CARIA (/ˈkɛəriə/ ; from Greek : Καρία, Karia, Turkish :
Karya) was a region of western
Anatolia extending along the coast from
Mycale ) south to
Lycia and east to
Phrygia . The Ionian
and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian
population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of
Caria, known as
Carians , had arrived there before the Greeks. They
were described by Herodotos as being of Minoan descent, while the
Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders
intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the
Mysians and the
Lydians . The
Carians did speak an
Anatolian language , known as
Carian , which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin,
as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated
Carians were the
Leleges , which could be an earlier name for
Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and
continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly
* 1 Municipalities of
* 1.1 Coastal
* 1.2 Inland
* 2 History
* 2.1 Pre-Classical Greek states and people
* 2.2 Sovereign state hosting the Greeks
* 2.3 Lydian province
* 2.4 Persian satrapy
* 2.5 Macedonian empire
* 2.6 Roman-Byzantine province
* 2.7 Dissolution under the
Byzantine Empire and passage to Turkish
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes
* 5 Bibliography
* 6 Sources and external links
MUNICIPALITIES OF CARIA
Carian cities in white. This map depicts the current rivers and
coastline and certain features have changed over the years, notably
Miletus, Heracleia, and Myus were on the south side of a gulf and
Priene on the north side; the river
Maeander has since filled in the
gulf. Also politically Telmessos, Miletus, and Kalynda were sometimes
considered Carian and sometimes not
Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is
based entirely on ancient sources. The multiple names of towns and
geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic
layering consistent with the known colonization.
Caria begins with
Didyma south of
Miletus , but
been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. South of it is the Iassicus Sinus
Güllük Körfezi) and the towns of Iassus and
Bargylia , giving an
alternative name of Bargyleticus Sinus to
Güllük Körfezi, and
nearby Cindye, which the
Carians called Andanus . After
Caryanda or Caryinda, and then on the
Bodrum Peninsula Myndus
(Mentecha or Muntecha), 56 miles (90 km) from Miletus. In the vicinity
is Naziandus, exact location unknown.
On the tip of the
Bodrum Peninsula (Cape Termerium) is Termera
(Telmera, Termerea), and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus (Gökova
Körfezi ). It "was formerly crowded with numerous towns."
Halicarnassus , a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six
Carian towns: Theangela, Sibde,
Medmasa , Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum,
and Telmissus. These with
Myndus and Synagela (or Syagela or Souagela)
constitute the eight Lelege towns. Also on the north coast of the
Ceramicus Sinus is
Ceramus and Bargasus.
On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or
Triopium Promontory (
Cape Krio ), also called Doris after the Dorian
Cnidus . At the base of the peninsula (
Datça Peninsula ) is
Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia
Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Acanthus and Doulopolis
South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris"
Symi ), the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. There are three
bays in it: Bubassius, Thymnias and Schoenus, the last enclosing the
town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum,
and an island:
Elaeus or Elaeussa near
Loryma . On the south shore is
the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite
South of there is the
Rhodian Peraea , a section of the coast under
Rhodes . It includes
Loryma or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Gelos,
Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion (Cape
Marmorice) with Physicus, Amos , Physca or Physcus, also called Cressa
Marmaris ). Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River (
Dalyan River). On the
other side is Caunus (near Dalyan), with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos
Then follow some cities that some assign to
Lydia and some to Caria:
Calynda on the Indus River, Crya, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in
the Gulf of Glaucus (Katranci Bay or the Gulf of Makri ), the Glaucus
River being the border. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or
Lydae and Aenus.
At the base of the east end of
Latmus near Euromus, and near Milas
where the current village Selimiye is, was the district of Euromus or
Eurome, possibly Europus, formerly Idrieus and Chrysaoris (Stratonicea
). The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria; moreover, Euromus
was originally settled from
Lycia . Its towns are Tauropolis, Plarassa
and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated later into
Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Around
Stratonicea is also
Lagina or Lakena as well as Tendeba and Astragon.
