traditional food
* 12.1 Agriculture
* 12.1.1 Agricultural products
* 12.2 Industrial sector
* 12.2.1 Power sector
* 12.2.3 Aluminium sector
* 12.2.4 Natural resources
* 220.127.116.11 Mineral deposits
* 18.104.22.168 Information and technologies
* 22.214.171.124 Major companies
* 12.3 Exports
* 13 Tourism
* 14 Education
* 14.1 Absolute literates and literacy rate
* 15 Media and communications
* 16 English Daily
* 18 See also
* 19 Notes
* 20 References
* 21 External links
Chhattisgarh comprises 27 districts. The following are the list of
the districts of
Chhattisgarh State: Main article: List of districts
* Baloda Bazar-Bhatapara
There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh,
which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala).
"Chhattisgarh" was popularized later during the time of the Maratha
Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795.
It is claimed that
Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient
forts in the area (chhattis—thirty-six" and garh—fort ). The old
state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur,
Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta,
Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra,
Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg,
Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim,
Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts do
not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be
archaeologically identified in this region.
Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that
Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or
"Empire of the Chedis ". In ancient times,
Chhattisgarh region had
been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kaling , in modern
Odisha . In the
medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern
Chhattisgarh was part of the
Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha.
The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the
central part is a fertile plain . The highest point in the state is
the Gaurlata . Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests
cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa,
or wild water buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill
myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.
Sal- The State Tree of
In the north lies the edge of the great
Indo-Gangetic plain . The
Rihand River , a tributary of the Ganges , drains this area. The
eastern end of the
Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota
Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the
Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of
Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse.
The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the
Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice
cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper
Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras)
and from the plains of
Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The
southern part of the state lies on the
Deccan plateau, in the
watershed of the
Godavari River and its tributary, the
. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers
are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi),
Indravati , Jonk , Arpa
and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.
Amrit Dhara Waterfall. The natural beauty of Koriya includes dense
forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Amrit Dhara Waterfall in
Koriya is among the most famous waterfalls in Koriya. Koriya in
Chhattisgarh was a princely state during the British rule in India.
Koriya is also known for the rich mineral deposits. Coal is found in
abundance in this part of the country. The dense forests are rich in
The Amrit Dhara Water fall, Koriya is a natural waterfall which
originates from the Hasdo River. The fall is situated at a distance of
seven kilometers from Koriya. The waterfall is ideally located on the
Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall in Koriya in
India falls from a height of 27 m. The waterfall is
about 3–4.5 m wide. The point where the water falls, there, a cloudy
atmosphere is formed all around.
Chirimiri is one of the more popular
places, known for its pristine beauty, and healthy climate in
The climate of
Chhattisgarh is tropical . It is hot and humid because
of its proximity to the
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the
monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in
Chhattisgarh can reach 45
°C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is
a welcome respite from the heat.
Chhattisgarh receives an average of
1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to
January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. Winters are
pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.
The temperature varies between 30 and 45 °C (86 and 113 °F) in
summer and between 0 and 25 °C (32 and 77 °F) during winter.
However, extremes in temperature can be observed with scales falling
to less than 0 °C to 49 °C.
National Highway 43 (India)
Chhattisgarh has coverage of mostly 2-lane or 1-lane roads which
provides connectivity to major cities. 11 national highways passing
through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However
most national highways are in poor conditions and provides only
2-lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper
and not fully converted into 4-lane highway. This includes 130A New,
130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New, 343 New, 930New..
Other national highway includes NH 6 , NH 16 , NH 43 , NH 12A , NH 78
, NH 111 , NH 200 , NH 202 , NH 216 , NH 217 , NH 221 , NH30 NH 930
NEW. The state highways and major district roads constitute another
network of 8,031 km.
Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in
Central and South
India (12.1 km/100,000 population) which is similar
to the North Eastern state of Assam.
