Cardinal JULES RAYMOND MAZARIN, DUKE OF RETHEL , MAYENNE AND NEVERS
(French: ; 14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born GIULIO RAIMONDO
MAZZARINO or MAZARINI, was an Italian cardinal , diplomat, and
politician, who served as the
Chief Minister to the kings of France
Mazarin succeeded his mentor,
Following the end of the Thirty Years’ War , Mazarin, as the de facto ruler of France, played a crucial role in establishing the Westphalian principles that would guide European states’ foreign policy and the prevailing world order. Some of these principles, such as the nation state's sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs and the legal equality among states, remain the basis of international law to this day.
* 1 Early life
* 2 Papal service
* 3 Serving under Richelieu
* 4 Chief minister of France
* 5 Policies as chief minister
* 6 The
* 7 Family connections
Mazarine blue colour
* 9 In fiction
* 10 Library and manuscripts
* 11 Things named after
He was born in
Pescina , then part of the
Kingdom of Naples
John Bargrave suggested that his father, Pietro
Mazzarini , had lost a significant amount of money during a business
transaction and was forced to flee to Rome. Regardless, Pietro was a
notary who made use of his connections to the
Mazarin studied at the
Mazarin followed Filippo I Colonna as captain of infantry in his regiment during the war in Monferrato of 1628, over the succession to Mantua. During this war he gave proofs of much diplomatic ability, and Pope Urban VIII entrusted him, in 1629, with the difficult task of putting an end to the war of the Mantuan succession.
The Emperor Ferdinand II , the duke of Savoy Charles Emmanuel I , and
Ferdinand II of Guastalla, the papal candidate for the duchy, were
In passing between the armed camps to achieve an accommodation, Mazarin detected the weakness of the Spanish general, the Marqués de Santa-Cruz, and perceived that he desired to come to terms without exposing his army to combat. By emphasizing French strengths in the Spanish camp, Mazarin effected the Treaty of Cherasco, 6 April 1631, in which the Emperor and the Duke of Savoy recognized the possession of Mantua and part of Monferrat by Charles Gonzaga and the French occupation of the strategic stronghold of Pinerolo , the gate to the valley of the Po, to the great satisfaction of Richelieu and the King of France. Richelieu was in particular impressed by the young man's resourceful ruses, and asked him to come to Paris, where he received him with great demonstrations of affection, promised him great things, and gave him a gold chain with the portrait of the King, some jewels, and a valuable ceremonial sword .
As papal vice-legate at
SERVING UNDER RICHELIEU
After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court (1634–36), he entered the service of France and made himself valuable to King Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, who brought him into the council of state. Richelieu, who felt the weight of his years, though he was as assiduous in the King's service as ever, detected in Mazarin a likely aide in carrying on government. He confided to the young man several sensitive missions, in which Mazarin acquitted himself well, then presented him to the King, who was well pleased with Mazarin.
Ever as deft at the gaming table as with diplomacy, one evening his
winnings were so great that a crowd gathered to see the stacks of gold
écus, attracting the attention of the Queen ; in her presence,
Mazarin risked all, and won. He attributed his winnings to the Queen's
presence, and in thanks, offered her fifty thousand écus. The Queen
demurred, Mazarin pressed, and she accepted. Several days later,
Mazarin quietly received a great deal more than he had given. Thus he
was affirmed in the favour of the King, the court and above all of
Anne of Austria
Mazarin sent to his father in
In 1640 Richelieu sent him to Savoy, where the regency of Christine , the Duchess of Savoy, and sister of Louis XIII, was disputed by her brothers-in-law, the princes Maurice and Thomas of Savoy, and he succeeded not only in firmly establishing Christine but in winning over the princes to France. This great service was rewarded by his promotion to the rank of cardinal on the presentation of the King of France in December 1641. Soon after, he returned to Rome.
CHIEF MINISTER OF FRANCE
His residence in
POLICIES AS CHIEF MINISTER
Mazarin continued Richelieu's anti-
Towards Protestantism at home, Mazarin pursued a policy of promises
and calculated delay to defuse the armed insurrection of the Ardèche
(1653), for example, and to keep the Huguenots disarmed: for six years
they believed themselves to be on the eve of recovering the
protections of the
Edict of Nantes
There was constant friction with the pontificate of the Spanish
Cardinal Pamphilj, elected Pope (15 September 1644) as Innocent X
Mazarin was not liked by ordinary Frenchmen. In Paris in 1648, popular discontent erupted into open violence. Paris was a city of about half a million people in the mid-seventeenth century. In 1644, Mazarin tried to prevent it growing further and to raise taxes by fining those who built houses outside the City Walls. This policy produced widespread resentment. The Fronde began in January 1648, when the Paris mob used children's slings (frondes) to hurl stones at the windows of Mazarin's associates.
Mazarin's continual need to raise money for the war against the Habsburgs provoked the troubles known as the Fronde of the Parlement. Mazarin proposed that the magistrates of the high courts forgo their salaries for a number of years; they were outraged, as was the parliament of Paris, because although its deputies' salaries were not threatened, Mazarin wanted to create new offices that would undermine its powers. The Parlement joined with other government bodies to demand various reforms. These included suppressing the intendants, reducing taxation, and forbidding all new taxes without the consent of the parliament, no imprisonment without trial, and limiting the creation of new offices of state. Anne and Mazarin responded by ordering the arrest of several deputies of the parliament, including the popular Pierre Broussel . The Paris mob rioted and built barricades in the streets, forcing the release of Broussel and the others. Renewed disturbances in Paris led Anne to take Louis and leave Paris. In March 1649, the government confirmed the Declaration of October , in return for which Paris and the Parlement laid down their weapons and allowed royal troops to return. However, Anne and Mazarin did not yet consider it safe for themselves or the king to return.
