Cantopop (traditional Chinese: 粵語流行音樂; simplified Chinese:
粤语流行音乐, a contraction of "Cantonese pop music") or HK-pop
(short for "
Hong Kong pop music") is a genre of Cantonese music made
primarily in Hong Kong, and also used to refer to the cultural context
of its production and consumption. Originating in the 1970s,
Cantopop reached its height of popularity in the 1980s and 1990s
before its slow decline in the 2000s and slight revival in the 2010s.
The term "Cantopop" itself was coined in 1978 after "Cantorock", a
term first used in 1974. During its height,
Cantopop had spread
across countries in Asia with sizeable Chinese populations, namely
mainland China, Taiwan, Vietnam, South Korea, Japan, Singapore,
Malaysia and Indonesia.
Cantopop is influenced by international styles, including jazz, rock
and roll, rhythm and blues, electronic music, Western pop music and
Cantopop songs are almost invariably performed in Cantonese.
Boasting a multinational fanbase in Southeast Asian nations such as
Malaysia and Indonesia, as well as in the
Guangxi in mainland China, Hong Kong
remains the most significant hub of the genre. The most significant
figures in the
Cantopop industry include Paula Tsui, Samuel Hui, Roman
Jenny Tseng George Lam, Alan Tam, Leslie Cheung, Danny Chan,
Anita Mui, Chung Chun-to, The Wynners, Tat Ming Pair, Beyond, Dave
Wang, Priscilla Chan, Jacky Cheung, Andy Lau, Hacken Lee, Sandy Lam,
Faye Wong, Sally Yeh, Leon Lai, Aaron Kwok, Sammi Cheng, Kelly Chen,
Eason Chan, Nicholas Tse, Leo Ku, Joey Yung, Kay Tse,
Juno Mak and
Tang Tsz-kei, etc.
1.1 1920s to 1950s: Shanghai origins
1.2 1960s: Cultural acceptance
1.3 1970s: Rise of television and the modern industry
1.4 1980s: Beginning of the Golden Age
1.5 1990s: Four Heavenly Kings era
1.6 2000s: New era
2.1 Instruments and setups
Classical Chinese lyrics
2.2.2 Modern Chinese lyrics
2.3 Covers of foreign compositions
5.3 Bands & Groups
6 Major awards
Cantopop radio stations
8 See also
10 External links
1920s to 1950s: Shanghai origins
Western-influenced music first came to
China in the 1920s,
specifically through Shanghai. Artists like
Zhou Xuan (周璇)
acted in films and recorded popular songs. Zhou was possibly the first
Chinese pop star.
In 1949 when the People's Republic of
China was established by the
Communist Party, one of the first actions taken by the government was
to denounce pop music (specifically Western pop) as decadent music.
Beginning in the 1950s, massive waves of immigrants fled Shanghai to
North Point in Hong Kong. As a result, many first
Cantopop artists and composers hail from Shanghai.
1960s: Cultural acceptance
By the 1960s, Cantonese music in
Hong Kong was still limited largely
Cantonese opera and comic renditions of western music.
Tang Kee-chan (鄧寄塵), Cheng Kuan-min (鄭君綿), and Tam
Ping-man (譚炳文) were among the earliest artists releasing
The generation at the time preferred British and American exports.
Western culture was at the time equated with education and
sophistication, and Elvis,
Johnny Mathis and
The Beatles were
Conversely, those who preferred Cantonese music were considered
old-fashioned or uneducated. Cheng Kum-cheung (鄭錦昌) and Chan
Chai-chung (陳齊頌) were two popular Cantonese singers who
specifically targeted the younger generation. Connie Chan
Po-chu(陳寶珠) is generally considered to be Hong Kong's first teen
idol, mostly due to her career longevity. Josephine Siao(蕭芳芳) is
also another artist of the era.