Further inland towards
Alabanda , noted for its marble and
its scorpions , Orthosia, Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander
and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluence of the Maeander
and the Harpasus is
Harpasa (Arpaz). At the confluence of the Maeander
and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the
on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with
Gordiutichos ("Gordius' Fort") near
Geyre . Founded by the
called Ninoe it became Megalopolis ("Big City") and
sometime capital of Caria.
Other towns on the Orsinus are Timeles and Plarasa.
Tabae was at
various times attributed to Phrygia,
Caria and seems to have
been occupied by mixed nationals.
Caria also comprises the headwaters
of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the
small state of Cibyra .
PRE-CLASSICAL GREEK STATES AND PEOPLE
For more details on this topic, see
The name of
Caria also appears in a number of early languages:
Hittite Karkija (a member state of the
Assuwa league, c. 1250 BC),
Old Persian Kurka. According to
Herodotos, the legendary King Kar, son of Zeus and Creta, founded
Caria and named it after him, and his brothers Lydos and Mysos founded
Lydia and Mysia, respectively.
SOVEREIGN STATE HOSTING THE GREEKS
Archaeologists studying a Carian tomb in
Milas , Beçin.
Caria arose as a
Neo-Hittite kingdom around the 11th century BC
(Reference needed). The coast of
Caria was part of the Doric hexapolis
("six-cities") when the
Dorians arrived after the
Trojan War , in c.
13th century BC, in the last and southernmost waves of Greek migration
to western Anatolia's coastline and occupied former Mycenaean
settlements such us
Knidos and Halicarnassos (near present-day Bodrum
). Herodotus, the famous historian was born in
the 5th century BC. Greek apoikism (a form of colonization) in Caria
took place mostly on the coast, as well as in the interior in great
number, and groups of cities and towns were organized in local
Iliad records that at the time of the
Trojan War , the city
Miletus belonged to the Carians, and was allied to the Trojan
Lemprière notes that "As
Caria probably abounded in figs , a
particular sort has been called Carica, and the words In Care
periculum facere, have been proverbially used to signify the
encountering of danger in the pursuit of a thing of trifling value."
The region of
Caria continues to be an important fig-producing area to
this day, accounting for most fig production in Turkey, which is the
world's largest producer of figs.
The expansionism of
Croesus (560-546 BC) incorporated
Caria briefly into
Lydia before it fell before the Persian advance.
Caria was then incorporated into the Persian
Achaemenid Empire as a
satrapy (province) in 545 BC. The most important town was
Halicarnassus , from where its sovereigns reigned. Other major towns
were Latmus, refounded as Heracleia under
Latmus , Antiochia , Myndus
, Laodicea , Alinda and
Caria participated in the Ionian
Revolt (499–493 BC) against the Persian rule.
Second Persian invasion of Greece , the cities of Caria
were allies of Xerxes I and they fought at the Battle of Artemisium
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis .
Themistocles , before the battles of
Artemisium and Salamis, tried to split the
the Persian coalition. He told them to come and be on his side or not
to participate at the battles, but if they were bound down by too
strong compulsion to be able to make revolt, when the battles begin,
to be purposely slack. Plutarch in his work, The Parallel Lives, at
The Life of
Themistocles wrote that: "Phanias (Greek :
Φαινίας), writes that the mother of
Themistocles was not a
Thracian , but a Carian woman and her name was Euterpe
(Eυτέρπη), and Neanthes (Νεάνθης) adds that she was from
Halicarnassus in Caria.".
After the unsuccessful Persian invasion of Greece the cities of Caria
became members of the
Delian League .
Halicarnassus was the location of the famed Mausoleum dedicated to
Mausolus , a satrap of
Caria between 377–353 BC, by his wife,
Artemisia II of Caria . The monument became one of the Seven Wonders
of the Ancient World , and from which the Romans named any grand tomb
Caria was conquered by Alexander III of
Macedon in 334 BC with the
help of the former queen of the land
Ada of Caria who had been
dethroned by the Persian Empire and actively helped Alexander in his
Caria on condition of being reinstated as queen. After
their capture of Caria, she declared Alexander as her heir.
