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Caria
Caria
(/ˈkɛəriə/; from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Turkish: Karya) was a region of western Anatolia
Anatolia
extending along the coast from mid- Ionia
Ionia
(Mycale) south to Lycia
Lycia
and east to Phrygia.[1] The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotos as being of Minoan Greek descent,[2] while the Carians
Carians
themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians
Mysians
and the Lydians.[2] The Carians
Carians
did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread.[citation needed] Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians
Carians
or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Municipalities of Caria

1.1 Coastal Caria 1.2 Inland Caria

2 History

2.1 Pre-Classical Greek states and people 2.2 Sovereign state hosting the Greeks 2.3 Lydian province 2.4 Persian satrapy 2.5 Macedonian empire 2.6 Roman-Byzantine province 2.7 Dissolution under the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and passage to Turkish rule

3 See also 4 Notes 5 Bibliography 6 Sources and external links

Municipalities of Caria[edit]

Carian cities in white. This map depicts the current rivers and coastline and certain features have changed over the years, notably Miletus, Heracleia, and Myus were on the south side of a gulf and Priene on the north side; the river Maeander
Maeander
has since filled in the gulf. Also politically Telmessos, Miletus, and Kalynda were sometimes considered Carian and sometimes not

Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is based entirely on ancient sources.[3] The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic layering consistent with the known colonization. Coastal Caria[edit] Coastal Caria
Caria
begins with Didyma
Didyma
south of Miletus,[4] but Miletus
Miletus
had been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. South of it is the Iassicus Sinus ( Güllük
Güllük
Körfezi) and the towns of Iassus and Bargylia, giving an alternative name of Bargyleticus Sinus to Güllük
Güllük
Körfezi, and nearby Cindye, which the Carians
Carians
called Andanus. After Bargylia
Bargylia
is Caryanda or Caryinda, and then on the Bodrum
Bodrum
Peninsula Myndus (Mentecha or Muntecha), 56 miles (90 km) from Miletus. In the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown. On the tip of the Bodrum
Bodrum
Peninsula (Cape Termerium) is Termera (Telmera, Termerea), and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus (Gökova Körfezi). It "was formerly crowded with numerous towns."[5] Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmasa, Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum, and Telmissus. These with Myndus
Myndus
and Synagela (or Syagela or Souagela) constitute the eight Lelege towns. Also on the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus. On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory (Cape Krio), also called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus. At the base of the peninsula (Datça Peninsula) is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Acanthus and Doulopolis ("slave city"). South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris" (Gulf of Symi), the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. There are three bays in it: Bubassius, Thymnias and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum, and an island: Elaeus
Elaeus
or Elaeussa near Loryma. On the south shore is the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi. South of there is the Rhodian Peraea, a section of the coast under Rhodes. It includes Loryma
Loryma
or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Gelos, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion (Cape Marmorice) with Physicus, Amos, Physca or Physcus, also called Cressa (Marmaris). Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River ( Dalyan
Dalyan
River). On the other side is Caunus (near Dalyan), with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between. Then follow some cities that some assign to Lydia
Lydia
and some to Caria: Calynda on the Indus River, Crya, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus (Katranci Bay or the Gulf of Makri), the Glaucus River being the border. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or Lydae and Aenus. Inland Caria[edit] At the base of the east end of Latmus
Latmus
near Euromus, and near Milas where the current village Selimiye is, was the district of Euromus or Eurome, possibly Europus, formerly Idrieus and Chrysaoris (Stratonicea). The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria; moreover, Euromus was originally settled from Lycia. Its towns are Tauropolis, Plarassa and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated later into Mylasa. Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Around Stratonicea is also Lagina or Lakena as well as Tendeba and Astragon. Further inland towards Aydin
Aydin
is Alabanda, noted for its marble and its scorpions, Orthosia, Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander
Maeander
and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluence of the Maeander
Maeander
and the Harpasus is Harpasa (Arpaz). At the confluence of the Maeander
Maeander
and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeander
Maeander
and on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia, Gordiutichos ("Gordius' Fort") near Geyre. Founded by the Leleges and called Ninoe it became Megalopolis ("Big City") and Aphrodisias, sometime capital of Caria. Other towns on the Orsinus are Timeles and Plarasa. Tabae was at various times attributed to Phrygia, Lydia
Lydia
and Caria
Caria
and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals. Caria
Caria
also comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra. History[edit] Pre-Classical Greek states and people[edit] Further information: Carians The name of Caria
Caria
also appears in a number of early languages: Hittite Karkija (a member state of the Assuwa league, c. 1250 BC), Babylonian Karsa, Elamite
Elamite
and Old Persian
Old Persian
Kurka. According to Herodotos, the legendary King Kar, son of Zeus and Creta, founded Caria
Caria
and named it after him, and his brothers Lydos and Mysos founded Lydia
Lydia
and Mysia, respectively. Sovereign state hosting the Greeks[edit]