Raipur Railway Station Entrance
Almost the entire railway network spread over the state comes under
the geographical jurisdiction of the
South East Central Railway Zone
of Indian Railways centred around Bilaspur , which is the zonal
headquarters of this zone. The main railway junction is Raipur, Durg
and Bilaspur Junction, which is also a starting point of many long
distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major
cities of India.
The state has the highest freight loading in the country and
one-sixth of Indian Railway's revenue comes from Chhattisgarh. The
length of rail network in the state is 1,108 km, while a third track
has been commissioned between
Durg and Raigarh. Construction of some
new railway lines are under process. These include
Jagdalpur rail line, Pendra Road-Gevra Road Rail Line
rail line, Raigarh-Mand Colliery to Bhupdeopur rail line and
Chirmiri rail line. Freight/goods trains provide services
mostly to coal and iron ore industries in east-west corridor
(Mumbai-Howrah route). There is lack of passenger services to north
and south of Chhattisgarh. Current train stations are mostly over
crowded and not maintained well for passengers.
Rail Network Expansion
Chhattisgarh has 1,187 km long railway line network, which
is less than half of the national average of rail density.
The construction of new 546 km long rail network includes
Rajhara-Rowghat rail project, 311 km long East and East-West Rail
Corridors and 140 km long Rowghat-
Jagdalpur rail project are underway
in the state.
Chhattisgarh government has now decided to form a joint venture
company with the Ministry of Railways for the expansion of railway
tracks in the state. The decision to form a joint venture company with
Ministry of Railways was taken during a meeting of the state cabinet
chaired by Chief Minister on 5 February 2016. An MoU will shortly be
signed between the state Commerce and Industries Department and the
railway ministry in this regard. Under the MoU, the state government
will have 51% share and the railways remaining 49% share. The proposed
joint venture company will identify viable rail projects in the state
and implement them.
Major Railway heads are
Raipur , Bilaspur ,
Swami Vivekananda Airport
The air infrastructure in
Chhattisgarh is small compared to other
Swami Vivekananda Airport in
Raipur is its sole airport with
scheduled commercial air services. A massive reduction in sales tax on
aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from 25 to 4% in
Chhattisgarh in 2003 has
contributed to a sharp rise in passenger flow. The passenger flow has
increased by 58% between 2011 and November 2012.
Other major areas in the north and south of state, and industrial
cities such as Bilaspur, Korba,
Raigarh are not served by any airline.
The majority of population in these area is not able take advantage of
low cost airlines due to poor road connectivity and high cost of taxi
fares. The State Government has signed a MOU with the Airports
India (AAI) in July 2013 to develop
Raigarh Airport as
the state's second airport for domestic flights.
Bilaspur Airport , Bilaspur
Jagdalpur Airport , Jagdalpur
* Nandini Airport, Bhilai
* JSPL’s Airstrip, Raigarh
* Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur
* Korba Airstrip, Korba
* Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur
* Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg
* Kota Road Airstrip, MohanBhatha, Bilaspur
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY
In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala . This
area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth
and twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias , Panduavanshi, Somavanshi,
Kalachuri and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar
Chhattisgarh was invaded by
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga
Chola I of the
Chola dynasty in the 11th century.
COLONIAL AND POST INDEPENDENCE HISTORY
Chhattisgarh was under
Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741
to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947 as the
Chhattisgarh Division of the
Central Provinces .
prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in
1845. In 1905, the
Sambalpur district was transferred to
the estates of Surguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.
The area constituting the new state merged into on 1 November 1956,
States Reorganisation Act, 1956
States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and remained a part of that
state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of
Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old
Madhya Pradesh State, with
its capital at Nagpur. Prior to that, the region was part of the
Central Provinces and Berar (CP and Berar) under the British rule.
Some areas constituting the
Chhattisgarh state were princely states
under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh.
SEPARATION OF CHHATTISGARH
Mantralaya in Naya (New)
The present state of
Chhattisgarh was carved out of
Madhya Pradesh on
1 November 2000. The demand for a separate state was first raised in
the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals;
however, a well-organized movement was never launched. Several
all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around
petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes. A demand
Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the
unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress
at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional
Congress organization for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation
Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh
was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a
separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of
The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as
the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the
Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum,
several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organized
under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major
political parties, including the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress and the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party .
