The CHAIRMAN (also CHAIRPERSON, CHAIRWOMAN or CHAIR) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board , a committee , or a deliberative assembly . The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. In some organizations, this position is also called president (or other title), in others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions.
* 1 Terminology * 2 Usage * 3 Vice chairman and deputy chairman
* 4 Public corporations
* 5 Duties at meetings * 6 Powers and authority * 7 Disciplinary procedures * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading
Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson, chairwoman, presiding officer, president, moderator , facilitator, and convenor. The chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker .
The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist . It is commonly used today, and has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658-9, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
In his 1992
State of the Union address
In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives , is frequently titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate , is commonly chaired by a President.
The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the
office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere.
During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and
is also referred to as "the chair".
In the British music hall tradition, the
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from "chair" (a seat or office of authority) and "man", a person. Some authorities, however, including Riddick\'s Rules of Procedure , suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus ("hand"), and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
"Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when
socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership
labels and stressed the collective control of soviets (councils or
committees) by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as
VICE CHAIRMAN AND DEPUTY CHAIRMAN
A vice-chairman or deputy chairman, subordinate to the chairman, is sometimes chosen to assist the chairman and to serve as chairman in the absence of the chairman, or when a motion involving the chairman is being discussed. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have both titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs but only a single deputy chair. This type of deputy chairman title on its own usually has only an advisory role and not an operational one (such as Ted Turner at Time Warner).
An unrelated definition of vice chair and deputy chair describes an
executive who is higher ranking or has more seniority than an
executive vice president (EVP). Sometimes, EVPs report to a vice
chair, who in turn reports directly to the chief executive officer
(CEO) (so vice chairs in effect constitute an additional layer of
management), while other vice chairs have more responsibilities but
are otherwise on an equal tier with EVPs. Executives with the title
vice chair and deputy chair are usually not members of the board of
Royal Bank of Canada
There are three common types of chairman in public corporations.
CHAIRMAN AND CEO
* Executive chairman – An office separate from that of CEO, where
the titleholder wields influence over company operations, such as
Larry Ellison of Oracle ,
Douglas Flint of
* Non-executive chairman – also a separate post from the CEO, unlike an executive chairman, a non-executive chairman does not interfere in day-to-day company matters. Across the world, many companies have separated the roles of chairman and CEO, often resulting in a non-executive chairman, saying that this move improves corporate governance.
The non-executive chairman's duties are typically limited to matters directly related to the board, such as:
* Chairing the meetings of the board. * Organizing and coordinating the board's activities, such as by setting its annual agenda. * Reviewing and evaluating the performance of the CEO and the other board members.
Many U.S. companies have an executive chairman, and this method of organization is sometimes called the American model. Having a non-executive chair is common in the United Kingdom and Canada, and is sometimes called the British model. Expert opinion is rather evenly divided over which is the preferable model overall.
DUTIES AT MEETINGS
As Chairman, Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson presides over the 2016 annual meeting of the Friends of the Ulriksdal Palace Theater .
In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings. Such duties at meetings include:
* calling the meeting to order * determining if a quorum is present * announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up * recognition of members to have the floor * enforcing the rules of the group * putting all questions (motions ) to a vote * adjourning the meeting
While presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote (i.e. the chairman cannot vote twice and cannot override the decision of the group unless the organization has specifically given the chairman such authority).
POWERS AND AUTHORITY
The powers of the chairman vary widely across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors , and still others the chairman has no executive powers and is mainly a spokesman for the organization. The amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, and the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the chairman may face disciplinary procedures. Such procedures may include censure , suspension, or removal from office . The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done. Usually, whoever appointed or elected the chairman has the power to discipline this officer.
Board of directors
* ^ A B C Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert\'s Rules of Order
Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 22. ISBN
* ^ Robert 2011 , p. 448
* ^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary
Procedure (Fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 163. ISBN
* ^ Hellinger, Marlis, ed. (2001). Gender across languages: The
Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (IMPACT: Studies in
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* ^ "Chairperson". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
* ^ A B Sturgis 2001 , p. 11
* ^ "moderator".
Chambers 21st Century Dictionary via Search
Chambers Harrap .
* ^ Although convener means someone who summons (convenes) a
meeting, the convener may take the chair. The Oxford English
Dictionary (2nd edition 1989) offers this citation: 1833 Act 3–4
Will. IV, c. 46 §43 "The convener, who shall preside at such
committee, shall be entitled to a casting vote." This meaning is most
commonly found in assemblies with Scottish heritage.