1970s: Rise of television and the modern industry
Local bands mimicked British and American bands. Two types of local
Cantonese music appeared in the market nearly concurrently in 1973:
one type cashed in on the popularity of TVB's drama series based on
the more traditional lyrical styles. The other was more western style
music largely from
Hong Kong (寶麗多唱片). Notable
singers from the era include
Liza Wang (汪明荃) and Paula Tsui
Soap operas were needed to fill TV air time, and popular Cantonese
songs became TV theme songs. Around 1971,
Sandra Lang (仙杜拉),
a minor singer who had never sung
Cantopop before, was invited to sing
the first Cantonese TV theme song "A marriage of Laughter and Tears"
(啼笑因緣). This song was a collaboration between songwriters Yip
Siu-dak (葉紹德) and the legendary
Joseph Koo (顧嘉煇). It was
ground-breaking and topped local charts. Other groups that profited
from TV promotion included the
Four Golden Flowers (四朵金花).
Samuel Hui (許冠傑) is regarded by some to be the earliest singing
star of Cantopop. He was the lead singer of the band Lotus
(蓮花樂隊) formed in the late 1960s, signed to
Polydor in 1972.
The song that made him famous was the theme song to Games Gamblers
Play (鬼馬雙星), also starring Hui.
The star of TV theme tunes was
Roman Tam (羅文). Three of the most
famous TV soap opera singers were
Jenny Tseng (甄妮),
Liza Wang and
Adam Cheng (鄭少秋).
The Wynners (溫拿樂隊) and George Lam
(林子祥) also amassed a big fan base with their new style. Samuel
Hui continued to dominate the charts and won the Centennial Best Sales
Award in the first and second IFPI Gold Disc Presentations twice in a
row in 1977 and 1978.
PolyGram (寶麗金) in 1978.
It was at this time that the term
Cantopop was first coined. The
Billboard correspondent Hans Ebert, who had earlier coined the term
Cantorock in 1974, noted a change in its style to something similar to
British-American soft rock, therefore started to use the term Cantopop
instead in 1978.
1980s: Beginning of the Golden Age
During the 1980s,
Cantopop soared to great heights with artists,
producers and record companies working in harmony.
Cantopop stars such
as Anita Mui(梅艷芳), Leslie Cheung(張國榮), George
Lam(林子祥), Alan Tam(譚詠麟), Sally Yeh(葉倩文), Priscilla
Chan(陳慧嫻), Sandy Lam(林憶蓮), and Danny Chan(陳百強)
quickly became household names. The industry used
Cantopop songs in TV
dramas and movies, with some of the biggest soundtracks coming from
films such as A Better Tomorrow(英雄本色). Sponsors and record
companies became comfortable with the idea of lucrative contracts and
million-dollar signings. There are also Japanese songs with Cantonese
The most successful Chinese female recording artist, "Queen of
Teresa Teng (鄧麗君)also crossed over to Cantopop.
She achieved commercial success with her original Cantonese Hits under
the Polygram Label in the early 1980s.
Jenny Tseng was a notable
addition from Macau.
In the 1980s there came the second wave of "band fever" (the first
wave came in the 1960-70s, which was much influenced by the global
Beatlemania at that time. Young people thought that forming bands was
fashionable. Many new bands emerged at that time, such as Samuel Hui's
Lotus, The Wynners, and the Teddy Robin and the Playboys. However, the
bands emerged in this first wave were just copying the western music
style, mostly covering British and American rock songs, and prefer
singing in English rather than Cantonese). Different from the first
wave in the 60s, the "band fever" in the 80s did not show an obvious
relationship with the global culture at the time being, but much
related with the marketing strategy of the local record companies and
mass media. Many independent bands and music groups were signed by big
record companies, and this made a positive impact to the
Hong Kong pop
music world, as their works were highly original, with strong
individuality, and they were all devoted to writing songs in local
language, i.e. Cantonese. The subjects of their works were different
from the mainstream (which was mostly love ballads). Politics and
social life were popular subjects for the bands in their creation. The
"band fever" also brought variety in musical style to the Hong Kong
mainstream music world (which was almost monopolised by Pop-ballad for
a long time). Styles like Rock, Metal, Pop-Rock, Folk, Neo-Romantic,
Pop and some experimental styles (e.g. Cantorock) were introduced.
