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 Abkhazia Artsakh South Ossetia

Autonomous republics and federal regions

 Russia

 Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai

 Georgia

 Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile)

 Azerbaijan

Nakhchivan

Demonym Caucasian

Time Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30

The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of Europe
Europe
and Asia, situated between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.[2] A less common definition includes also portions of northwestern Iran
Iran
and northeastern Turkey.[3][4][5] It is home to the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which acts as a natural barrier separating Eastern Europe
Europe
from Western Asia, the latter including the Transcaucasia, Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
and Anatolia
Anatolia
regions. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
mountain range. The Caucasus
Caucasus
region is separated between northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
(Ciscaucasus) and Transcaucasus (South Caucasus), respectively. The Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and partially recognized Republic of Artsakh. The region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, and Northeast Caucasian
Northeast Caucasian
families are indigenous to the area.

Contents

1 Toponymy

1.1 Endonyms and exonyms

2 Political geography 3 Demographics 4 History

4.1 Prehistory 4.2 Antiquity 4.3 Middle Ages 4.4 Modern period 4.5 Mythology

5 Ecology 6 Energy
Energy
and mineral resources 7 Tourism 8 Sport 9 Cuisine 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External links

Toponymy[edit] Pliny the Elder's Natural History (77–79 AD) derives the name of the Caucasus
Caucasus
from Scythian kroy-khasis ("ice-shining, white with snow").[6] German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis also means "ice".[7][8] In the Tale of Past Years (1113 AD), it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы (Kavkasijskyě gory) came from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Καύκασος (Kafkasos),[9] which, according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" (καύ-: καύαξ, καύηξ, ηκος ο, κήξ, κηϋξ "a kind of seagull" + the reconstructed *κάσος η "mountain" or "rock" richly attested both in place and personal names.)[10] According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Καύκασος (Kafkasos) is connected to Gothic Hauhs ("high") as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas ("hillock") and Kaukarà ("hill, top").[11][9] British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- also means "mountain" in Pelasgian.[12] The Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus
region and southern Dagestan
Dagestan
were the furthest points of Parthian and later Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
range practically impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region, making the Caucasus
Caucasus
the highest limit of the world. It was also noted that in Nakh Ков гас (Kov gas) means "gateway to steppe"[13]

Mount Elbrus

Endonyms and exonyms[edit] The modern name for the region is usually similar in the many languages, and is generally between Kavkaz and Kawkaz.

Abkhazian: Кавказ Kavkaz Adyghe: Къаукъаз/с Kʺaukʺaz/s Azerbaijani: Qafqaz Arabic: القوقاز‎ al-Qawqāz Armenian: Կովկաս Kovkas Avar: Кавказ Kawkaz Chechen: Кавказ Kavkaz Georgian: კავკასია K'avk'asia German: Kaukasien Greek: Καύκασος Káfkasos Hebrew: קווקז‎ Qavqaz Ingush: Кавказ Kawkaz Karachay-Balkar: Кавказ Kavkaz Kurdish: Qefqasya/Qefqas‎ Lak: Ккавкказ Kkawkkaz Lezgian: Къавкъаз K'awk'az Mingrelian: კავკაცია K'avk'acia Ossetian: Кавказ Kavkaz Persian: قفقاز‎ Qafqāz Russian: Кавказ Kavkaz Rutul: Qawqaz Kavkaz Turkish: Kafkaslar/Kafkasya Ukrainian: Кавказ Kavkaz Armenian: Կովկասը Kovkasy

Political geography[edit] The North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region is commonly known as the Transcaucasus.

