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The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion.[1] When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. In some organizations, this position is also called president (or other title),[2][3] in others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Usage 3 Vice chairman and deputy chairman 4 Public corporations

4.1 Chairman
Chairman
and CEO 4.2 Executive chairman 4.3 Non-executive chairman 4.4 Examples

5 Duties at meetings 6 Powers and authority 7 Disciplinary procedures 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

Terminology[edit] Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson, chairwoman, presiding officer, president, moderator, facilitator, and convenor.[4][5][6][7][8] The chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker.[9][10] The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist.[11][12][13][14] It is commonly used today, and has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
dated 1658-9, only four years after the first citation for chairman.[15] Usage[edit] In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star
Toronto Star
newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", and to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman". The Chronicle of Higher Education
Chronicle of Higher Education
uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times.[16] The National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using "chairperson".[17] The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International
United Press International
all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, and forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations.[18][19][20] In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair".[21] The FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".[22][23] The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to men and to women.[24] In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is frequently titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is commonly chaired by a President. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere.[1] During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is also referred to as "the chair".[1] Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. (or Madam) Chairman (or Chair or Chairperson)" rather than using a name - one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach.[6][25] In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman
Chairman
was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience. The role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman
Chairman
on the variety show The Good Old Days.[26] Major dictionaries state that the word derives from "chair" (a seat or office of authority) and "man", a person.[12][27] Some authorities, however, including Riddick's Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus ("hand"), and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word. "Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets (councils or committees) by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as " Chairman
Chairman
of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as " Chairman
Chairman
of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR".[28][29] Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: " Chairman
Chairman
Mao" (officially: Chairman
Chairman
of the Communist Party of China and Chairman
Chairman
of the Central Military Commission). Vice chairman and deputy chairman[edit] A vice-chairman or deputy chairman, subordinate to the chairman, is sometimes chosen to assist the chairman[30] and to serve as chairman in the absence of the chairman, or when a motion involving the chairman is being discussed.[31] In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting.[32] In some organizations that have both titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs but only a single deputy chair.[33] This type of deputy chairman title on its own usually has only an advisory role and not an operational one (such as Ted Turner
Ted Turner
at Time Warner).[34] An unrelated definition of vice chair and deputy chair describes an executive who is higher ranking or has more seniority than an executive vice president (EVP). Sometimes, EVPs report to a vice chair, who in turn reports directly to the chief executive officer (CEO) (so vice chairs in effect constitute an additional layer of management), while other vice chairs have more responsibilities but are otherwise on an equal tier with EVPs. Executives with the title vice chair and deputy chair are usually not members of the board of directors. The Royal Bank of Canada
Royal Bank of Canada
previously used "deputy chair" (i.e. Anthony S. Fell, Deputy Chairman
Chairman
of RBC, who was also Chairman and CEO of RBC Dominion Securities) and "vice chair" (i.e. Peter Currie, Vice Chairman
Chairman
and Chief Financial Officer) in their inner management circle until 2004. Public corporations[edit] There are three common types of chairman in public corporations. Chairman
Chairman
and CEO[edit]

Chairman
Chairman
and CEO – The CEO may also hold the title of chairman, in which case the board frequently names an independent member of the board as a lead director.

Executive chairman[edit]

Executive chairman – An office separate from that of CEO, where the titleholder wields influence over company operations, such as Larry Ellison of Oracle, Douglas Flint
Douglas Flint
of HSBC
HSBC
and Steve Case
Steve Case
of the former AOL Time Warner. In particular, the group chairmanship of HSBC
HSBC
is considered the top position of that institution, outranking the chief executive, and is responsible for leading the board and representing the company in meetings with government figures. Prior to the creation of the group management board in 2006, HSBC's chairman essentially held the duties of a chief executive at an equivalent institution, while HSBC's chief executive served as the deputy. After the 2006 reorganization, the management cadre ran the business, while the chairman oversaw the controls of the business through compliance and audit and the direction of the business.[35][36][37]

Non-executive chairman[edit]

Non-executive chairman – also a separate post from the CEO, unlike an executive chairman, a non-executive chairman does not interfere in day-to-day company matters. Across the world, many companies have separated the roles of chairman and CEO, often resulting in a non-executive chairman, saying that this move improves corporate governance.

The non-executive chairman's duties are typically limited to matters directly related to the board, such as:[38]

Chairing the meetings of the board. Organizing and coordinating the board's activities, such as by setting its annual agenda. Reviewing and evaluating the performance of the CEO and the other board members.