Archaeologists studying a Carian tomb in Milas, Beçin

Caria
Caria
arose as a Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
kingdom around the 11th century BC (Reference needed). The coast of Caria
Caria
was part of the Doric hexapolis ("six-cities") when the Dorians
Dorians
arrived after the Trojan War, in c. 13th century BC, in the last and southernmost waves of Greek migration to western Anatolia's coastline and occupied former Mycenaean settlements such us Knidos
Knidos
and Halicarnassos (near present-day Bodrum). Herodotus, the famous historian was born in Halicarnassus during the 5th century BC. Greek apoikism (a form of colonization) in Caria
Caria
took place mostly on the coast, as well as in the interior in great number, and groups of cities and towns were organized in local federations. Homer's Iliad
Iliad
records that at the time of the Trojan War, the city of Miletus
Miletus
belonged to the Carians, and was allied to the Trojan cause. Lemprière notes that "As Caria
Caria
probably abounded in figs, a particular sort has been called Carica, and the words In Care periculum facere, have been proverbially used to signify the encountering of danger in the pursuit of a thing of trifling value." The region of Caria
Caria
continues to be an important fig-producing area to this day, accounting for most fig production in Turkey, which is the world's largest producer of figs. Lydian province[edit] The expansionism of Lydia
Lydia
under Croesus
Croesus
(560-546 BC) incorporated Caria
Caria
briefly into Lydia
Lydia
before it fell before the Persian advance. Persian satrapy[edit] Caria
Caria
was then incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
as a satrapy (province) in 545 BC. The most important town was Halicarnassus, from where its sovereigns reigned. Other major towns were Latmus, refounded as Heracleia under Latmus, Antiochia, Myndus, Laodicea, Alinda and Alabanda. Caria
Caria
participated in the Ionian Revolt (499–493 BC) against the Persian rule.[6] During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the cities of Caria
Caria
were allies of Xerxes I and they fought at the Battle of Artemisium
Battle of Artemisium
and the Battle of Salamis. Themistocles, before the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, tried to split the Ionians
Ionians
and Carians
Carians
from the Persian coalition. He told them to come and be on his side or not to participate at the battles, but if they were bound down by too strong compulsion to be able to make revolt, when the battles begin, to be purposely slack.[7] Plutarch in his work, The Parallel Lives, at The Life of Themistocles
Themistocles
wrote that: "Phanias (Greek: Φαινίας), writes that the mother of Themistocles
Themistocles
was not a Thracian, but a Carian woman and her name was Euterpe (Eυτέρπη), and Neanthes (Νεάνθης) adds that she was from Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in Caria.".[8] After the unsuccessful Persian invasion of Greece the cities of Caria became members of the Delian League. Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
was the location of the famed Mausoleum dedicated to Mausolus, a satrap of Caria
Caria
between 377–353 BC, by his wife, Artemisia II of Caria. The monument became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and from which the Romans named any grand tomb a mausoleum. Macedonian empire[edit] Caria
Caria
was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon
Macedon
in 334 BC with the help of the former queen of the land Ada of Caria
Ada of Caria
who had been dethroned by the Persian Empire and actively helped Alexander in his conquest of Caria
Caria
on condition of being reinstated as queen. After their capture of Caria, she declared Alexander as her heir. Roman-Byzantine province[edit] As part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
the name of Caria
Caria
was still used for the geographic region but the territory administratively belonged to the province of Asia. During the administrative reforms of the 4th century this province was abolished and divided into smaller units. Caria became a separate province as part of the Diocese of Asia. Christianity
Christianity
was on the whole slow to take hold in Caria. The region was not visited by St. Paul, and the only early churches seem to be those of Laodicea and Colossae (Chonae) on the extreme inland fringe of the country, which itself pursued its pagan customs. It appears that it was not until Christianity
Christianity
was officially adopted in Constantinople
Constantinople
that the new religion made any real headway in Caria.[9] Dissolution under the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and passage to Turkish rule[edit] In the 7th century, Byzantine provinces were abolished and the new military theme system was introduced. The region corresponding to ancient Caria
Caria
was captured by the Turks under the Menteşe Dynasty
Menteşe Dynasty
in the early 13th century. There are only indirect clues regarding the population structure under the Menteşe and the parts played in it by Turkish migration from inland regions and by local conversions, but the first Ottoman Empire census records indicate, in a situation not atypical for the region as a whole, a large Muslim (practically exclusively Turkish) majority reaching as high as 99% and a non-Muslim minority (practically exclusively Greek supplemented with a small Jewish community in Milas) as low as one per cent.[10] One of the first acts of the Ottomans after their takeover was to transfer the administrative center of the region from its millenary seat in Milas
Milas
to the then much smaller Muğla, which was nevertheless better suited for controlling the southern fringes of the province. Still named Menteşe until the early decades of the 20th century, the kazas corresponding to ancient Caria are recorded by sources such as G. Sotiriadis (1918) and S. Anagiostopoulou (1997) as having a Greek population averaging at around ten per cent of the total, ranging somewhere between twelve and eighteen thousand, many of them reportedly recent immigrants from the islands. Most chose to leave in 1919, before the population exchange. See also[edit]