Political map of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region (2008)

The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
mountain range. It consists of Southern Russia, mainly the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, and the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea
Black Sea
to its west, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to its east, and borders the Southern Federal District to its north. The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus
borders the Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
range and Southern Russia
Russia
to its north, the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Turkey
Turkey
to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, and Iran
Iran
to its south. It contains the Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus
mountain range and surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(excluding the northernmost parts) and Georgia (excluding the northernmost parts) are in the South Caucasus. The watershed along the Greater Caucasus
Greater Caucasus
range is generally perceived to be the dividing line between Europe
Europe
and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus
Caucasus
is Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
(5,642 meters) located in western Ciscaucasus, and is considered as the highest point in Europe. The Caucasus
Caucasus
is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth.[citation needed] The nation states that comprise the Caucasus
Caucasus
today are the post-Soviet states Georgia (including Adjara), Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(including Nakhchivan), Armenia, and the Russian Federation. The Russian divisions include Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Adygea, Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognised as such by only a handful or by no independent UN countries: Artsakh, Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia. Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia
South Ossetia
are recognised by the majority of countries as part of Georgia, and Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan.

Chechnya's capital Grozny

Armenia's capital Yerevan

Georgia's capital Tbilisi

Azerbaijan's capital Baku

Demographics[edit]

Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region[14]

Main article: Peoples of the Caucasus Further information: Languages of the Caucasus The region has many different languages and language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region.[15] No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, and Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus. The peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus
Caucasus
tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians
Eastern Orthodox Christians
and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'ism
Twelver Shi'ism
has many adherents in the southeastern part of the region, in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
which extends into Iran. History[edit] Further information: History of the Caucasus Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran, and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the Caucasus
Caucasus
was usually incorporated into the Iranian world.[16] At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
conquered the territory from Qajar Iran.[16] Prehistory[edit]

Petroglyphs
Petroglyphs
in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, dating back to 10,000 BC. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

The territory of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era.[citation needed] In 1991, early human (that is, hominin) fossils dating back 1.8 million years were found at the Dmanisi archaeological site in Georgia. Scientists now classify the assemblage of fossil skeletons as the subspecies Homo erectus georgicus.[17] The site yields the earliest unequivocal evidence for presence of early humans outside the African continent;[18] and the Dmanisi skulls are the five oldest hominins ever found outside Africa, thereby doubling the presumed age of the human migration outside the continent.[19] Antiquity[edit]

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Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km, and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Southern Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria. Under Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(669–627 BC) the boundaries of the Assyrian Empire reached as far as the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains. Later ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis
Colchis
and Iberia, among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Media, the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, and the Sassanid Empire, who would altogether rule the Caucasus
Caucasus
for many hundreds of years. In 95–55 BC under the reign of Armenian king of kings Tigranes the Great, the Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
became an empire, growing to include: Kingdom of Armenia, vassals Iberia, Albania, Parthia, Atropatene, Mesopotamia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Syria, Nabataean kingdom, and Judea. By the time of the first century BC, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
had become the dominant religion of the region; however, the region would go through two other religious transformations. Owing to the strong rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region. Middle Ages[edit]

Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
at the peak of its might, early 13th century.

As the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia
Armenia
(an eponymous branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia) was the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion (in 301 AD), and Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
and Georgia had become Christian entities, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and pagan beliefs. With the Muslim conquest of Persia, large parts of the region came under the rule of the Arabs, and Islam penetrated into the region.[20] In the 10th century, the Alans
Alans
(proto-Ossetians)[21] founded the Kingdom of Alania, that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia
Circassia
and modern North Ossetia–Alania, until its destruction by the Mongol invasion
Mongol invasion
in 1238–39. During the middle ages Bagratid Armenia, Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget, Kingdom of Syunik
Kingdom of Syunik
and Principality of Khachen
Principality of Khachen
organized local Armenian population facing multiple threats after the fall of antique Kingdom of Armenia. Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
maintained close ties with Armenia
Armenia
and the Church of Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
shared same Christian dogmas with the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
and had a tradition of their Catholicos being ordained through the Patriarch of Armenia.[22] In the 12th century, the Georgian king David the Builder
David the Builder
drove the Muslims out from Caucasus
Caucasus
and made the Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
a strong regional power. In 1194–1204 Georgian Queen Tamar's armies crushed new Seljuk Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Seljuk Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia. The Georgian Kingdom continued military campaigns in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. As a result of her military campaigns and the temporary fall of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1204, Georgia became the strongest Christian state in the whole Near East
Near East
area, encompassing most of the Caucasus
Caucasus
stretching from Northern Iran
Iran
and Northeastern Turkey
Turkey
to the North Caucasus. The Caucasus
Caucasus
region was conquered by the Ottomans, Mongols, local kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Iran.