The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the
Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya
Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and
then it was tabled in the
Lok Sabha . This bill for a separate
Chhattisgarh was passed in the
Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving
the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The
India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The Government of India
subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya
Pradesh would be divided into
Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
GOVERNANCE AND ADMINISTRATION
Government of Chhattisgarh and Legislative Assembly of
The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the
Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the
Lok Sabha from
Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.The
neighbouring states of
Districts of Chhattisgarh
Districts of Chhattisgarh state in 2007 Main article:
Districts of Chhattisgarh
Districts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh state consists of 27 districts and 5 divisions:
* Bastar (Jagdalpur)
* Dantewada (Dakshin Bastar)
* Kanker (Uttar Bastar)
* Kawardha (Kabirdham)
* Surguja (Ambikapur)
Largest cities in
(2011 Census of
List of cities in Chhattisgarh
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS (HDIS)
As of 2011
Chhattisgarh state had a
Human Development Index
Human Development Index value of
0.358, the lowest of any Indian state. The national average is 0.467
according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.
STANDARD OF LIVING
Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest standard of living in
India as per
the Income Index (0.127) along with the states of
Assam , Bihar,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan . These states have
incomes below the national average, with
Bihar having the lowest
income per capita.
Despite these ratings and rankings, we can consider Raipur, the
Chhattisgarh to be one of the most developing cities in
India. People living here, have high living standards that can be
compared to any of those living in rich metro cities. Likes of
International Cricket Stadium, top notch malls, various multinational
brands and lot more. Even the NSDP (Net STate Domestic Product)
ratings suggest that the growth is a decent 12.15% per annum. The
Naya Raipur can also be considered
as one of the advanced developments this state will be seeing in near
School children in
Chhattisgarh has an Education Index of 0.526 according to 2011 NHDR
which is higher than that of the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar
Pradesh, Rajasthan, although lower than the national average of 0.563.
With respect to literacy, the state fared just below the national
average. The recent estimates from Census (2011) are also similar,
with the literacy rate of 71% (81.4% Males "> Tendu Patta (Leaf)
collection in Chhattisgarh, India.
The incidence of poverty in
Chhattisgarh is very high. The estimated
poverty ratio in 2004–5 based on uniform reference period
consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the
India level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas
is almost the same.
More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general,
the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher
than the state average and their community’s respective national
averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per
cent of the state’s population is ST and SC, the high incidence of
income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state.
This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has
not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in
their poor performance in human development indicators.
ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER
In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the
Chhattisgarh fared better than the national average
and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding
Scheduled Tribes are marginally below the state
average, but still better than the STs at the all
The proportion of households with access to improved sources of
drinking water in 2008–9 was 91%. This proportion was over 90% even
in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
This was largely because these states had over 70% of their households
accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water.
Sanitation facilities in the state are abysmally low with only about
27 per cent having toilet facilities, which is far below the all-India
average of 44%. The STs are the most deprived section in this regard
with only 18 per cent of the ST households having toilet facilities,
which is lower than the all
India average for STs. The SCs also have a
lower proportion of households with toilet facilities as compared to
States with low sanitation coverage in 2001 that improved coverage by
4-10% points are , Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
and Uttar Pradesh.
Himachal Pradesh ,
Daman and Diu ,
Haryana , Sikkim
, Punjab ,
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli ,
increased coverage by more than 20 percentage points.
Across states, it has been found that teledensity (telephone density)
was below 10 per cent in 2010 for
Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand,
reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer
states. On the other hand, for states like
Delhi and Himachal Pradesh
and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, teledensity
was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals have more than
one telephone connection.
The road length per 100 km2 was less than the national average of 81
km (81,000 m) per 100 km2 in Chhattisgarh. The rural areas of
Chhattisgarh failed to meet their targets of constructing new roads
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) plan.
Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of its
population (around 5.1 million people in 2011) residing in urban
areas. According to a report by the government of India, at least 34%
Scheduled Tribes , 12% are
Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong to
the official list of Other Backward Classes . The plains are
numerically dominated by castes such as
Teli , Satnami and
while forest areas are mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond , Halbi
Halba and Kamar /Bujia and
Oraon . A large community of
existed in major cities since the times of the
British Raj . They are
associated with education, industry and services.
Buddhism (0.27%) Jainism
Sarnaism or not religious (3.01%)
According to the 2011 census, 93.25% of Chhattisgarh's population
practiced Hinduism, while 2% followed Islam, 1% followed Christianity
and smaller number followed
Jainism or other
Sarnaism is the indigenous religion followed by the
indigenous tribes of the state.
In order to bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage
undesirable social practices,
Chhattisgarh government has enacted the
Chhattisgarh Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.
Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial
authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution
to an end.
Some sections of tribal population of
Chhattisgarh state believe in
witchcraft . Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces
and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal
As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of
flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by
villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods
acquisition. According to National Geographic Channel’s
investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally
bullied and shunned or exiled from their village. Social Mission
Against Blind Faith
According to the Christian organization, Release International
several Christians in
Chhattisgarh have been attacked and killed by
Hindu nationalists . Lachhu Kashap was killed and his brother, Pastor
Shuduru Kashap beaten in Mandala, and several other Christians have
been beaten by mobs of up to fifty people. When
Madhya Pradesh in 2000 it inherited anti conversion laws which
were further tightened in 2007. Those wishing to convert to
Christianity need to submit an official affidavit, leading to an
official police investigation into their reasons for converting.
Punishment for contravening the regulations can be up to three years'
prison or fines of up to 20,000 rupees.
The official language of the state is
Hindi and is used by non-rural
population of the state. Chhattisgarhi, a dialect of
is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh.
Among other languages, Odia is widely spoken by a significant number
of Odia population in the eastern part of the state.Telugu , Marathi
is also spoken in parts of Chhattishgarh.
Chhattisgarhi was known as
"Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" to Odia
In addition to Chhattisgarhi, there are several other languages
spoken by the tribal people of the Bastar region , geographically
equivalent to the former
Bastar state , like
Halbi , Gondi and Bhatri
STATUS OF WOMEN
Adivasi woman and child
Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991) ranking at the
5th position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small
compared to other states, it is unique in
India because Chhattisgarh
is — the 10th largest state in India.
The gender ratio (number of females per 1000 males) has been steadily
declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous
Chhattisgarh always had a better female-to-male ratio compared
with national average.
Young women in
Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and
cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional
variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.
Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organized,
socially outspoken. According to another local custom, women can
choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called
chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines
here are related to 'women power' (e.g.,
Danteshwari ) and the existence of these temples gives insight into
historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention
of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the
ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the
contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in
the social and cultural life.
Detailed information on aspects of women's status in
be found in \'A situational analysis of women and girls in
Chhattisgarh\' prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a
statutory body belonging to government of India. Adivasi Woman at
Farasgaon Market Natives of Kamar Tribe
A carving in the 10th- or 11th-century
Hindu temple of Malhar
village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major
Buddhist center in ancient times.
The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth,
Kabirpanth , Ramnami Samaj and others.
Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a
small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint
Vallabhacharya , increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the
Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of lord
Rama . Lord
Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had
started his Vanvas (exile) in the Bastar region (more precisely
Dandakaranya region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 years of
their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of
the remarkable place is
Shivrinarayan which is nearby Bilaspur
district of Chhattisgarh.
Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady
Shabari . When Ram visited
Shabari she said "I do not have anything to
offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it
please you, my Lord." Saying so,
Shabari offered the fruits she had
meticulously collected to Rama. When
Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana
raised the concern that
Shabari had already tasted them and therefore
unworthy of eating. To this
Rama said that of the many types of food
he had tasted, "nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with
such devotion. You taste them, then alone will you know. Whomsoever
offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it
with great joy."
