The CASHEW TREE ( Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew nut and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields.
The species is originally native to northeastern Brazil. Portuguese
The cashew nut, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter . The shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications including lubricants, waterproofing, paints, and arms production, starting in World War II. The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liquor.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Habitat and growth
* 5 Nutrition
* 6 Cashew oil
* 7.1 Alcohol
* 8 Traditional medicine * 9 Animal feed * 10 See also * 11 Further reading * 12 References * 13 External links
Mameluca woman under a fruiting cashew tree (1641-44)
Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of
the cashew tree caju (Portuguese pronunciation: ), which itself is
derived from the
Tupian word acajú, literally meaning "nut that
produces itself". The generic name Anacardium, originally from the
Greek, refers to the unusual location of the seed outside the core or
heart of the fruit (ana- means "again" or "backward" and -cardium
means "heart"). A mid-seventeenth century ethnographic painting by
HABITAT AND GROWTH
' Anacardium occidentale', from Koehler's 'Medicinal-Plants' (1887)
The cashew tree is large and evergreen , growing to 14 m (46 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4–22 cm (1.6–8.7 in) long and 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) broad, with smooth margins. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm (10 in) long; each flower is small, pale green at first, then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7–15 mm (0.28–0.59 in) long. The largest cashew tree in the world covers an area around 7,500 m2 (81,000 sq ft); it is located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte , Brazil.
The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit (sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit). What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium , that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as marañón, it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long. It is edible and has a strong "sweet" smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. In Latin America, a fruit drink is made from the cashew apple pulp which has a very refreshing taste and tropical flavor that can be described as having notes of mango, raw green pepper, and just a little hint of grapefruit-like citrus. Flower of cashew tree Cashew tree
The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple. Within the true fruit is a single seed , which is often considered a nut , in the culinary sense. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid , a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil urushiol which is also a toxin found in the related poison ivy . Properly roasting cashews destroys the toxin, but it must be done outdoors as the smoke (not unlike that from burning poison ivy) contains urushiol droplets which can cause severe, sometimes life-threatening, reactions by irritating the lungs. People who are allergic to cashew (or poison ivy) urushiols may cross-react to mango or pistachio which are also in the Anacardiaceae family. Some people are allergic to cashews, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than tree nuts or peanuts.
CASHEW NUT AND SHELL
Young cashew seeds Cashews as a snack
Culinary uses for cashew seeds in snacking and cooking are similar to those for all tree seeds called nuts.
In the 21st century, cashew cultivation increased in several African countries to meet the demands for manufacturing cashew milk , a plant milk alternative to dairy milk .
The shell of the cashew nut contains oil compounds which may cause
contact dermatitis similar in severity to that of poison ivy,
primarily resulting from the phenolic lipids , anacardic acid , and
cardanol . Due to the possible dermatitis, cashews are typically not
sold in the shell to consumers. Readily and inexpensively extracted
from the waste shells, cardanol is under research for its potential
applications in nanomaterials and biotechnology .
CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION (AS KERNELS) - 2015
Country Production (tonnes)
Côte d\'Ivoire 171,111
Source: Nuts and Dried Fruits, Global Statistical Review, 2015
In 2015, global production of cashew nuts (as the kernel ) was
738,861 tonnes , led by
In 2014, rapid growth of cashew cultivation in Côte d\'Ivoire made this country the top African exporter. Fluctuations in world market prices, poor working conditions, and low pay for local harvesting have caused discontent in the cashew nut industry.