Among them, Beyond and
Tat Ming Pair (達明一派) gave the greatest
impact to the
Hong Kong music world. Some renowned bands and groups
included: Beyond, Raidas, Tat Ming Pair, Tai Chi (太極樂隊),
Grasshopper (草蜢), Little Tigers (小虎隊), Paradox (夢劇院),
Blue Jeans (藍戰士), Echo, Wind & Cloud (風雲樂隊),
The second wave of "band fever" also brought a group of new music
lovers to the
Hong Kong mainstream music world. Most of them were the
just-grew-up generation, or the music lovers of the western
Avant-garde music, also the Euro-American Rock-band lovers. This
contributed to a great change in the population and age distribution
of the music listeners from the 70s. Record companies were laying ever
more stress on the buying power of these young new customers. The
second wave of "band fever" emerged from the mid 1980s (around 1984)
and reached its climax in 1986-87. However the "band fever" cannot put
for a long time. Along with the death of the legendary Wong Ka Kui
(黃家駒), the leader and co-founder of Beyond, in 1993, and the
disband-tide emerged in the early 90s (
Tat Ming Pair disbanded in
1990), the "band fever" gradually faded away and totally got down in
the early 1990s.
Cantopop gained large followings in Chinese communities worldwide,
Hong Kong entrepreneurs' ingenious use of the then new Laserdisc
technology prompted yet another explosion in the market.
1990s: Four Heavenly Kings era
Further information: Four Heavenly Kings (Hong Kong)
In the early 1990s, the
Cantopop stars Alan Tam, Leslie Cheung, Samuel
Hui, Priscilla Chan, the songwriter Joseph Koo, and others either
retired or lessened their activity. Chan left
Hong Kong to pursue her
Syracuse University while the rest left
Hong Kong amid the
uncertainty surrounding the
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 and the
impending handover of
Hong Kong from British back to Chinese rule in
During the 1990s, the "Four Heavenly Kings" (四大天王), namely
Jacky Cheung(張學友), Andy Lau(劉德華), Aaron Kwok(郭富城)
and Leon Lai(黎明) dominated music, and coverage in magazines, TV,
advertisements and cinema. New talents such as Beyond,
Grasshoppers, Hacken Lee(李克勤), Sally Yeh, Vivian
Chow(周慧敏), Cass Phang(彭羚), Kelly Chen(陳慧琳), Sammi
Cheng (鄭秀文)and Faye Wong(王菲) emerged as contenders. However,
due to contractual disputes with PolyGram,
Hacken Lee never became one
of the members, and was replaced by Cheung and Lai, who were both with
the same record company.
The sovereignty handover created a culturally challenging atmosphere
for the industry. Establishment of Basic Law and language ordinances
made the adoption of Mandarin inevitable.
Twins at the height of the group's popularity
2000s: New era
At the turn of the century, Cantonese was still dominant in the domain
of Chinese pop. The deaths of stars
Leslie Cheung and
Anita Mui in
2003 rocked the industry. A transitional phase also took place with
many overseas-raised artists such as Nicholas Tse(謝霆鋒) and Coco
Lee(李玟) gaining recognition. As a result,
Cantopop is no longer
restricted to Hong Kong, but has become part of a larger music
Cantopop began a new upswing. Major companies that drove much
of the HK segment included Gold Typhoon
Music Entertainment (EMI, Gold
Music Group(環球唱片), East Asia
Amusic and Emperor Entertainment
Group(英皇娛樂). Some of the most successful performers of the era
include Juno Mak(麥浚龍), Joey Yung(容祖兒), Twins, Eason
Chan(陳奕迅), Miriam Yeung(楊千嬅), Leo Ku(古巨基), Janice
The new era saw an explosion of bands like at17, Soler, Sunboy'z,
Hotcha, Mr and Rubberband. Many artists such as Stephy
Tang(鄧麗欣), Kary Ng(吳雨霏), Kenny Kwan(關智斌) and Renee
Li(李蘊) later ended up going solo.