* ^ "Speeches: The many roles of the Speaker". Office of the
Parliament of New Zealand . 2006-02-01.
* ^ "About Parliament: The Lord Speaker". Parliament of the United
Kingdom . Archived from the original on 2008-06-09. Retrieved
2008-10-23. ... responsibilities of the Lord Speaker include chairing
the Lords debating chamber,...
* ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2010). Sex and society Volume
1: Abstinence - Gender Identity. New York: Marshall Cavendish
Reference. p. 300. ISBN 0-7614-7906-6 .
* ^ A B "Chairman". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006.
* ^ Zinsser, William (2007). On writing well : the classic guide to
writing nonfiction (30. anniversary ed., 7. ed., rev. and updated,
ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 81. ISBN 0-06-089154-8 .
* ^ "Chairperson". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006.
* ^ Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Springfield,
Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 1993. p. 235. ISBN 0-87779-132-5 .
* ^ Romaine, Suzanne (1999). Communicating gender. Mahwah, NJ :
Erlbaum. p. 309. ISBN 0-8058-2925-3 .
* ^ Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (2000). The Handbook of Nonsexist
Writing (For writers, editors and speakers) (2nd ed.). Lincoln, NE:
iUniverse.com. p. 32. ISBN 0-595-15921-4 .
* ^ editor, Paul R. Martin, style (2003). Essential guide to
business style and usage. New York: Free Press. p. 41. ISBN
* ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William G. (2001). The New York
Times manual of style and usage (Rev. and expanded ed., 1st pbk. ed.).
New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8129-6389-X .
* ^ Martin, Harold; international, Bruce Cook; United press (2004).
UPI style book & guide to newswriting (4 ed.). Sterling (Virginie):
Capital Books. p. 43. ISBN 1-931868-58-1 .
* ^ Quinn, Simon (2009). Debating in the World Schools style: a
guide. New York: International Debate Education Association. p. 5.
ISBN 1-932716-55-6 .
* ^ England, Stephen R. Covey, Larry H. Freeman, Breck.
FranklinCovey style guide for business and technical communication
(5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: FT Press. p. 27. ISBN
* ^ Gurung, Beth M. Schwartz, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A.R. An
easyguide to APA style. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p.
54. ISBN 1-4129-9124-2 .
* ^ Garner, Bryan A. (2000). The Oxford dictionary of American
usage and style (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 61. ISBN
* ^ Robert 2011 , p. 23
* ^ Baker, Richard Anthony (2014). British Music Hall: An
Illustrated History. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. p. 207. ISBN
* ^ See also the American Heritage Dictionary, the Oxford English
Dictionary, the online edition of the current Merriam-Webster
Dictionary, Word Origins by Anatoly Liberman (page 88),
Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage (page 235)
* ^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2012-07-24). Stalin: The Murderous Career of
the Red Tsar. Arcturus Publishing (published 2012). ISBN
978-1-84858-951-3 . Retrieved 2015-02-25. Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky,
Molotov and Abel Yenukidze began discussing the structure of the new
government. Lenin did not want to have 'ministers' as such, so Trotsky
suggested that they should be called 'Peoples' Commissars'. The
government itself would be the 'Council of People's Commissars' and
its chairman would be prime minister, in effect.
* ^ Brackman, Roman (2004). The Secret
Look up CHAIR , CHAIRMAN , CHAIRWOMAN , CHAIRPERSON , or PRESIDE in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
* Trohan, Colette Collier (2014). A Great Meeting Needs A Great Chair. A Great Meeting, Inc. ASIN B00NP7BR8O .
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History of parliamentary procedure
Principles of parliamentary procedure
* Call for the orders of the day * Raise a question of privilege * Recess * Adjourn * Fix the time to which to adjourn
* Point of order * Appeal * Suspend the rules * Objection to the consideration of a question * Division of a question * Consideration by paragraph or seriatim * Division of the assembly * Motions relating to methods of voting and the polls * Motions relating to nominations * Request to be excused from a duty * Requests and inquiries (Parliamentary inquiry , Request for information , Request for permission to withdraw or modify a motion , Request to read papers , Request for any other privilege )
Motions that bring a question again before the assembly
* Take from the table * Rescind, repeal, annul or amend something previously adopted * Discharge a committee * Reconsider
* Robert\'s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) * The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (TSC or Sturgis) * Demeter\'s Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure * Riddick\'s Rules of Procedure * Mason\'s Manual of Legislative Procedure * Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice * Bourinot\'s Rules of Order * Beauchesne\'s Parliamentary Rules and Forms * M