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The ceremonial counties,[2] also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England,[3] are areas of England
England
to which a Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
is appointed. Legally the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997
Lieutenancies Act 1997
as counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain, in contrast to the areas used for local government. They are also informally known as geographic counties,[4] as often representing more permanent features of English geography, and to distinguish them from counties of England
England
which have a present-day administrative function.

Contents

1 History 2 Shrieval counties 3 Definition

3.1 Ceremonial counties since 1997

4 Lieutenancy areas in 1890 5 See also 6 References 7 Notes 8 External links

History[edit]

Ceremonial counties before the creation of Greater London
Greater London
in 1965 (showing counties corporate as part of the main counties)

The distinction between a county for purposes of the Lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one: in some cases a county corporate that was part of a county was appointed its own Lieutenant (although the Lieutenant of the containing county would often be appointed to this position as well), and the three Ridings of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had been treated as three counties for Lieutenancy purposes since the 17th century. The Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
established county councils to assume the administrative functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called "administrative counties".[5] An administrative county comprised all of the county apart from the county boroughs: also some traditional subdivisions of counties were constituted administrative counties, for instance the Soke of Peterborough
Peterborough
in Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
and the Isle of Ely
Isle of Ely
in Cambridgeshire. The Act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, which was made both an administrative county and a "county"; it included parts of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts (and later urban districts and municipal boroughs) were not permitted to straddle county boundaries. Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided nevertheless continued to exist as ceremonial counties. For example, the administrative counties of East Suffolk
East Suffolk
and West Suffolk, along with the county borough of Ipswich, were considered to make up a single ceremonial county of Suffolk, and the administrative county of the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
was part of the ceremonial county of Hampshire. The term "ceremonial county" is an anachronism—at the time they were shown on Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
maps as "counties" or "geographical counties", and were referred to in the Local Government Act 1888 simply as "counties". Apart from minor boundary revisions (for example, Caversham, a town in Oxfordshire, becoming part of Reading county borough and thus of Berkshire, in 1911), these areas changed little until the 1965 creation of Greater London
Greater London
and of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which resulted in the abolition of the offices of Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of Middlesex, Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of the County of London, and Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
and the creation of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London
Greater London
and of the Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of Huntingdon and Peterborough.

Ceremonial counties from 1974 to 1996 ( City of London
City of London
not shown)

In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, and a major reform was instituted. At this time, Lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties directly. Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester, and Humberside
Humberside
were abolished. This led to a resurrection of a distinction between the local government counties and the ceremonial or geographical counties used for Lieutenancy, and also to the adoption of the term "ceremonial counties", which although not used in statute was used in the House of Commons before the arrangements coming into effect.[6] The County of Avon
County of Avon
that had been formed in 1974 was mostly split between Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and Somerset, but its city of Bristol
Bristol
regained the status of a county in itself, which it had lost upon the formation of Avon. Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Worcestershire. Humberside
Humberside
was split between Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland
Rutland
was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as "unitary authorities"; this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county. Most ceremonial counties are therefore entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974. The Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries, as nearly as practicable. Shrieval counties[edit] In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, each with a high sheriff appointed (except the City of London which has its two sheriffs). Definition[edit] The Lieutenancies Act 1997
Lieutenancies Act 1997
defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties (created by the Local Government Act 1972, as amended) as well as Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
(which lie outside the 1972 Act's new system). Although the term is not used in the Act, these counties are sometimes known as "ceremonial counties". The counties are defined in Schedule 1, paragraphs 2–5[7] as amended[8] (most recently in 2009[9]) — these amendments have not altered the actual areas covered by the counties as set out in 1997, only their composition in terms of local government areas, as a result of structural changes in local government.[N 1] Ceremonial counties since 1997[edit]

Northumberland Durham Lancashire Cheshire Derbs. Notts. Lincolnshire Leics. Staffs. Shropshire Warks. Northants. Norfolk Suffolk Essex Herts. Beds. Bucks. Oxon. Glos. Somerset Wiltshire Berkshire Kent Surrey Hampshire Dorset Devon Cornwall Heref. Worcs. Bristol East Riding of Yorkshire Rutland Cambs. Greater London Not shown: City of London Tyne & Wear Cumbria North Yorkshire South Yorks. West Yorkshire Greater Manc. Merseyside East Sussex West Sussex Isle of Wight West Midlands

The following are the 48 ceremonial counties of England, as presently defined:

Bedfordshire, consisting of Bedford, Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Luton Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire, including Milton Keynes Cambridgeshire, including Peterborough Cheshire, consisting of Cheshire
Cheshire
East, Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, Halton and Warrington City of London[N 2] Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly Cumbria Derbyshire, including Derby Devon, including Plymouth
Plymouth
and Torbay Dorset, including Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Poole Durham, including Darlington, Hartlepool, and Stockton-on-Tees north of the River Tees East Riding of Yorkshire, including Kingston-upon-Hull East Sussex, including Brighton and Hove Essex, including Southend-on-Sea
Southend-on-Sea
and Thurrock Gloucestershire, including South Gloucestershire Greater London, excluding the City of London Greater Manchester Hampshire, including Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Southampton Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent, including Medway Lancashire, including Blackburn with Darwen, and Blackpool Leicestershire, including Leicester Lincolnshire, including North Lincolnshire, and North East Lincolnshire Merseyside Norfolk North Yorkshire, including Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, York, and Stockton-on-Tees south of the River Tees Northamptonshire Northumberland Nottinghamshire, including Nottingham Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire, including Telford and Wrekin Somerset, including Bath and North East Somerset
Somerset
and North Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire, including Stoke-on-Trent Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire, including Swindon Worcestershire