Ancient regions of Anatolia Carians Carian language Aphrodisias

Notes[edit]

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Caria". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b The Histories, Book I Section 171. ^ Cramer (1832), pages 170-224. ^ Page 170. ^ Page 176. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories Book 5: Terpsichore ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories Book 8: Urania [19,22] ^ Themistocles
Themistocles
By Plutarch "Yet Phanias writes that the mother of Themistocles
Themistocles
was not of Thrace, but of Caria, and that her name was not Abrotonon, but Euterpe; and Neanthes adds farther that she was of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in Caria." ^ Bean, George E. (2002). Turkey beyond the Maeander. London: Frederick A. Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3.  ^ Muhammet Yazıcı (2002). "XVI. Yüzyılda Batı Anadolu Bölgesinde (Muğla, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli) Türkmen Yerleşimi ve Demografik Dağılım (Turkmen Settlement and the Demographic Distribution of Western Anatolia
Anatolia
in the 16th century), pp. 124-142 for Menteşe Subprovince" (PDF). Muğla
Muğla
University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011. 

Bean, George E. (1971). Turkey beyond the Maeander. London: Frederick A. Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3.  Cramer, J.A. (1832). Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor; with a Map: Volume II. Oxford: University Press. Section X Caria.  Downloadable Google Books. Herodotus
Herodotus
(1910) [original c. 440 BC].  History of Herodotus. Trans. George Rawlinson. Wikisource. 

Bibliography[edit]

Riet van Bremen, Jan-Mathieu Carbon (ed.), Hellenistic Karia: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Hellenistic Karia, Oxford, 29 June-2 July 2006 (Talence: Ausonius Editions, 2010). (Etudes, 28). Lars Karlsson and Susanne Carlsson, Labraunda and Karia (Uppsala, 2011).

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caria.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Caria.

Livius.org: History and Culture of Ancient Caria Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Coins: ancient Greek and Roman coins from Caria Ancient Caria: In the garden of the sun, CANAN KÜÇÜKEREN, Hürriyet Daily News, 28 March 2011

Coordinates: 37°30′N 28°00′E / 37.5°N 28.0°E / 37.5; 28.0

v t e

History of Turkey

v t e

Provinces of the Achaemenid Empire (Behistun / Persepolis / Naqsh-e Rustam / Susa / Daiva
Daiva
inscriptions)

Amyrgoi Arabia Arachosia Aria Armenia Assyria Babylonia Bactria Cappadocia Caria Carmania Caucasian Albania Chorasmia Cilicia Colchis Dahae Drangiana 1st Egypt / 2nd Egypt Eber-Nari Elam Kusha (Nubia) Gandhara Gedrosia Hyrcania Ionia Hindush Libya Maka Margiana Media Lesser Media Massagetae Parthia Persia Phoenicia Phrygia

Hellespontine Phrygia Greater Phrygia

Saka Samaritan Province Lydia Sattagydia Thrace Sogdia Yehud

See also Districts of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(according to Herodotus)

v t e

Late Roman provinces
Roman provinces
(4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia I Raetia II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum mediterraneum Noricum ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus Nova Epirus Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia
Phrygia
Pacatiana Phrygia
Phrygia
Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia
Cappadocia
I5 Cappadocia
Cappadocia
II5 Galatia
Galatia
I5 Galatia
Galatia
II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia
Cilicia
I Cilicia
Cilicia
II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

v t e

Historical regions of Anatolia

Aeolis Bithynia Cappadocia Caria Cilicia Doris Galatia Ionia Lycaonia Lycia Lydia Mysia Pamphylia Paphlagonia Phrygia Pisidia Pontus Troad

v t e

Ancient Kingdoms of Anatolia

Bronze Age

Ahhiyawa Arzawa Assuwa league Carchemish Colchis Hatti Hayasa-Azzi Hittite Empire Isuwa Kaskia Kizzuwatna Lukka Luwia Mitanni Pala Wilusa/Troy

Iron Age

Aeolia Caria Cimmerians Diauehi Doris Ionia Lycia Lydia Neo-Hittites
Neo-Hittites
(Atuna, Carchemish, Gurgum, Hilakku, Kammanu, Kummuh, Quwê, Tabal) Phrygia Urartu

Classical Age

Antigonids Armenia Bithynia Cappadocia Cilicia Commagene Galatia Paphlagon

.