The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and
crafts — all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the
day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social
and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs.
Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft,
bamboo ware and tribal jewellery.
Chhattisgarh has a rich literary
heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical
movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional
consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in
Chhattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides
saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles,
shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis.
Works by the internationally renowned sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's
Dhokra Nandi, are available at government's
Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang,
Bhatra Naat, Rahas, Raai, Maao-Pata and Soowa are the several
indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.
Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious
overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tbla
the anniversary of the birth of
Guru Ghasidas . The dancers dance
around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogizing their
spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana , conveying the
spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets
Kabir , Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging
arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens,
they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.
Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in
Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading
characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani
narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and
musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati
and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a
simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The
Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the
scenes and characters. Pandwani
Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of
Yaduvanshis (clan of
Yadu ) as symbol of worship to
Krishna from the
4th day of Diwali(Goverdhan Puja) till the time of Dev Uthani Ekadashi
(day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th
day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance closely
resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).
In Bilaspur, the Raut Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organized
annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rautt dancers from remote
areas participate. Raut Nacha
Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in
Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot
Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers
keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then
performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one
of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh. Sua
Nacha at Khudmudi Village,
Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chhattisgarh
have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange
themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the
singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season
and the advent of spring season.
FESTIVALS OF CHHATTISGARH
Bastar Dussehra /
Rajim Kumbh Mela
Pakhanjore Mela (
Nara Narayan Mela )
* Lata mangeshkar sang a song for
Dhriti pati sarkar.
* Mohmd Rafi sang a song for
Chhattisgarhi film. He had also sung
songs for various
Chhattisgarhi films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe
Sandes, Punni Ke Chanda, etc.
Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh.
Pandavani is one of the
lyrical forms of this theater. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir
, such as
Charandas Chor , are variations of
Natya Samaroh by IPTA
Chhollywood is Chhattisgarh's film industries. Every year many
Chhattisgarhi film produced by local producers.
Cuisine of Chhattisgarh
The State of
Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of
India and has
a rich tradition of food culture. Red Velvet Mite is used
as Medicine in Traditional Healing of
Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for 2010 is estimated at
INR 60,079 crore in current prices. The economy of
grown rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of 11.49 per cent in
GDP for 2009–2010. Chhattisgarh’s success factors in achieving
high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.
Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th largest tea production state
in India. The districts of Jashpur and Surguja are favorable tea
production areas. In Jashpur district, the first tea plantation,
Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under the direction of
Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at the
Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram
and the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry
department has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara
Ashram. In Surguja district, a tea nursery is being developed by the
Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja.
Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state.
According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is
4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million
hectares. Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share
of the total population of the state. About 80% of the population of
the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is
agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.
The majority of the farmers are still practicing the traditional
methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and
productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies
suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the
farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural
development plans and to improve the productivity. Chloroxylon
is used for Pest Management in Organic
Rice Cultivation in
Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity
of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are
unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has
remained as subsistence agriculture till now. Medicinal
Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster Herbal Farming in
Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh:
Gulbakawali Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with
The main crops are rice, maize , kodo-kutki and other small millets
and pulses (tuar and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts),
soybeans and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of
Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth
of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion
of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where
nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate
attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very
few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to
diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash
Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of central India".
Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India
Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi
In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the
net sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the
rest depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of
Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the
northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double
cropping is only 87,000 ha in
Chhattisgarh plains and 2300 ha in
Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of
rice and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain
economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence
agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of
more than 80% of the population.
Chhattisgarh region about 22% of net cropped area was under
irrigation as compared to 36.5% in
Madhya Pradesh in 1998–99,
whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation
is characterized by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in
Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in
irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under
irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in
Madhya Pradesh and 1.0%
in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very
low rate in
Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it
would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated
Chhattisgarh at the present rate of growth.