The decade was also dubbed a "People's singer" era (親民歌星), as
most performers were frequently seen promoting publicly, contrasting
the 1990s when previous era "big-name" singers (大牌歌星) seemed
A number of scandals struck some of the stars later in the decade. In
Edison Chen photo scandal
Edison Chen photo scandal involving Edison Chen(陳冠希)
and Twins singer Gillian Chung(鐘欣潼), among others, who were the
subject of explicit photos uploaded online. The scandal occupied the
front pages of the local press for a solid month, and also garnered
the attention of international media. The scandal
tarnished the image of the previously "squeaky-clean" Twins, and
resulted in their going into hiatus in late June 2008, four months
after Gillian was caught up in the scandal. Other events include
the street fight between Gary Chaw(曹格) and Justin Lo(側田).
In 2009, Jill Vidal(衛詩) and her singer boyfriend Kelvin
Kwan(關楚耀) were arrested in Tokyo on 24 February 2009 over
allegations of marijuana possession. Kwan was released without
charge after 32 days in jail, while Vidal later pleaded guilty in
Tokyo court to heroin possession, and was sentenced to 2 years'
imprisonment, suspended for 3 years.
After the handover of
Hong Kong to
China in 1997, Mandarin became more
important and the influence of Cantonese became vulnerable.
Nevertheless, in addition to the 7 million people of
Hong Kong and
Macau, the genre continues to enjoy popularity among a
Cantonese-speaking audience of in excess of 100 million in southern
China, plus 10 million Cantonese-speaking diaspora in Canada,
Australia and the United States. In 2010, a proposal that
Guangzhou Television station should increase its broadcast in Mandarin
led to protests in Guangzhou. While the authorities relented, this
event reflects attempts at marginalising Cantonese and the ascendency
The first major award of the decade 09 JSG award was a highly
controversial one with the ongoing HKRIA tax case. The case was
reportedly solved in early 2012 though. In January 2012, the 11 JSG
award was again controversial since one of the biggest awards, Record
of the Year, was handed to Raymond Lam(林峯) with his unpopular song
"Chok". Some of the successful performers of the era are Eason Chan,
Joey Yung, Juno Mak, Gillian Chung, Kay Tse(謝安琪), Hins
Cheung(張敬軒), Pakho Chau(周柏豪), Ivana Wong(王菀之), Sugar
Club, Mag Lam(林欣彤), Alfred Hui(許廷鏗), C AllStar,
AGA(江海迦), James Ng(吳業坤), Phil Lam(林奕匡), Kary Ng,
Fiona Sit(薛凱琪), Khalil Fong(方大同) and Tang
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss
these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by
verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements
consisting only of original research should be removed. (May 2010)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
This section may be in need of reorganization to comply with
Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to
make improvements to the overall structure. (May 2010) (Learn how and
when to remove this template message)
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with
Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may
contain suggestions. (May 2010)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Instruments and setups
Cantopop was developed from
Cantonese opera music hybridised
with Western pop. The musicians soon gave up traditional Chinese
musical instruments like zheng and erhu fiddle in favour of western
Cantopop songs are usually sung by one singer,
sometimes with a band, accompanied by piano, synthesizer, drum set and
guitars. They are composed under verse-chorus form and are generally
monophonic. Practically all early
Cantopop songs feature a descending
A slow to medium tempo soundtrack by
Danny Chan for the 1984 HK film
"Merry Christmas" (聖誕快樂)
"Half moon (月半彎)"
A transitional song from the golden age to the Four Heavenly kings era
by Jacky Cheung
"Sugar in the Marmalade"
Cantopop techno song by Leon Lai
Problems playing these files? See media help.
Cantonese is a pitch sensitive tonal language. The word carries a
different meaning when sung in a different relative pitch. Matching
Cantonese lyrics to Western music was particularly difficult because
the Western musical scale has 12 semi-tones. Through the work of
pioneers like Samuel Hui, James Wong (黃霑) and Jimmy Lo Kwok Jim
(盧國沾), those that followed have more stock phrases for
Classical Chinese lyrics
The first type is the poetic lyrics written in literary or classical
Wenyan Chinese (文言). In the past,
Cantopop maintained the
Cantonese Opera tradition of matching the musical notes with tones of
the language. Relatively few
Cantopop songs use truly colloquial
Cantonese terms, and fewer songs contain lyrics. Songs written in this
style are usually reserved for TV shows about ancient China. Since the
1980s, increasing numbers of singers have departed from this
tradition, though some big names like
Roman Tam stayed true to
Modern Chinese lyrics
The second type is less formal. The lyrics written in colloquial
Cantonese make up the majority with compositions done in modern
written Chinese. TV shows filmed under modern contexts will use songs
written with these lyrics. Most songs share an over-riding
characteristic, in which every last word of a phrase is rhymed.
