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Canaan
Canaan
(/ˈkeɪnən/; Northwest Semitic: knaʿn; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kana‘n; Hebrew: כְּנָעַן‬ Kənā‘an) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan
Canaan
occurs commonly in the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant
Levant
that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel
Israel
and other nations. The word Canaanites serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled and nomadic-pastoral groups—throughout the regions of the southern Levant
Levant
or Canaan.[1] It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible.[2] In the Book of Joshua, Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate,[3] and later described as a group which the Israelites had annihilated.[4] The name "Canaanites" (כְּנָעַנִיְם‬ kənā‘anīm, כְּנָעַנִי‬ kənā‘anī) is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians,[4] and following the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage
Carthage
(founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (chanani) of North Africa during Late Antiquity. Canaan
Canaan
had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period
Amarna period
(14th century BC) as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite, Mitanni
Mitanni
and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of modern knowledge about Canaan
Canaan
stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, and Gezer.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Archaeology

2.1 Origins 2.2 Middle Bronze Age

2.2.1 Ebla
Ebla
tablets (c. 2500–2200 BC) 2.2.2 Mari letters
Mari letters
(c. 2000 BC)

2.3 Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
cuneiform (1500–1000 BC) 2.4 Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
Hieroglyphic and Hieratic (1500–1000 BC) 2.5 Later sources

3 Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
historiography 4 History

4.1 Overview 4.2 Prehistory 4.3 Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3500–2000) 4.4 Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2000–1550) 4.5 Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200) 4.6 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse 4.7 Iron Age

5 Culture 6 Legacy 7 List of Canaan's rulers 8 In Jewish and Christian
Christian
Scriptures

8.1 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible 8.2 New Testament

9 Black Africans as descendants of Canaan 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Etymology[edit]

Map of the Near East
Near East
by Robert de Vaugondy
Robert de Vaugondy
(1762), indicating Canaan as limited to the Holy Land, to the exclusion of Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria

The English term Canaan
Canaan
(pronounced /ˈkeɪnən/ since c. 1500, due to the Great Vowel Shift) comes from the Hebrew
Hebrew
כנען‬ (knʿn), via Greek Χαναάν Khanaan and Latin
Latin
Canaan. It appears as 𒆳𒆠𒈾𒄴𒈾 (KURki-na-ah-na) in the Amarna letters
Amarna letters
(14th century BC), and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia
Phoenicia
in the last half of the 1st millennium. It first occurs in Greek in the writings of Hecataeus as Khna (Χνᾶ).[5] Scholars connect the name Canaan with knʿn, Kana'an, the general Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
name for this region. The etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic root knʿ "to be low, humble, subjugated".[6] Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of "lowlands", in contrast with Aram, which would then mean "highlands",[7] whereas others have suggested it meant "the subjugated" as the name of Egypt's province in the Levant, and evolved into the proper name in a similar fashion to Provincia Nostra (the first Roman colony north of the Alps, which became Provence).[8] An alternative suggestion put forward by Ephraim Avigdor Speiser
Ephraim Avigdor Speiser
in 1936 derives the term from Hurrian
Hurrian
Kinahhu, purportedly referring to the colour purple, so that Canaan
Canaan
and Phoenicia
Phoenicia
would be synonyms ("Land of Purple"). Tablets found in the Hurrian
Hurrian
city of Nuzi
Nuzi
in the early 20th century appear to use the term Kinahnu as a synonym for red or purple dye, laboriously produced by the Kassite rulers of Babylon from murex shells as early as 1600 BC, and on the Mediterranean coast by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
from a byproduct of glassmaking. Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity which is mentioned in Exodus. The dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The name 'Phoenicia' is connected with the Greek word for "purple", apparently referring to the same product, but it is difficult to state with certainty whether the Greek word came from the name, or vice versa. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia
Phoenicia
was well known far and wide and was associated by the Romans
Romans
with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Drews, Speiser's proposal has generally been abandoned.[9][10] Archaeology[edit] Origins[edit] See also: Prehistory
Prehistory
of the Levant Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian
Ghassulian
chalcolithic culture, which pioneered the Mediterranean agricultural system typical of the Canaanite region, which comprised intensive subsistence horticulture, extensive grain growing, commercial wine and olive cultivation and transhumance pastoralism. Ghassulian
Ghassulian
itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) farming cultures, practicing animal domestication, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Agricultural Revolution/ Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
in the Levant.[11] The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit
Ugarit
(at Ras Shamra
Ras Shamra
in Syria) is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically,[12] even though its Ugaritic language
Ugaritic language
does not belong to the Canaanite language group proper.[13][14][15] Middle Bronze Age[edit] Ebla
Ebla
tablets (c. 2500–2200 BC)[edit] A disputed reference to Lord of ga-na-na in the Semitic Eblaite tablets (dated 2350 BC) from the archive of Tell Mardikh
Tell Mardikh
has been interpreted by some scholars to mention the deity Dagon
Dagon
by the title "Lord of Canaan"[16] If correct, this would suggest that Eblaites were conscious of Canaan
Canaan
as an entity by 2500 BC.[17] Jonathan Tubb states that the term ga-na-na "may provide a third-millennium reference to Canaanite", while at the same time stating that the first certain reference is in the 18th century BC.[18] See Ebla-Biblical controversy for further details. Mari letters
Mari letters
(c. 2000 BC)[edit] A letter from Mutu-bisir to Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
(c. 1809 – 1776 BC) of the Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(2025–1750 BC) has been translated: "It is in Rahisum that the brigands (habbatum) and the Canaanites (Kinahnum) are situated". It was found in 1973 in the ruins of Mari, an Assyrian outpost at that time in Syria.[12][19] Additional unpublished references to Kinahnum in the Mari letters
Mari letters
refer to the same episode.[20] Whether the term Kinahnum refers to people from a specific region or rather people of "foreign origin" has been disputed,[21][22] such that Robert Drews states that the "first certain cuneiform reference" to Canaan
Canaan
is found on the Alalakh
Alalakh
statue of King Idrimi
Idrimi
(below).[23] Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
cuneiform (1500–1000 BC)[edit] Alalakh
Alalakh
texts[20] A reference to Ammiya being "in the land of Canaan" is found on the Statue of Idrimi
Statue of Idrimi
(16th century BC) from Alalakh
Alalakh
in modern Syria. After a popular uprising against his rule, Idrimi
Idrimi
was forced into exile with his mother's relatives to seek refuge in "the land of Canaan", where he prepared for an eventual attack to recover his city. The other references in the Alalakh
Alalakh
texts are:[20]

AT 154 (unpublished) AT 181: A list of 'Apiru people with their origins. All are towns, except for Canaan AT 188: A list of Muskenu people with their origins. All are towns, except for three lands including Canaan AT 48: A contract with a Canaanite hunter

Amarna letters

Amarna tablet EA 9

References to Canaanites are also found throughout the Amarna letters of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Akhenaten
Akhenaten
c. 1350 BC. In these letters, some of which were sent by governors and princes of Canaan
Canaan
to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(Amenhotep IV) in the 14th century BC, are found, beside Amar and Amurru (Amorites), the two forms Kinahhi and Kinahni, corresponding to Kena and Kena'an respectively, and including Syria
Syria
in its widest extent, as Eduard Meyer has shown. The letters are written in the official and diplomatic East Semitic Akkadian language
Akkadian language
of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, though "Canaanitish" words and idioms are also in evidence. The known references are:[20]

EA 8: Letter from Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buriash II
to Akhenaten, explaining that his merchants "were detained in Canaan
Canaan
for business matters", robbed and killed "in Hinnatuna of the land of Canaan" by the rulers of Acre and Shamhuna, and asks for compensation because " Canaan
Canaan
is your country" EA 9: Letter from Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buriash II
to Tutankhamun, "all the Canaanites wrote to Kurigalzu saying "come to the border of the country so we can revolt and be allied with you" EA 30: Letter from Tushratta: "To the kings of Canaan... Provide [my messenger] with safe entry into Egypt" EA 109: Letter of Rib-Hadda: "Previously, on seeing a man from Egypt, the kings of Canaan
Canaan
fled before him, but now the sons of Abdi-Ashirta make men from Egypt
Egypt
prowl about like dogs" EA 110: Letter of Rib-Hadda: "No ship of the army is to leave Canaan" EA 131: Letter of Rib-Hadda: "If he does not send archers, they will take [Byblos] and all the other cities, and the lands of Canaan
Canaan
will not belong to the king. May the king ask Yanhamu about these matters." EA 137: Letter of Rib-Hadda: "If the king neglects Byblos, of all the cities of Canaan
Canaan
not one will be his" EA 367: "Hani son (of) Mairēya, "chief of the stable" of the king in Canaan" EA 162: Letter to Aziru: "You yourself know that the king does not want to go against all of Canaan
Canaan
when he rages" EA 148: Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh: "[The king] has taken over the land of the king for the 'Apiru. May the king ask his commissioner, who is familiar with Canaan" EA 151: Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh: "The king, my lord wrote to me: 'write to me what you have heard from Canaan'." Abimilku describes in response what has happened in eastern Cilicia
Cilicia
(Danuna), the northern coast of Syria
Syria
(Ugarit), in Syria
Syria
(Qadesh, Amurru, and Damascus) as well as in Sidon.