Cashews, raw NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
ENERGY 553 kcal (2,310 kJ)
CARBOHYDRATES 30.19 g
STARCH 0.74 g
SUGARS LACTOSE 5.91 g 0.00 g
DIETARY FIBER 3.3 g
FAT 43.85 g
SATURATED 7.783 g
MONOUNSATURATED 23.797 g
POLYUNSATURATED 7.845 g
PROTEIN 18.22 g
VITAMIN A 0 IU
THIAMINE (B1) (37%) 0.423 mg
RIBOFLAVIN (B2) (5%) 0.058 mg
NIACIN (B3) (7%) 1.062 mg
PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5) (17%) 0.86 mg
VITAMIN B6 (32%) 0.417 mg
FOLATE (B9) (6%) 25 μg
VITAMIN B12 (0%) 0 μg
VITAMIN C (1%) 0.5 mg
VITAMIN D (0%) 0 μg
VITAMIN E (6%) 0.90 mg
VITAMIN K (32%) 34.1 μg
CALCIUM (4%) 37 mg
COPPER (110%) 2.2 mg
IRON (51%) 6.68 mg
MAGNESIUM (82%) 292 mg
MANGANESE (79%) 1.66 mg
PHOSPHORUS (85%) 593 mg
POTASSIUM (14%) 660 mg
SELENIUM (28%) 19.9 μg
SODIUM (1%) 12 mg
ZINC (61%) 5.78 mg
WATER 5.20 g
------------------------- Link to USDA Database entry
* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database
In a 100-gram serving, raw cashews provide 553 Calories , 67% of the Daily Value (DV) in total fats, 36% DV of protein , 13% DV of dietary fiber and 11% DV of carbohydrates (table). Cashews are rich sources (> 19% DV) of dietary minerals , including particularly copper, manganese , phosphorus , and magnesium (79-110% DV), and of thiamin , vitamin B6 and vitamin K (32-37% DV) (table). Iron, potassium , zinc , and selenium are present in significant content (14-61% DV) (table). Cashews (100 grams, raw) contain 113 milligrams (1.74 gr) of beta-sitosterol .
For some 5% of people, cashews can lead to complications or allergic reactions which may be life-threatening. These allergies are triggered by the proteins found in tree nuts, and cooking often does not remove or change these proteins. Reactions to cashew and tree nuts can also occur as a consequence of hidden nut ingredients or traces of nuts that may inadvertently be introduced during food processing, handling, or manufacturing, particularly in Europe.
Cashew oil is a dark yellow oil for cooking or salad dressing pressed from cashew nuts (typically broken chunks created during processing). This may be produced from a single cold pressing.
CASHEW SHELL OIL
* Cold, solvent-extracted CNSL is mostly composed of anacardic acids
(70%), cardol (18%) and cardanol (5%).
* Heating CNSL decarboxylates the anacardic acids, producing a
technical grade of CNSL that is rich in cardanol.
These substances are skin allergens, like the oils of poison ivy, and present danger during manual cashew processing.
This natural oil phenol has been found to have interesting chemical structural features which enable a range of chemical modifications to create a wide spectrum of biobased monomers capitalizing on the chemically versatile construct, containing three different functional groups : the aromatic ring , the hydroxyl group , and the double bonds in the flanking alkyl chain. These can be split into key groups, used as polyols , which have recently seen a dramatic increase in demand for their biobased origin and key chemical attributes such as high reactivity, range of functionalities, reduction in blowing agents, and naturally occurring fire retardant properties in the field of ridged polyurethanes aided by their inherent phenolic structure and larger number of reactive units per unit mass.
CNSL may be used as a resin for carbon composite products. CNSL-based Novolac is another versatile industrial monomer deriving from cardanol typically used as a reticulating agent for epoxy matrices in composite applications providing good thermal and mechanical properties to the final composite material.
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The cashew apple, also called cashew fruit, is the fleshy part of the cashew fruit attached to the cashew nut. The top end of the cashew apple is attached to the stem that comes off the tree. The bottom end of the cashew apple attaches to the cashew nut, which is encased in a shell. In botanical terms, the cashew apple is an accessory fruit that grows on the cashew seed (which is the nut).
The cashew apple can be eaten fresh, cooked in curries, or fermented
into vinegar, as well as an alcoholic drink. It is also used to make
preserves, chutneys, and jams in some countries such as
In Goa, the cashew apple is mashed and the juice extracted and kept for fermentation for a few days. Fermented juice then undergoes a double distillation process. The resulting beverage is called feni or fenny . Feni is about 40–42% alcohol. The single-distilled version is called urrac, which is about 15% alcohol.
In the southern region of
In Mozambique, cashew farmers commonly make a strong liquor from the cashew apple, agua ardente (burning water).
According to one source, an alcohol had been distilled in the early
20th century from the juice of the fruit, and was manufactured in the
In traditional Maya medicine, the leaves or bark of cashew trees can be made into a tea to treat diarrhea .
Discarded cashew nuts unfit for human consumption, alongside the residues of oil extraction from cashew kernels, can be used to feed livestock. Animals can also eat the leaves of cashew trees.
* Jostock, Carolyn. "
* ^ A B C D E F G Morton, Julia F (1987). "
* Handbook of Energy Crops – Anacardium