Etchmiadzin Cathedral
Etchmiadzin Cathedral
in Armenia, original building completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Svetitskhoveli Cathedral
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral
in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century. It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Northwest Caucasus
Caucasus
caftan, 8-10th century, from the region of Alania.

Modern period[edit] Up to including the early 19th century, the Southern Caucasus
Southern Caucasus
and southern Dagestan
Dagestan
all formed part of the Persian Empire. In 1813 and 1828 by the Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan
and the Treaty of Turkmenchay respectively, the Persians were forced to irrevocably cede the Southern Caucasus
Southern Caucasus
and Dagestan
Dagestan
to Imperial Russia.[23] In the ensuing years after these gains, the Russians took the remaining part of the Southern Caucasus, comprising western Georgia, through several wars from the Ottoman Empire.[24][25] In the second half of the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
also conquered the Northern Caucasus. In the aftermath of the Caucasian Wars, an ethnic cleansing of Circassians
Circassians
was performed by Russia
Russia
in which the indigenous peoples of this region, mostly Circassians, were expelled from their homeland and forced to move primarily to the Ottoman Empire.[26][27] In the 1940s, around 480,000 Chechens
Chechens
and Ingush, 120,000 Karachay– Balkars
Balkars
and Meskhetian Turks, thousands of Kalmyks, and 200,000 Kurds
Kurds
in Nakchivan and Caucasus Germans
Caucasus Germans
were deported en masse to Central Asia
Asia
and Siberia. About a quarter of them died.[28] The Southern Caucasus
Southern Caucasus
region was unified as a single political entity twice – during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic) from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and under the Soviet rule (Transcaucasian SFSR) from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, Georgia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Armenia
Armenia
became independent nations. The region has been subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994), the East Prigorodny Conflict
East Prigorodny Conflict
(1989–1991), the War in Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(1992–93), the First Chechen War
First Chechen War
(1994–1996), the Second Chechen War (1999–2009), and the 2008 South Ossetia
South Ossetia
War. Mythology[edit] In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
the Caucasus, or Kaukasos, was one of the pillars supporting the world. After presenting man with the gift of fire, Prometheus
Prometheus
(or Amirani
Amirani
in Georgian version) was chained there by Zeus, to have his liver eaten daily by an eagle as punishment for defying Zeus' wish to keep the "secret of fire" from humans. In Persian mythology
Persian mythology
the Caucasus
Caucasus
might be associated with the mythic Mount Qaf
Mount Qaf
which is believed to surround the known world. It is the battlefield of Saoshyant and the nest of the Simurgh. The Roman poet Ovid
Ovid
placed Caucasus
Caucasus
in Scythia
Scythia
and depicted it as a cold and stony mountain which was the abode of personified hunger. The Greek hero Jason
Jason
sailed to the west coast of the Caucasus
Caucasus
in pursuit of the Golden Fleece, and there met Medea, a daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis. Ecology[edit]

View of the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
in Dagestan, Russia