Ugarit
Ugarit
texts Text RS 20.182 from Ugarit
Ugarit
is a copy of a letter of the king of Ugarit to Ramesses II
Ramesses II
concerning money paid by "the sons of the land of Ugarit" to the "foreman of the sons of the land of Canaan
Canaan
(*kn'ny)" According to Jonathan Tubb, this suggests that the Semitic people of Ugarit, contrary to much modern opinion, considered themselves to be non-Canaanite.[24] The other Ugarit
Ugarit
reference, KTU 4.96, shows a list of traders assigned to royal estates, of which one of the estates had three Ugaritans, an Ashdadite, an Egyptian and a Canaanite.[20] Ashur tablets A Middle Assyrian letter during the reign of Shalmaneser I
Shalmaneser I
includes a reference to the "travel to Canaan" of an Assyrian official.[20] Hattusa
Hattusa
letters Four references are known from Hattusa:[20]

An evocation to the Cedar Gods: Includes reference to Canaan
Canaan
alongside Sidon, Tyre and possibly Amurru KBo XXVIII 1: Ramesses II
Ramesses II
letter to Hattusili III, in which Ramesses suggested he would meet "his brother" in Canaan
Canaan
and bring him to Egypt KUB III 57 (also KUB III 37 + KBo I 17): Broken text which may refer to Canaan
Canaan
as an Egyptian sub-district KBo I 15+19: Ramesses II
Ramesses II
letter to Hattusili III, describing Ramesses' visit to the "land of Canaan
Canaan
on his way to Kinza and Harita

Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
Hieroglyphic and Hieratic (1500–1000 BC)[edit]

The name Canaan
Canaan
occurs in hieroglyphs as k3nˁnˁ on the Merneptah Stele in the 13th century BC

During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan
Canaan
to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan
Canaan
found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan
Jordan
Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
to around Gaza. Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrew
Hebrew
uses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in north west Syria
Syria
near Turkey
Turkey
as part of the "Land of Canaan", so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire Levantine coast of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, making it a synonym of another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retenu or rather Retjenu. Lebanon, in northern Canaan, bordered by the Litani river to the watershed of the Orontes River, was known by the Egyptians
Egyptians
as upper Retjenu.[25] In Egyptian campaign accounts, the term Djahi was used to refer to the watershed of the Jordan
Jordan
river. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na, just inside Asia.[26]

Canaanites and Shasu
Shasu
Leader captives from Ramses III's tile collection

Archaeological attestation of the name Canaan
Canaan
in Ancient Near Eastern sources relates almost exclusively to the period in which the region operated as a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt
New Kingdom of Egypt
(16th–11th centuries BC), with usage of the name almost disappearing following the Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
collapse (c. 1206–1150 BC).[27] The references suggest that during this period the term was familiar to the region's neighbors on all sides, although scholars have disputed to what extent such references provide a coherent description of its location and boundaries, and regarding whether the inhabitants used the term to describe themselves.[28] 16 references are known in Egyptian sources, from the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
onwards.[20]

Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II
inscriptions: Canaanites are included in a list of prisoners of war Three topographical lists Papyrus Anastasi I
Papyrus Anastasi I
27,1" refers to the route from Sile to Gaza "the [foreign countries] of the end of the land of Canaan" Merneptah Stele Papyrus Anastasi IIIA 5–6 and Papyrus Anastasi IV 16,4 refer to "Canaanite slaves from Hurru" Papyrus Harris[29] After the collapse of the Levant
Levant
under the so-called "Peoples of the Sea" Ramesses III
Ramesses III
(c. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan, a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East.[30]