The following is an example from the song "Impression" (印象) by
Samuel Hui. The last word of every phrase ends with '–oeng'.
Chinese original lyrics
Lyrics Romanized in Jyutping
seoi4 ling6 ngo5 dong1 maan5 geoi2 zi2 sat1 soeng4
naan4 zi6 gam1 mong6 gwan1 nei5 nang4 gin3 loeng6
daan6 gok3 maan6 fan1 gan2 zoeng1 gaai1 jan1 gan1 nei5 jyu6 soeng5
seoi4 ling6 ngo5 dat6 jin4 cung1 mun5 waan6 soeng2
Covers of foreign compositions
Cantopop was born in the 1970s and became a cultural product with the
popularity of two songs popular
TVB drama's themes songs in the early
1970s': Tower Ballad (鐵塔凌雲, 1972) and A marriage of Laughter
and Tears (啼笑因緣, 1974). The majority of "hit" Cantopop,
however, is not entirely local produced but the cover versions of
"hit" foreign melodies. Since the 1970s, covering "hit" external songs
mainly from Japan, Korea,
Taiwan or other Western countries became a
common practice among
Hong Kong record companies. At that time, Hong
Kong's constantly growing music industry acknowledges simply by using
those hits, whose already gained popularity, will be the easiest way
to reach success in the market. Cover versions were also widely used
as a solution to address the shortage of the local hits due to the
lack of local composers. Another important reason of using cover
versions is to minimise the production costs. The practice is also
done for business reasons of filling up albums and re-capitalizing on
songs with a proven record.
The Radio Television
Hong Kong (RTHK) Top Ten Chinese Gold Songs
Awards, which is one of the major music awards in
Hong Kong since
1979, can reflect the great reliance on Japanese melodies in Cantopop.
During 1980s, 139 out of 477 songs from weekly gold songs chart are
cover versions, and 52% of the cover versions were covers of Japanese
songs. Numerous of legendary songs of
Cantopop superstars Alan Tam,
Leslie Cheung and Anita Mui, for example, Craziness (1983), Monica
(1984), Foggy Love (1984), For Your Love Only (1985,) Evil Girl
(1985), The Past Love (1986), The First Tear (1986), and Fired Tango
indeed were cover versions of Japanese hits[verification needed], and
shown the use of covers contribute to the success of superstars in
By definition hybrids are still considered Cantonese songs due to
Cantonese lyrics, though the rights borrowed varies country to
country. Songs like "Tomorrow sounds like today" (明日話今天) by
Jenny Tseng, "Life to seek" (一生何求) by Danny Chan, "Snowing"
(飄雪) by Priscilla Chan, and "Can't afford" (負擔不起) by Jade
Kwan were originally composed outside of Hong Kong. Many critics
disapprove of this practice of covering foreign music as lack of
originality, and many albums promoted themselves as "cover-free".
Talent is unusually secondary to the success of a
Cantopop singer in
Hong Kong. Most times, image sells albums, as it is one of the
characteristic of mainstream music similarly mirrored in the United
States and Japan. Publicity is vital to an idol's career, as one piece
of news could make or break a future. Almost all modern
go into the movie business regardless of their ability to act; however
the reverse may also occur with actors releasing albums and embarking
on concerts regardless of singing talent. They immediately expand to
the Mandarin market once their fame is established, hence pure
Cantopop stars are almost nonexistent. Outside of the music sales,
their success can also be gauged by their income. For example,
according to some reports,
Sammi Cheng earned HK$46M (around US$6M)
from advertisement and merchandise endorsements in one month
alone. Many artists however begin with financial hardships. For
Yumiko Cheng owed her company thousands of dollars. Others
Elanne Kong crying in public with only HK$58 left.