Examples[edit] Many U.S. companies have an executive chairman, and this method of organization is sometimes called the American model. Having a non-executive chair is common in the United Kingdom and Canada, and is sometimes called the British model. Expert opinion is rather evenly divided over which is the preferable model overall.[39] Companies with both an executive chairman and a CEO include Ford,[40] HSBC,[41] Google,[42] HP,[43] and Apple.[44] Duties at meetings[edit]

As Chairman, Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson
Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson
presides over the 2016 annual meeting of the Friends of the Ulriksdal Palace Theater.

In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.[45] Such duties at meetings include:

calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions (motions) to a vote adjourning the meeting

While presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.[46] In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result.[47] At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote (i.e. the chairman cannot vote twice and cannot override the decision of the group unless the organization has specifically given the chairman such authority).[48] Powers and authority[edit] The powers of the chairman vary widely across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, and still others the chairman has no executive powers and is mainly a spokesman for the organization. The amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, and the rules it has created for itself. Disciplinary procedures[edit] If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the chairman may face disciplinary procedures. Such procedures may include censure, suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.[49] Usually, whoever appointed or elected the chairman has the power to discipline this officer. See also[edit]

Board of directors European corporate law Executive director German company law Non-executive director Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary procedure
in the corporate world President (corporate title) United Kingdom company law United States corporate law

References[edit]

^ a b c Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order
Robert's Rules of Order
Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5.  ^ Robert 2011, p. 448 ^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (Fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-07-136513-0.  ^ Hellinger, Marlis, ed. (2001). Gender across languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society). Amsterdam: Benjamins. p. 125. ISBN 90-272-1841-2.  ^ "Chairperson". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2014-01-10.  ^ a b Sturgis 2001, p. 11 ^ "moderator". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary via Search Chambers. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap.  ^ Although convener means someone who summons (convenes) a meeting, the convener may take the chair. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(2nd edition 1989) offers this citation: 1833 Act 3–4 Will. IV, c. 46 §43 "The convener, who shall preside at such committee, shall be entitled to a casting vote." This meaning is most commonly found in assemblies with Scottish heritage. ^ "Speeches: The many roles of the Speaker". Office of the Speaker, Parliament of New Zealand. 2006-02-01.  ^ "About Parliament: The Lord Speaker". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2008-10-23. ... responsibilities of the Lord Speaker include chairing the Lords debating chamber,...  ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2010). Sex and society Volume 1: Abstinence - Gender Identity. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference. p. 300. ISBN 0-7614-7906-6.  ^ a b "Chairman". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-22.  ^ Zinsser, William (2007). On writing well : the classic guide to writing nonfiction (30. anniversary ed., 7. ed., rev. and updated, [Nachdr.] ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 81. ISBN 0-06-089154-8.  ^ "Chairperson". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-27.  ^ Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 1993. p. 235. ISBN 0-87779-132-5.  ^ Romaine, Suzanne (1999). Communicating gender. Mahwah, NJ [u.a.]: Erlbaum. p. 309. ISBN 0-8058-2925-3.  ^ Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (2000). The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (For writers, editors and speakers) (2nd ed.). Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.com. p. 32. ISBN 0-595-15921-4.  ^ editor, Paul R. Martin, style (2003). Essential guide to business style and usage. New York: Free Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-7432-2724-7.  ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William G. (2001). The New York Times manual of style and usage (Rev. and expanded ed., 1st pbk. ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8129-6389-X.  ^ Martin, Harold; international, Bruce Cook; United press (2004). UPI style book & guide to newswriting (4 ed.). Sterling (Virginie): Capital Books. p. 43. ISBN 1-931868-58-1.  ^ Quinn, Simon (2009). Debating in the World Schools style: a guide. New York: International Debate Education Association. p. 5. ISBN 1-932716-55-6.  ^ England, Stephen R. Covey, Larry H. Freeman, Breck. FranklinCovey style guide for business and technical communication (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: FT Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-13-309039-6.  ^ Gurung, Beth M. Schwartz, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A.R. An easyguide to APA style. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p. 54. ISBN 1-4129-9124-2.  ^ Garner, Bryan A. (2000). The Oxford dictionary of American usage and style (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-19-513508-3.  ^ Robert 2011, p. 23 ^ Baker, Richard Anthony (2014). British Music Hall: An Illustrated History. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-78383-118-0.  ^ See also the American Heritage Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary, the online edition of the current Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Word Origins by Anatoly Liberman (page 88), Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage (page 235) ^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2012-07-24). Stalin: The Murderous Career of the Red Tsar. Arcturus Publishing (published 2012). ISBN 978-1-84858-951-3. Retrieved 2015-02-25. [...] Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Molotov and Abel Yenukidze [...] began discussing the structure of the new government. Lenin did not want to have 'ministers' as such, so Trotsky suggested that they should be called 'Peoples' Commissars'. The government itself would be the 'Council of People's Commissars' and its chairman would be prime minister, in effect.  ^ Brackman, Roman (2004). The Secret File
File
of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-135-75840-0. On 26 October 1917 Lenin announced the creation of the 'Council of People's Commissars', having rejected the traditional title of 'minister' as being too 'bourgeois', and named himself the ' Chairman
Chairman
of the Council'.  ^ "vice-chairman". dictionary.com.  ^ Robert 2011, p. 452 ^ Robert 2011, p. 453 ^ "Leadership". Rbccm.com. Retrieved 8 October 2017.  ^ " Ted Turner
Ted Turner
quits as AOLTW Vice Chairman
Chairman
- TV News". Digital Spy. 2003-01-29. Retrieved 2011-12-31.  ^ HSBC
HSBC
investors against Michael Geoghegan becoming chairman. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-08-22. ^ HSBC
HSBC
chief Michael Geoghegan 'to quit' after failing to get top job. News.com.au (2010-09-24). Retrieved on 2013-08-22. ^ HSBC
HSBC
ex-chief Michael Geoghegan relaxes as another marathon looms. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-08-22. ^ Kefgen, Keith (2004-05-11). "The Non-Executive Chairman
Chairman
Comes of Age". HVS web site. HVS. Retrieved 2011-04-03.  ^ Behan, Beverly (10 January 2008). "Splitting the Chairman
Chairman
and CEO roles". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2011-04-03.  ^ "Board of Directors". Ford Motor Company. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-04-05.  ^ "Board of Directors". HSBC. Retrieved 2011-04-05.  ^ " Management
Management
Team". Google. Retrieved 2011-04-05.  ^ "HP Investor Relations - Board of directors". Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved 2011-09-24.  ^ "Apple - Press Info". Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
Retrieved 2014-11-06.  ^ Robert 2011, p. 449 ^ Robert 2011, p. 44: "The presiding officer must never interrupt a speaker simply because he knows more about the matter than the speaker does." ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 1)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order
Robert's Rules of Order
Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12. Retrieved 2015-12-17.  ^ Robert 2011, p. 406 ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 20)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order
Robert's Rules of Order
Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12. Retrieved 2015-12-24. 