The Caucasus
Caucasus
is an area of great ecological importance. The region is included in the list of 34 world biodiversity hotspots.[29][30] It harbors some 6400 species of higher plants, 1600 of which are endemic to the region.[31] Its wildlife includes Persian leopards, brown bears, wolves, bison, marals, golden eagles and hooded crows. Among invertebrates, some 1000 spider species are recorded in the Caucasus.[32][33] Most of Arthropod biodiversity is concentrated on Great and Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
ranges.[33] The region has a high level of endemism and a number of relict animals and plants, the fact reflecting presence of refugial forests, which survived the Ice Age in the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains. The Caucasus
Caucasus
forest refugium is the largest throughout the Western Asian (near Eastern) region.[34][35] The area has multiple representatives of disjunct relict groups of plants with the closest relatives in Eastern Asia, southern Europe, and even North America.[36][37][38] Over 70 species of forest snails of the region are endemic.[39] Some relict species of vertebrates are Caucasian parsley frog, Caucasian salamander, Robert's snow vole, and Caucasian grouse, and there are almost entirely endemic groups of animals such as lizards of genus Darevskia. In general, species composition of this refugium is quite distinct and differs from that of the other Western Eurasian refugia.[35] The natural landscape is one of mixed forest, with substantial areas of rocky ground above the treeline. The Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
are also noted for a dog breed, the Caucasian Shepherd Dog (Rus. Kavkazskaya Ovcharka, Geo. Nagazi). Vincent Evans noted that minke whales have been recorded from the Black Sea.[40][41][42] Energy
Energy
and mineral resources[edit] Caucasus
Caucasus
has many economically important minerals and energy resources, such as alunite, gold, chromium, copper, iron ore, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tungsten, uranium, zinc, oil, natural gas, and coal (both hard and brown). Tourism[edit] Main articles: Caucasian Riviera, Sochi, and Derbent Sport[edit]

RusSki Gorki Jumping Center
RusSki Gorki Jumping Center
in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi

2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
venue, Sochi, Russia. Krasnaya Polyana — a popular centre of mountain skiing and a 2015 European Games
2015 European Games
snowboard venue. The first in the history of the European Games to be held in Azerbaijan. Mountain-skiing complexes:

Alpika-Service Mountain roundabout Rosa Hutor Tsaghkadzor Ski Resort in Armenia Shahdag Winter Complex
Shahdag Winter Complex
in Azerbaijan

The Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Grand Prix (motor racing) venue was the first in the history of Formula One to be held in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
The Rugby World Cup U20 (rugby) was in Georgia (country)
Georgia (country)
2017 Cuisine[edit] Main article: Caucasian cuisine See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal Europe
Europe
portal

Book: Caucasus

Khanates of the Caucasus Culture of Armenia Culture of Azerbaijan Culture of Georgia (country) Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Eastern Europe Eurasian Economic Union Islam
Islam
in Russia Prometheism Transcontinental nations Transcaucasia

References[edit]