Later sources[edit] Padiiset's Statue
Padiiset's Statue
is the last known Egyptian reference to Canaan, a small statuette labelled "Envoy of the Canaan
Canaan
and of Peleset, Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy". The inscription is dated to 900–850 BC, more than 300 years after the preceding known inscription.[31] During the period from c. 900–330 BC, the dominant empires of the Neo-Assyrians and Achaemenid Persians make no mention of Canaan.[32] Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
historiography[edit]

Coin of Alexander II Zabinas
Alexander II Zabinas
with the inscription "Laodikeia, metropole of Canaan"[33]

Further information: Syria
Syria
Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Palestine The Greek term Phoenicia
Phoenicia
is first attested in the first two works of Western literature, Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey. It does not occur in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, but occurs three times in the New Testament
New Testament
in the Book of Acts.[34] In the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
affirms that Phoenicia
Phoenicia
was formerly called χνα, a name that Philo of Byblos subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Quoting fragments attributed to Sanchuniathon, he relates that Byblos, Berytus and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronus, and credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuilding and writing. Coins of the city of Beirut
Beirut
/ Laodicea bear the legend, "Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan"; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175–164 BC) and his successors until 123 BC.[33] Saint Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians
Phoenicians
called their homeland was "Canaan". Augustine also records that the rustic people of Hippo in North Africa retained the Punic self-designation Chanani.[35][36] Since 'punic' in Latin
Latin
also meant 'non-Roman', some scholars however argue that the language referred to as Punic in Augustine may have been Libyan.[37] The Greeks
Greeks
also popularized the term Palestine, named after the Greek Philistines
Philistines
or the Aegean Pelasgians, for roughly the region of Canaan, excluding Phoenicia, with Herodotus' first recorded use of Palaistinê, c. 480 BC. From 110 BC, the Hasmoneans
Hasmoneans
extended their authority over much of the region, creating a Judean-Samaritan-Idumaean-Ituraean- Galilean alliance. The Judean (Jewish, see Ioudaioi) control over the wider area resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean
Judean
Mountains, the allotment of the Tribe of Judah and heartland of the former Kingdom of Judah.[38][39] Between 73–63 BC, the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BC, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. Around 130–135 AD, as a result of the suppression of the Bar Kochba
Bar Kochba
revolt, the province of Iudaea
Iudaea
was joined with Galilee
Galilee
to form new province of Syria Palaestina. There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian
Hadrian
with the name change,[40] although the precise date is not certain,[40] and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea"[41][42] is disputed.[43] History[edit] Overview[edit]

Prior to 3500 BC (prehistory – Stone Age
Stone Age
and Chalcolithic): hunter-gatherer societies slowly giving way to farming and herding societies, and early metal-working in the last thousand years; 3500–2000 BC (Early Bronze): prior to written records in the area; 2000–1550 BC (Middle Bronze): city-states; 1550–1200 BC (Late Bronze): Egyptian hegemony; 1200–586 BC (Iron Age, divided into Iron Age
Iron Age
I and II): village societies in Iron I giving way to kingdoms in Iron II.

After the Iron Age
Iron Age
the periods are named after the various empires that ruled the region: Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek (Hellenistic) and Roman.[44] Prehistory[edit]

History of the Levant

Stone Age

Kebaran culture Natufian culture Halaf culture Ghassulian
Ghassulian
culture Jericho

Ancient history

Ebla Akkadian Empire Canaanites Amorites Arameans Hittites Israel
Israel
and Judah Philistines Phoenicians Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Achaemenid Empire

Classical antiquity

Wars of Alexander the Great Seleucid Empire Hasmonean dynasty Nabataeans Roman Empire Herodians Palmyra Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire Sassanid Empire