PolyGram, EMI, Sony, Warner and BMG were established in Hong Kong
since the 1970s. Local record companies such as Crown Records
(娛樂唱片), Wing Hang Records (永恆), Manchi Records (文志)
Capital Artists (華星唱片)in the past have become successful
local labels. As TV drama themes lost favour in the mid-1980s, market
power soon drifted to the multi-national labels. Sales are tracked at
the IFPI HK Annual Sales Chart.
Cantopop has been criticised as being bland and unoriginal, since most
stars tend to sing songs with similar topics with emphasis on "maudlin
Cantopop features many songs which use foreign and
traditional tunes to which new Cantonese lyrics have been written,
including many of the songs of the 1980s golden era. However this
reflects the traditional practise and values of Chinese music in which
only lyrics and lyricists are valued.
In the late 1990s, there was a shortage of creative talent due to the
rising demand for Chinese songs; meanwhile,
nurtured their own local industries posing serious competition to
Cantopop. Renowned legendary lyricist James Wong Jum-sum (黃湛森),
Wong Jim (黃霑), wrote his 2003 thesis on the subject.
However, there are still many indie musicians, with some such as
Beyond (who emerged from the "band fever" of the 1980s) and Tat Ming
Pair, whose songs reflect the darker, less-expressed side of society,
achieving mainstream success.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Wong Ka Kui
Pak Ho Chau
Wakin (Emil) Chau
Wong Cho Lam
Philip Wei Xiong
Yip Sai Wing
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Lai Ying Tong
AMA Huen Ning
Bands & Groups
Benji and Lesley
De Argyle Peasants
Honey Bees Junior
I Love You Boy'z
The Jade Band
My Little Airport
Robynn & Kendy
Super Girls (HK)
Tat Ming Pair
The Cause Across
Wind & Cloud
IFPI Gold Disc Presentation
RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards
Jade Solid Gold Top 10 Awards
CASH Golden Sail Awards
Ultimate Songs Awards
A record chart which includes all genres of
C-pop is the Global
Chinese Pop Chart.
Cantopop radio stations
Frequencies and Platform
CRHK Radio 2
90.3 FM Available on My903.com and their other channel 88.1 during non
talk shows happen.
RTHK Radio 2
94.8 FM, 95.3 FM, 95.6 FM, 96.0 FM, 96.3 FM, 96.4 FM, 96.9 FM, and
Internet live streaming (channel 2)
Chinese Radio New York
when it is not doing the news and talkshows
1470 AM, 96.1 FM
1430 AM, 88.9 FM
Music FM Radio Guangdong
93.9 FM, 99.3 FM and internet stream media
90.7 FM –
Cantopop show as part of Asian Pop Night.
Music of Hong Kong
Hong Kong musical tongue twister
Hong Kong English pop
Chinese hip hop
^ Ulrich Beck, Natan Sznaider, Rainer Winter, eds. (2003). Global
America?: The Cultural Consequences of Globalization. Liverpool
University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0853239185. CS1
maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ a b Joanna Ching-Yun Lee (1992). "
Cantopop Songs on Emigration from
Hong Kong". Yearbook for Traditional Music. International Council for
Traditional Music. 24: 14–23. doi:10.2307/768468.
China Briefing Media.  (2004) Business Guide to the Greater
Pearl River Delta.
China Briefing Media Ltd. ISBN 988-98673-1-1
^ a b c d e f g Broughton, Simon. Ellingham, Mark. Trillo, Richard.
 (2000) World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides Publishing
Company. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
^ Wordie, Jason (2002). Streets: Exploring
Hong Kong Island. Hong
Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-563-1.
^ Wiltshire, Trea. [First published 1987] (republished & reduced
Hong Kong – Volume One. Central, Hong Kong: Text Form
Asia books Ltd. ISBN Volume One 962-7283-59-2
^ Tony Mitchell. "Tian Ci –
Faye Wong and English Songs in the
Cantopop and Mandapop Repertoire". Local Noise. Archived from the
original on 3 August 2012.
originally printed in Ming Pao Weekly, 2002.
^ Xinhuanet.com. "Xinhuanet.com Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback
Machine.." 四大天王. Retrieved on 27 December 2010.
^ 163.com. "163.com." 四大天王. Retrieved on 27 December 2010.