Chhattisgarh has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on
some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the
entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. Large variation
in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of rice.
Irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development
and therefore the state government has given top priority to
development of irrigation.
A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects
have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects
are under construction, as of 31 March 2006.
Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of
India where the power sector
is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus
electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and
Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a
strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state
and is in good financial health.
Chhattisgarh provides electricity to
several other states because of surplus production.
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC)
Sipat Thermal Power Station with a capacity of 2,980 MW at Sipat,
Bilaspur; GMR Power in Tilda and Korba Super Thermal Power Station
with a capacity of 2,600 MW at Korba, while CSEB's units have a
thermal capacity of 1,780 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from
NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large
and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy
with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of
private players coming up.
The state has potential of 61,000 MW of additional thermal power in
terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than
2,500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial
additions to the existing generation capacity are already under way.
The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of
Bhilai operated by SAIL , with a
capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant
growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90
sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh. Along
with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and
Raigarh have become the
steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today,
Raipur has become the center of the
steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.
The aluminium industry of
Chhattisgarh was established by Bharat
Aluminium Company Limited, which has a capacity of around one million
tonnes each year.
Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by
Forest Service ) and the rich forest resources include
wood, tendu leaves, honey and lac. Approximately 3%is under very dense
forest, 25.97% is moderately dense, 12.28% is open forest and 0.09%is
scrub. Flora of Kabirdham District Indian Luna Moth in
Forest Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's
total cement produce. It has the highest output of coal in the country
with second highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and
first in tin production.
Limestone , dolomite and bauxite are
abundant. It is the only tin -ore producing state in India. Other
commercially extracted minerals include corandum, garnet , quartz ,
marble , alexandrite and diamonds . Maikal Hills in
Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri,
Information And Technologies
In recent years,
Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information
technology (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also
promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions.
The body, known as CHIPS, is providing large IT projects such as
Choice, Swan, etc.
Major companies with a presence in the state include:
Steel Plant , Jindal
Steel and Power , Bharat
Indian Oil Corporation , Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
* Engineering: Simplex Casting Ltd,
* Real estate: CHPL-Dream-Homes (Chouhan Housing Pvt Ltd.)
* Mining: NMDC ,
South Eastern Coalfields
* Power : NTPC ,
Lanco Infratech ,
KSK Energy Ventures , Vandana
Chhattisgarh State Power Generation Company , Jindal Power
Chhattisgarh’s total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009-10.
Nearly 75% of exports comes from
Bhilai and the remaining from Urla,
Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel,
handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron,
aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC
Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the
nodal agency of the
Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in
Tourism in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich
cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full
of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples ,
Buddhist sites, palaces , water falls , caves, rock paintings and hill
There are many Waterfalls, hot springs, caves, temples, dams and
National parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Chhattisgarh.
Education in Chhattisgarh See also: List of
institutions of higher education in
According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most
basic indicator of education was at 71.04 percent. Female literacy is
at 60.59 percent.
ABSOLUTE LITERATES AND LITERACY RATE
Data from Census of India, 2011.
MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS
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Outline of Chhattisgarh
Outline of Chhattisgarh
List of people from Chhattisgarh
* Outline of
* Bibliography of
Index of India-related articles
India – book
* ^ "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in
India" (PDF). 16 July 2014. p. 109. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
* ^ "
Chhattisgarh State – Power Hub". Archived from the original
on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ "
Chhattisgarh -Steel". Archived from the original on 7 July
2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ A B http://cgfinance.nic.in/Rules%20">
* ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
* ^ A B C Srivastava, K.K. (2011). Decentralized Governance And
Panchayati Raj. Gyan Publishing House. p. 164. ISBN 978-81-7835-910-6
* ^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma,
Chhattisgarh ka Itihas (A History of
Chhattisgarh – in Hindi),
Hindi Granth Academy,
Bhopal (M.P.), 4th edition (2003), p.7
* ^ http://naidunia.jagran.com/search/chhattisgarh-highest-peak.
Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. "
Chhattisgarh Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh".
Chhattisgarhonline.in. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010.
Retrieved 29 August 2011.
* ^ "South East Central Railways". South East Central Railway.
Retrieved 23 May 2013.
* ^ "Department of Commerce & Industry Chhattisgarh". Government of
Chhattisgarh. Archived from the original on 15 July 2013. Retrieved 23
* ^ "Proposed new rail line to bring Mumbai, Kolkata closer".
Business Standard. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
* ^ PTI. "
Chhattisgarh govt to form JV firm with railway ministry".
http://www.livemint.com/. External link in work= (help )
* ^ Bagchi, Suvojit (8 November 2012). "Pranab hopes Raipur
airport’s new terminal will support Chhattisgarh’s growth".
The Hindu . Retrieved 22 April 2013.
* ^ "Chhattisgarh\'s second airport worth Rs 2,800 million in
Raigarh soon". The Times of
India . 24 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July
* ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central
India by Professor S.K.
* ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India: by Professor
S.K. Tiwari p.163
* ^ Tribal Roots of
Hinduism by Shiv Kumar Tiwari p.209
* ^ A B C D "Prithak Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 4
July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ "Chhattisgarh". Office of the Registrar General and Census
Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
* ^ Gandhi, Ankita; et al. (2011).
India Human Development Report
2011: Towards Social Inclusion (1st ed.). New Delhi: Institute of
Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Govt. of India. ISBN
978-0-19-807758-9 . Retrieved 26 October 2015. first2= missing
last2= in Authors list (help )
* ^ A B "Indicus Analytics: The real dirty picture".
Business-standard.com. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
* ^ Archived 5 May 2013 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Completed Roads(CGRRDA)". cgrrda.gov.in.
* ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance
India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
* ^ "States Census 2011". Census of India. Ministry of Finance
India. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
* ^ "NCW Report, page 4" (PDF). National Commission of Women,
Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2009.
Retrieved 22 August 2010.
* ^ A B "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of
India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
* ^ "Dark Spell". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ A B C "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with
Witchcraft". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
Release International magazine Jan Feb 2017 page 5-7
Census 2011, Ministry of Home Affair, India. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ "Social Structure in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original
on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ "Panthi Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Pandawani". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Rawat Nacha Traditions". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Raut nacha". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Rawat nacha mahotsva". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Suwa Dance". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012.
Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Arts and Culture of Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original
on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ "Karma Tribal Dance in India". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
* ^ Oudhia, P. (1999)
Chhattisgarh farmer's response on control of
weeds in direct seeded rice. Agril. Sci. Digest. 19(4): 261-263.
* ^ Das, G.K. and Oudhia, P. (2001).
Rice as medicinal plant in
Chhattisgarh (India): A survey. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21(3):204-205.
* ^ Oudhia, P. (2002). Rice-Acorus intercropping: A new system
developed by innovative farmers of
Chhattisgarh (India). International
Rice Research Notes (IRRN).27(1):56.
* ^ "Chhattisgarh". mapsofindia.com.
* ^ "Which of the following district is called as the "
Rice Bowl of
Andhra Pradesh" ?". gktoday.in.
* ^ "Chhattisgarh\'s GDP growth highest in 2009–10". Retrieved 22
* ^ A B C "Agriculture in Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original
on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ "
Economy of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ A B C http://nhm.nic.in/ActionPlan/ActionPlan_Chhattisgarh.pdf
* ^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Allelopathic effects of Lantana camara L. on
germination of soybean. Legume Research 22(4): 273-274.
* ^ Oudhia, P. (2000). Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects
of some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of
pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). Research on Crops. 1 (1):116-118.
* ^ Oudhia, P. (2001). Stimulatory allelopathic effects of Ageratum
conyzoides L. on soybean. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21 (1):55-56.
* ^ A B "Power Sector in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* ^ A B "Industries in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011.
* Books on
* ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़
की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ
Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली
6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8 )
* ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़
की पूर्व रियासतें और
प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5 )
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के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
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