^ Caucasus
Caucasus
in Encyclopedia Britannica ^ Caucasus
Caucasus
in Encyclopedia Britannica ^ Caucasus
Caucasus
in Encyclopedia Britannica ^ "Where Is the Caucasus?" ^ "The South Caucasus
Caucasus
Region by the Caspian Sea" ^ "Natural History," book six, chap. XVII ^ Kretschmer, Paul (1928). "Weiteres zur Urgeschichte der Inder" [More about the Pre-History of the Indians]. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen [Journal of Comparative Linguistic Research into Indo-European Philology] (in German). 55: 75–103.  ^ Kretschmer, Paul (1930). "Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen [Journal of Comparative Linguistic Research into Indo-European Philology]". 57: 251–255.  ^ a b Vasmer, Max Julius Friedrich (1953–1958). "Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch" [Russian Etymological Dictionary]. Indogermanische Bibliothek herausgegeben von Hans Krahe. Reihe 2: Wörterbüche [Indo-European Library Edited by Hans Krahe. Series 2: Dictionaries] (in German). 1. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.  ^ Yuyukin, M. A. (18–20 June 2012). "О происхождении названия Кавказ" [On the Origin of the Name of the Caucasus]. Индоевропейское языкознание и классическая филология – XVI (материалы чтений, посвященных памяти профессора И. М. Тронского) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. pp. 893–899 and 919. ISBN 978-5-02-038298-5. Retrieved 19 March 2017.  ^ Schrader, Otto (1901). Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde: Grundzüge einer Kultur- und Völkergeschichte Alteuropas [Real Lexicon of the Indo-Germanic Antiquity Studies: Basic Principles of a Cultural and People's History of Ancient Europe] (in German). Strasbourg: Karl J. Trübner.  ^ Room, Adrian (1997). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities, and Historic Sites. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-0172-7.  ^ Bolatojha J. "Древняя родина Кавкасов [The Ancient Homeland of the Caucasus]", p. 49, 2006. ^ "ECMI – European Centre For Minority Issues Georgia". ecmicaucasus.org.  ^ "Caucasian peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ a b Multiple Authors. " Caucasus
Caucasus
and Iran". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2012-09-03.  ^ Derbyshire, David (9 September 2009). "Ancient Skeletons Discovered in Georgia Threaten to Overturn the Theory of Human Evolution". Mail Online. Georgia may have been the cradle of the first Europeans...Archaeologists now believe that our ancestors left for Europe
Europe
at least 1.8 million years ago, before returning to Africa
Africa
and developing into Homo Sapiens...The Dmanisi bones may have belonged to an early Homo erectus which lived in Georgia before moving on to the rest of Europe.  ^ Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Rightmire, G. P., Agusti, J., Ferring, R., Maisuradze, G., et al. (2002). A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Science, 297:85–9. ^ Perkins, Sid (2013). "Skull suggests three early human species were one". nature.com. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13972.  ^ Hunter, Shireen; et al. (2004). Islam
Islam
in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security. M.E. Sharpe. p. 3. (..) It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam
Islam
first appeared in Russia
Russia
because the lands that Islam
Islam
penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia
Russia
at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire. Islam
Islam
reached the Caucasus
Caucasus
region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire.   ^ "Яндекс.Словари". yandex.ru.  ^ "Caucasian Albanian Church celebrates its 1700th Anniversary". The Georgian Church for English Speakers. 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia
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at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728–730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014. ISBN 978-1598849486 ^ Suny, page 64 ^ Allen F. Chew. "An Atlas of Russian History: Eleven Centuries of Changing Borders", Yale University Press, 1970, p. 74 ^ Yemelianova, Galina, Islam
Islam
nationalism and state in the Muslim Caucasus. Caucasus
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Survey, April 2014. p. 3 ^ Memoirs of Miliutin, "the plan of action decided upon for 1860 was to cleanse [ochistit'] the mountain zone of its indigenous population", per Richmond, W. The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, and Future. Routledge. 2008. ^ Weitz, Eric D. (2003). A century of genocide: utopias of race and nation. Princeton University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0-691-00913-9.  ^ Zazanashvili N, Sanadiradze G, Bukhnikashvili A, Kandaurov A, Tarkhnishvili D. 2004. Caucasus. In: Mittermaier RA, Gil PG, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermaier CG, Lamoreux J, da Fonseca GAB, eds. Hotspots revisited, Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Sierra Madre: CEMEX/Agrupacion Sierra Madre, 148–153 ^ "WWF – The Caucasus: A biodiversity hotspot". panda.org.  ^ "Endemic Species of the Caucasus".  ^ "A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus". Caucasian Spiders. Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2010.  ^ a b Chaladze, G.; Otto, S.; Tramp, S. (2014). "A spider diversity model for the Caucasus
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Ecoregion". Journal of Insect Conservation. 18 (3): 407–416. doi:10.1007/s10841-014-9649-1.  ^ van Zeist W, Bottema S. 1991. Late Quaternary vegetation of the Near East. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ^ a b Tarkhnishvili, D.; Gavashelishvili, A.; Mumladze, L. (2012). "Palaeoclimatic models help to understand current distribution of Caucasian forest species". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 105: 231. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01788.x.  ^ Milne RI. 2004. "Phylogeny and biogeography of Rhododendron subsection Pontica, a group with a Tertiary relict distribution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 389–401. ^ Kikvidze Z, Ohsawa M. 1999. "Adjara, East Mediterranean refuge of Tertiary vegetation". In: Ohsawa M, Wildpret W, Arco MD, eds. Anaga Cloud Forest, a comparative study on evergreen broad-leaved forests and trees of the Canary Islands and Japan. Chiba: Chiba University Publications, 297–315. ^ Denk T, Frotzler N, Davitashvili N. 2001. "Vegetational patterns and distribution of relict taxa in humid temperate forests and wetlands of Georgia Transcaucasia". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72: 287–332. ^ Pokryszko B, Cameron R, Mumladze L, Tarkhnishvili D. 2011. "Forest snail faunas from Georgian Transcaucasia: patterns of diversity in a Pleistocene refugium". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 102: 239–250 ^ The Status of Cetaceans in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Mediterranean Sea ^ Horwood, Joseph (1989). Biology and Exploitation of the Minke Whale. p. 27.  ^ "Current knowledge of the cetacean fauna of the Greek Seas" (pdf). 2003: 219–232. Retrieved 2016-04-21. 