Lieutenancy areas in 1890[edit]

Northumberland Durham Lancashire Cheshire Derbs. Notts. Lincolnshire Leics. Staffs. Shropshire Warks. Northants. Norfolk Suffolk Essex Herts. Beds. Bucks. Oxon. Glos. Somerset Wiltshire Berkshire Kent Surrey Hampshire Dorset Devon Cornwall Heref. Worcs. Rutland Cambs. Hunts. London Middx. Not shown: City of London Cumberland Westmorland Sussex Yorkshire East Riding North Riding West Riding

Bedfordshire Berkshire Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire, including Isle of Ely Cheshire

held jointly with Chester

Cornwall Cumberland Derbyshire Devon

held jointly with Exeter

Dorset

held jointly with Poole

Durham Essex Gloucestershire

held jointly with Gloucester
Gloucester
and Bristol

Hampshire

held jointly with Southampton

Herefordshire Hertfordshire Huntingdonshire Kent

held jointly with Canterbury

Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire

held jointly with Lincoln

City of London, having commissioners of Lieutenancy County of London Middlesex Norfolk

held jointly with Norwich

Northamptonshire, including the Soke of Peterborough Northumberland

held jointly with Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
and Newcastle upon Tyne

Nottinghamshire

held jointly with Nottingham

Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset Staffordshire

held jointly with Lichfield

Suffolk Surrey Sussex Warwickshire Westmorland Wiltshire Worcestershire

held jointly with Worcester

Yorkshire—had three Lieutenants, one for each of the three ridings

East Riding, held jointly with Kingston upon Hull North Riding West Riding, held jointly with York

See also[edit]

Counties of England Historic counties of England Counties of the United Kingdom Lieutenancy areas of Scotland List of ceremonial counties of England List of local governments in the United Kingdom Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics Preserved counties of Wales

References[edit]

^ [Table 2 2011 Census: Usual resident population and population density, local authorities in the United Kingdom UK Census 2011 UK usual resident population Greater London
Greater London
excluding City of London], Accessed 22 December 2012 ^ "Ceremonial and Historic county boundary data added to OS OpenData". www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk.  ^ "Lieutenancies Act 1997". www.legislation.gov.uk.  ^ e.g. Encyclopædia Britannica ^ " Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
s.1" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 29 Feb 1996 (pt 8) Archived March 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Text of the Lieutenancies Act 1997
Lieutenancies Act 1997
– Schedule 1: Counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk Last accessed:2011-05-03 ^ Text of the Lord-Lieutenants – The Local Government Changes for England
England
(Lord-Lieutenants and Sheriffs) Order 1997 as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk Last accessed:2011-05-03 ^ Text of The Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009 (SI 2009/837) as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk Last accessed:2011-05-03

Notes[edit]

^ For example, Cheshire
Cheshire
was prior to the 2009 structural changes to local government defined as the non-metropolitan counties of Cheshire, Halton & Warrington; the non-metropolitan county of Cheshire
Cheshire
on 1 April that year split into the non-metropolitan counties of Cheshire East, Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, and Schedule 1 of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 was duly amended to take into account these changes to local government within the ceremonial county. ^ Because the City of London
City of London
has a Commission of Lieutenancy rather than a single Lord Lieutenant, it is treated as a county for some but not all purposes of the Lieutenancy Act. (Schedule 1 paragraph 4)

External links[edit]

Text of the Lieutenancies Act 1997
Lieutenancies Act 1997
as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk

v t e

1974–1996 ←   Ceremonial counties of England   → current

Bedfordshire Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire

v t e

Administrative geography of the United Kingdom

United Kingdom local government

History Subdivisions: Shrievalties Lieutenancy areas Counties (list)

England
England
local government

History Subdivisions: Regions Ceremonial counties

list

Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan counties Unitary authorities (list) Districts (list) Civil parishes (list)

Northern Ireland local government

History Subdivisions: Counties Districts

Scotland local government

History Subdivisions: Sheriffdoms Lieutenancy areas Council areas Community council areas Civil parishes

Wales local government

History Subdivisions: Preserved counties Principal areas Communities (list) Historic counties

v t e

Subdivisions of England

Region

Regions NUTS 1 statistical regions of England

Ceremonial County

Ceremonial County

Administrative County

Metropolitan County Non-Metropolitan County Greater London

District

Metropolitan Borough Non-Metropolitan District London Borough

Unitary Authority

Unitary Authority

Sui-Generis

City of London Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish<

.