As part of the
Roman Empire the name of
Caria was still used for the
geographic region but the territory administratively belonged to the
province of Asia . During the administrative reforms of the 4th
century this province was abolished and divided into smaller units.
Caria became a separate province as part of the Diocese of Asia.
Christianity was on the whole slow to take hold in Caria. The region
was not visited by
St. Paul , and the only early churches seem to be
those of Laodicea and
Chonae ) on the extreme inland fringe
of the country, which itself pursued its pagan customs. It appears
that it was not until
Christianity was officially adopted in
Constantinople that the new religion made any real headway in Caria.
DISSOLUTION UNDER THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND PASSAGE TO TURKISH RULE
In the 7th century, Byzantine provinces were abolished and the new
military theme system was introduced. The region corresponding to
Caria was captured by the Turks under the
Menteşe Dynasty in
the early 13th century.
There are only indirect clues regarding the population structure
under the Menteşe and the parts played in it by Turkish migration
from inland regions and by local conversions, but the first Ottoman
Empire census records indicate, in a situation not atypical for the
region as a whole, a large Muslim (practically exclusively Turkish)
majority reaching as high as 99% and a non-Muslim minority
(practically exclusively Greek supplemented with a small Jewish
community in Milas) as low as one per cent. One of the first acts of
the Ottomans after their takeover was to transfer the administrative
center of the region from its millenary seat in
Milas to the then much
Muğla , which was nevertheless better suited for controlling
the southern fringes of the province. Still named Menteşe until the
early decades of the 20th century, the kazas corresponding to ancient
Caria are recorded by sources such as G. Sotiriadis (1918) and S.
Anagiostopoulou (1997) as having a Greek population averaging at
around ten per cent of the total, ranging somewhere between twelve and
eighteen thousand, many of them reportedly recent immigrants from the
islands. Most chose to leave in 1919, before the population exchange .
* ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Caria". Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* ^ A B The Histories, Book I Section 171.
* ^ Cramer (1832), pages 170-224.
* ^ Page 170.
* ^ Page 176.
Herodotus Histories Book 5: Terpsichore
Herodotus Histories Book 8: Urania
Themistocles By Plutarch "Yet Phanias writes that the mother of
Themistocles was not of Thrace, but of Caria, and that her name was
not Abrotonon, but Euterpe; and Neanthes adds farther that she was of
Halicarnassus in Caria."
* ^ Bean, George E. (2002). Turkey beyond the Maeander. London:
Frederick A. Praeger . ISBN 0-87471-038-3 .
* ^ Muhammet Yazıcı (2002). "XVI. Yüzyılda Batı Anadolu
Bölgesinde (Muğla, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli) Türkmen Yerleşimi ve
Demografik Dağılım (Turkmen Settlement and the Demographic
Distribution of Western
Anatolia in the 16th century), pp. 124-142 for
Menteşe Subprovince" (PDF).
Muğla University . Archived from the
original (PDF) on 4 March 2011.
* Bean, George E. (1971). Turkey beyond the Maeander. London:
Frederick A. Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3 .
* Cramer, J.A. (1832). Geographical and Historical Description of
Asia Minor; with a Map: Volume II. Oxford: University Press. Section X
Caria. Downloadable Google Books.
Herodotus (1910) . History of Herodotus. Trans. George Rawlinson
* Riet van Bremen, Jan-Mathieu Carbon (ed.), Hellenistic Karia:
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Hellenistic
Karia, Oxford, 29 June-2 July 2006 (Talence: Ausonius Editions, 2010).
* Lars Karlsson and Susanne Carlsson, Labraunda and Karia (Uppsala,
SOURCES AND EXTERNAL LINKS
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