http://site.rugby.ge/ka-ge/news-view/?newsid=4416&callerModID=17364 Sources[edit]

Caucasus: A Journey to the Land Between Christianity and Islam, by Nicholas Griffin Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, by Svante E. Cornell The Caucasus, by Ivan Golovin Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994). The Making of the Georgian Nation (2nd ed.). Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20915-3.  de Waal, Thomas (2010). The Caucasus: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-539977-3  Coene, Frederick (2009). The Caucasus: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-48660-6 

Further reading[edit]

Nikolai F. Dubrovin. The history of wars and Russian domination in the Caucasus
Caucasus
(История войны и владычества русских на Кавказе). Sankt-Petersburg, 1871–1888, at Runivers.ru
Runivers.ru
in DjVu and PDF
PDF
formats. Gagarin, G. G. Costumes Caucasus
Caucasus
(Костюмы Кавказа). Paris, 1840, at Runivers.ru
Runivers.ru
in DjVu and PDF
PDF
formats. Gasimov, Zaur: The Caucasus, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: November 18, 2011. Rostislav A. Fadeev. Sixty years of the Caucasian War (Шестьдесят лет Кавказской войны). Tiflis, 1860, at Runivers.ru
Runivers.ru
in DjVu format. Kaziev Shapi. Caucasian highlanders (Повседневная жизнь горцев Северного Кавказа в XIX в.). Everyday life of the Caucasian Highlanders. The 19th Century (In the co-authorship with I. Karpeev). "Molodaya Gvardiy" publishers. Moscow, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caucasus.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Caucasus.

Articles and Photography on Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) from UK Photojournalist Russell Pollard Information for travellers and others about Caucasus
Caucasus
and Georgia Caucasian Review of International Affairs—an academic journal on the South Caucasus BBC News: North Caucasus
North Caucasus
at a glance, 8 September 2005 United Nations Environment Programme map: Landcover of the Caucasus United Nations Environment Programme map: Population density of the Caucasus Food Security in Caucasus
Caucasus
(FAO) Caucasus
Caucasus
and Iran
Iran
entry in Encyclopædia Iranica University of Turin-Observatory on Caucasus Circassians
Circassians
Caucasus
Caucasus
Web (Turkish) Georgian Biodiversity Database (checklists for ca. 11,000 plant and animal species)

Coordinates: 42°15′40″N 44°07′16″E / 42.26111°N 44.12111°E / 42.26111; 44.12111

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Countries and regions of the Caucasus

   

 Abkhazia1  Adjara  Adygea  Armenia  Artsakh1

 Azerbaijan  Chechnya  Dagestan  Georgia

 Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria  Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai

Nakhchivan  North Ossetia-Alania  South Ossetia1  Stavropol Krai

1 Partially-recognized states

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold
Gold
Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25551

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