Many frondeurs had been unhappy with the compromise reached in 1649 and one of their leaders, Jean François Paul de Gondi , had been trying for some time to recruit Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé to their cause. Mazarin feared that an alliance between Condé and the Fronde was imminent. On 18 January 1650 Mazarin had Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti and his brother-in-law, Henri II d\'Orléans, duc de Longueville arrested. The agreements of 1649 had brought peace to Paris, but there was unrest in other parts of France where supporters and opponents of the government raised forces and disrupted tax collection and administration. The arrest of Condé provoked these areas to open revolt, as Condé's friends and allies spread out across the country recruiting forces to oppose Mazarin and liberate the princes. Condé's wife raised a revolt in Bordeaux, while his sister, and Henry de la Tour d’Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne raised troops and sought Spanish help against the government. Mazarin and Anne were strong militarily, but when the Condéans, the Fronde and the parlement allied and demanded the princes' release, their political position collapsed. In February 1651, Anne freed the princes while Mazarin, fearing the parliament's vengeance, fled to Cologne. The Prince of Condé, although a fine general, was an incompetent politician, who soon alienated nobles, parlement, and Parisians. In the Fall of 1651, Condé openly revolted against the crown. In July 1652 his troops entered Paris, but acted with such brutality that his cause lost credibility.
Although in exile, Mazarin had not been idle and had reached agreement with Turenne , a general as talented as Condé. Turenne's forces pursued Condé's, who in 1653 fled to the Spanish Netherlands. Louis XIV, now of age to claim his throne, re-entered Paris in October 1652 and recalled Mazarin in February 1653. The last vestiges of resistance in Bordeaux fizzled out in the late summer of 1653. The French people suffered terribly in the Fronde, but it achieved no constitutional reform. Royal absolutism was reinstalled without any effective limitation.
Niece Marie Anne Madame La Duchesse De Bouillon, 1670s.
Cardinal Mazarin's wealth (he collected benefices and amassed a huge fortune and a greater collection of art than the king's) and his nieces' beauty, made for notable family connections, marital and extramarital.
His three nieces Hortense , Marie , and Olympia , were famous for
their wit, their beauty and their freedom. Olympia was the mother of
Prince Eugene of Savoy . Hortense was also a mistress of
Charles II of England
MAZARINE BLUE COLOUR
* Mazarin is a major character in Alexandre Dumas ' novels Twenty
Years After and
Le Vicomte de Bragelonne . In them, Mazarin is
portrayed as greedy and devious, as well as the Queen's lover.
LIBRARY AND MANUSCRIPTS
The Bibliothèque Mazarine was initially the personal library of cardinal Mazarin, who was a great bibliophile. His first library, arranged by his librarian, Gabriel Naudé, was dispersed when he had to flee Paris during the Fronde.
He then began a second library with what was left of the first, assisted by the successor to Naudé, François de La Poterie. At his death he bequeathed his library, which he had opened to scholars since 1643, to the Collège des Quatre-Nations which he had founded in 1661.
Mazarin was also a manuscript collector:
THINGS NAMED AFTER CARDINAL MAZARIN
* ^ Georges Dethan, "Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal" in The New
Encyclopædia Britannica (15th edition, Chicago, 1991) vol. 7, p. 979.
Some sources give his surname as Mazzarini (with two z\'s), for
example Buelow 2004, p. 158. Mazarino is also a possible spelling
* ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre".
Pescina is now in the
Kingdom of France
* Amedeo Benedetti , Sul Breviario dei politici di Giulio Mazzarino, “Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali”, a. 79 (2012), fasc. 314, pp. 269–278. * Bonney, Richard. Society And Government In France Under Richelieu And Mazarin 1624-61 (Springer, 1988). * Buelow, George J. (2004). A history of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34365-9 . * Ekberg, Carl J. "Abel Servien, Cardinal Mazarin, and the Formulation of French Foreign Policy, 1653–1659." The International History Review 3.3 (1981): 317-329. * Garrett, Mitchell Bennett (1940), European history, 1500-1815, American Book Company * Hassall, Arthur. Mazarin (1903) * O'Connor, John T. (1978). Negotiator Out of Season: Career of Wilhelm Egon Von Furstenberg, 1629-1704. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0436-0 . * Perkins, James Breck (1886). France Under Mazarin (2 volumes). New York: Putnam. Vols. 1 ">A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF MAZARIN
* Media related to Jules
CATHOLIC CHURCH TITLES
Preceded by Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti ABBOT OF CLUNY 1654-1661 Succeeded by Rinaldo d\'Este
Preceded by Charles III Gonzaga DUKE OF NEVERS 1659–1661 Succeeded by Philippe Jules Mancini
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 17254063 * LCCN : n50078533 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2122 3121 * GND : 118579703 * SUDOC : 027400646 * BNF : cb121112687 (data) * ULAN : 500354043 * BNE : XX826512 * RKD : 431897 * IATH : w61v5krj
* v * t * e
Chief Ministers to the French Monarch