^ "Action Plan to Raise Language Standards in Hong Kong", Standing
Committee on Language Education and Research. Retrieved 25 February
^ Donald, Stephanie. Keane, Michael. Hong, Yin.  (2002). Media
in China: Consumption, Content and Crisis. Routledge Mass media
policy. ISBN 0-7007-1614-9. pg 113
^ 星星同學會 episode 3
Celebrity Sex Scandal". CNN. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 11 February
^ "Sex scandal rocks Hong Kong". MSNBC. 14 February 2008. Archived
from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 15 February
^ Watts, Jonathan (13 February 2008). "
China riveted by stolen sex
Hong Kong stars". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15
^ Clara Mak (5 July 2008). "Twins will reunite, says Choi". South
China Morning Post.
^ Orientaldaily.on.cc. "Orientaldaily.on.cc."
側田曹格肉搏街頭. Retrieved on 2 January 2010.
^ Nickkita Lau (4 March 2009). "Pot idols on Tokyo rap". The Standard.
Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 5
^ Patsy Moy, Drug rap Wei Si in Tokyo jail as Kwan flies home Archived
6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The Standard, 30 March 2009
^ "Prison relief as Wei Si admits heroin possession". The Standard. 24
April 2009. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
^ "HK singer returns after 2-month detention". Asia One News. 28 April
2009. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013.
^ "衛詩藏海洛英被日本法院判入獄兩年緩刑三年". HK
ATV. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012.
^ a b
^ Yiu-Wai Chu (2013). Lost in Transition:
Hong Kong Culture in the Age
of China. State University of New York Press. pp. 147–148.
^ Yiu-Wai Chu (2013). Lost in Transition:
Hong Kong Culture in the Age
of China. State University of New York Press. p. 131.
^ Chik, A. (2010). Creative multilingualism in
Hong Kong popular
music. World Englishes. 29(4). 508–522
^ Chu, Y.W. & Leung, E. (2013). Remapping
Hong Kong popular music:
covers, localisation and the waning hybridity of Cantopop. Popular
Music, 32, 65–78
^ Yau, H.Y.(2012). Cover Versions in
Hong Kong and Japan: Reflections
Music Authenticity. Journal of Comparative Asian Development.
^ Anhui news.com. "Anhui news.com." 是星就不愁沒錢
鄭秀文一個月賺1022萬. Retrieved on 2 January 2010.
^ Yahoo.com. "Yahoo.com Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.."
鄭希怡：江若琳得,8不慘. Retrieved on 3 January 2010.
^ IFPI HK Annual Sales Chart. "IFPIHK Archived 27 December 2008 at the
Wayback Machine.." International Federation of Phonographic Industry.
Retrieved on 7 April 2007.
^ Wong, James. The rise and decline of Cantopop : a study of Hong
Kong popular music
C-Pop Fantasie – Online resource for c-pop, providing lyrics,
downloads, video shows, and more.
Pop Saves Hong Kong, in Tofu Magazine #2
Hong Kong Vintage Pop Radio
Cantopop song listings (in Chinese)
www.mysongspage.com, lyrics and chords for Cantonese, English &
香港50–80年代粵語流行曲唱片目錄 Disc index
Come back to love blog
Lee HC's 黑膠樂園 Disc index
General forms of
Western popular music
Contemporary Christian music
Topics specific to
pop music style
Pop music automation
Rockism and poptimism
C-pop (Cantopop · Hokkien pop · Mandopop)
J-pop (Picopop · Shibuya-kei)
Cultural impact of ...
The Beach Boys
Glossary of terms
Tin Pan Alley
Hong Kong English pop
Bao'an County and Xin'an County
Battle of Hong Kong
Buildings and structures
Cities and towns
Country parks and conservation
Islands and peninsulas
Mountains and peaks
Public parks and gardens
departments and agencies
One country, two systems
Sino-British Joint Declaration
Special administrative regions of China
Food and Health Bureau
Hong Kong Regiment
Real Estate Hegemony
Landmarks and tourist attractions
List of roads
Chung Ying Street
Kowloon Walled City
Cheung Chau Bun Festival
Hong Kong orchid
Lion Rock Spirit
Hakka hill song
National football team
National rugby union team
Hong Kong Sevens