Middle Ages

Muslim
Muslim
conquest Early Caliphates

Umayyads Abbasids

Fatimids Hamdanids Seljuks Crusades Ayyubids Mamluks

Modern history

Ottoman Syria

Mount Lebanon Jerusalem

Mandatory Syria
Syria
and Lebanon Mandatory Palestine

Transjordan

Syria Lebanon Jordan Israel Palestine

Gaza Strip

v t e

Main article: Prehistory
Prehistory
of the Southern Levant One of the earliest settlements in the region was at Jericho
Jericho
in Canaan. The earliest settlements were seasonal, but, by the Bronze Age, had developed into large urban centres. Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3500–2000)[edit] By the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
other sites had developed, such as Ebla
Ebla
(where an East Semitic language, Eblaite, was spoken), which by c. 2300 BC was incorporated into the Mesopotamia-based Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great
Sargon the Great
and Naram-Sin of Akkad
Naram-Sin of Akkad
(biblical Accad). Sumerian references to the Mar.tu ("tent dwellers", later Amurru, i.e. Amorite) country West of the Euphrates date from even earlier than Sargon, at least to the reign of the Sumerian king, Enshakushanna of Uruk, and one tablet credits the early Sumerian king Lugal-anne-mundu with holding sway in the region, although this tablet is considered less credible because it was produced centuries later. The archives of Ebla
Ebla
show reference to a number of biblical sites, including Hazor, Jerusalem, and as a number of people have claimed, to Sodom and Gomorrah
Sodom and Gomorrah
mentioned in Genesis as well. Ebla
Ebla
and Amorites
Amorites
at Hazor, Kadesh (Qadesh-on-the-Orontes), and elsewhere in Amurru (Syria) bordered Canaan
Canaan
in the north and northeast. ( Ugarit
Ugarit
may be included among these Amoritic entities.[45]) The collapse of the Akkadian Empire in 2154 BC saw the arrival of peoples using Khirbet Kerak Ware pottery,[46] coming originally from the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
(in modern Iran) east of the Tigris. The first cities in the southern Levant
Levant
arose during this period.[47] These "proto-Canaanites" were in regular contact with the other peoples to their south such as Egypt, and to the north Asia Minor (Hurrians, Hattians, Hittites, Luwians) and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Sumer, Akkad, Assyria), a trend that continued through the Iron Age.[47] The end of the period is marked by the abandonment of the cities and a return to lifestyles based on farming villages and semi-nomadic herding, although specialised craft production continued and trade routes remained open.[47] Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2000–1550)[edit] Urbanism returned and the region was divided among small city-states, the most important of which seems to have been Hazor.[48] Many aspects of Canaanite material culture now reflected a Mesopotamian influence, and the entire region became more tightly integrated into a vast international trading network.[48] As early as Naram-Sin of Akkad's reign (c. 2240 BC), Amurru was called one of the "four quarters" surrounding Sumer, along with Subartu/Assyria, Akkad, and Elam. Amorite
Amorite
dynasties also came to dominate in much of Mesopotamia, including in Larsa, Isin
Isin
and founding the state of Babylon
Babylon
in 1894 BC. Later on, Amurru became the Assyrian/Akkadian term for the interior of south as well as for northerly Canaan. At this time the Canaanite area seemed divided between two confederacies, one centred upon Megiddo in the Jezreel
Jezreel
Valley, the second on the more northerly city of Kadesh on the Orontes River[citation needed]. An Amorite
Amorite
chieftain named Sumu-abum founded Babylon
Babylon
as an independent city-state in 1894 BC. One Amorite
Amorite
king of Babylonia, Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC) founded the first Babylonian Empire, which lasted only as long as his lifetime. Upon his death, the Amorites
Amorites
were driven from Assyria, but remained masters of Babylonia
Babylonia
until 1595 BC, when they were ejected by the Hittites. The semi-fictional Story of Sinuhe
Story of Sinuhe
describes an Egyptian officer, Sinuhe, conducting military activities in the area of "Upper Retchenu" and "Finqu" during the reign of Senusret I
Senusret I
(c. 1950 BC). The earliest bonafide Egyptian report of a campaign to "Mentu", "Retchenu" and "Sekmem" (Shechem) is the Sebek-khu Stele, dated to the reign of Senusret III
Senusret III
(c. 1862 BC). Around 1650 BC, Canaanites invaded the eastern Delta of Egypt, where, known as the Hyksos, they became the dominant power.[49] In Egyptian inscriptions, Amar and Amurru (Amorites) are applied strictly to the more northerly mountain region east of Phoenicia, extending to the Orontes. Archaeological excavations of a number of sites, later identified as Canaanite, show that prosperity of the region reached its apogee during this Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
period, under leadership of the city of Hazor, at least nominally tributary to Egypt
Egypt
for much of the period. In the north, the cities of Yamkhad
Yamkhad
and Qatna
Qatna
were hegemons of important confederacies, and it would appear that biblical Hazor was the chief city of another important coalition in the south. Late Bronze Age
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200)[edit]

Map of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
during the Amarna Period, showing the great powers of the day: Egypt
Egypt
(orange), Hatti (blue), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon
Babylon
(black), Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(yellow), and Mitanni
Mitanni
(brown). The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in purple.