Further reading[edit]

Look up chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson, or preside in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikidata
Wikidata
has the property: chairperson (P488) (see talk; uses)

Trohan, Colette Collier (2014). A Great Meeting
Meeting
Needs A Great Chair. A Great Meeting, Inc. ASIN B00NP7BR8O. 

v t e

Corporate titles

Chief officers

Administrative Analytics Audit Brand Business Channel Commercial Chief communications Compliance Content Creative Data Design Digital Diversity Executive (CEO) Experience Financial Human resources Information Information security Innovation Investment Knowledge Learning Legal Marketing Medical Networking Operating Privacy Procurement Product Quality Research Restructuring Revenue Risk Science Security Strategy Sustainability Technology Visionary Web

Senior executives

Chairman Chief managing director Creative director Development director General counsel Executive director Non-executive director President Vice president

Mid-level executives

General manager Divisional manager Regional manager

First-level executives

Departmental manager Manager

Related topics

Board of directors Corporate governance Executive pay Senior management Supervisory board Talent management

v t e

Parliamentary procedure

Major concepts

History of parliamentary procedure Principles of parliamentary procedure Deliberative assembly Committee Session Quorum Chair Floor Recognition Motion Second Debate Main motion Order of business Minutes Voting methods in deliberative assemblies Majority Unanimous consent

Subsidiary motions

Postpone indefinitely Amend Commit Postpone to a certain time Limit or extend limits of debate Previous question Cloture Lay on the table

Privileged motions

Call for the orders of the day Raise a question of privilege Recess Adjourn Fix the time to which to adjourn

Incidental motions

Point of order Appeal Suspend the rules Objection to the consideration of a question Division of a question Consideration by paragraph or seriatim Division of the assembly Motions relating to methods of voting and the polls Motions relating to nominations Request to be excused from a duty Requests and inquiries (Parliamentary inquiry, Request for information, Request for permission to withdraw or modify a motion, Request to read papers, Request for any other privilege)

Motions that bring a question again before the assembly

Take from the table Rescind, repeal, annul or amend something previously adopted Discharge a committee Reconsider

Legislative procedures

Call of the house Hoist Motion to pass on Recall of Parliament

Disciplinary procedures

Censure Declare the chair vacant Impeach Naming

Parliamentary authorities

Robert's Rules of Order
Robert's Rules of Order
Newly Revised (RONR) The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure
The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure
(TSC or Sturgis) Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure Riddick's Rules of Procedure Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice Bourinot's Rules of Order Beauchesne's Parliamentary Rules and Forms Morin code A

.