In the early Late Bronze Age, Canaanite confederacies were centered on Megiddo and Kadesh, before again being brought into the Egyptian Empire and Hittite Empire. Later still, the region was assimilated into the Neo Assyrian Empire. Among the migrant ancient Semitic-speaking peoples who appear to have settled in the region were the Amorites, who had earlier controlled Babylonia. In the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, the Amorites
Amorites
are mentioned in the Table of Peoples (Gen. 10:16–18a). Evidently, the Amorites
Amorites
played a significant role in the early history of Canaan. In Gen. 14:7 f., Josh. 10:5 f., Deut. 1:19 f., 27, 44, we find them located in the southern mountain country, while in Num. 21:13, Josh. 9:10, 24:8, 12, etc., we are told of two great Amorite
Amorite
kings residing at Heshbon
Heshbon
and Ashteroth, east of the Jordan. However, in other passages such as Gen. 15:16, 48:22, Josh. 24:15, Judg. 1:34, etc., the name Amorite
Amorite
is regarded as synonymous with "Canaanite"; however "Amorite" is never used for the population on the coast. In the centuries preceding the appearance of the biblical Hebrews, parts of Canaan
Canaan
and southwestern Syria
Syria
became tributary to the Egyptian Pharaohs, although domination by the Egyptians
Egyptians
was sporadic, and not strong enough to prevent frequent local rebellions and inter-city struggles. Other areas such as northern Canaan
Canaan
and northern Syria
Syria
came to be ruled by the Assyrians during this period. Under Thutmose III
Thutmose III
(1479–1426 BC) and Amenhotep II (1427–1400 BC), the regular presence of the strong hand of the Egyptian ruler and his armies kept the Amorites
Amorites
and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. Nevertheless, Thutmose III
Thutmose III
reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru
Habiru
or (in Egyptian) 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries, brigands or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad-luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element of the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor, king or princeling prepared to undertake their support. Although Habiru
Habiru
SA-GAZ (a Sumerian ideogram glossed as "brigand" in Akkadian), and sometimes Habiri (an Akkadian word) had been reported in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the reign of the Sumerian king, Shulgi
Shulgi
of Ur III, their appearance in Canaan
Canaan
appears to have been due to the arrival of a new state based in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to the north of Assyria
Assyria
based upon Maryannu aristocracy of horse-drawn charioteers, associated with the Indo-Aryan rulers of the Hurrians, known as Mitanni. The Habiru
Habiru
seem to have been more a social class than an ethnic group. One analysis shows that the majority were, however, Hurrian
Hurrian
(a non-Semitic-speaking group from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
who spoke a language isolate), though there were a number of Semites and even some Kassite and Luwian
Luwian
adventurers amongst their number. The reign of Amenhotep III, as a result was not quite so tranquil for the Asiatic province, as Habiru/'Apiru contributed to greater political instability. It is believed[by whom?] that turbulent chiefs began to seek their opportunities, though as a rule could not find them without the help of a neighbouring king. The boldest of the disaffected nobles was Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta, a prince of Amurru, who even before the death of Amenhotep III, endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus. Akizzi, governor of Katna (Qatna?) (near Hamath), reported this to the Pharaoh, who seems to have sought to frustrate his attempts. In the next reign, however, both father and son caused infinite trouble to loyal servants of Egypt
Egypt
like Rib-Hadda, governor of Gubla (Gebal), not the least through transferring loyalty from the Egyptian crown to that of the expanding neighbouring Asia Minor
Asia Minor
based Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
under Suppiluliuma I.[50] Egyptian power in Canaan
Canaan
thus suffered a major setback when the Hittites
Hittites
(or Hatti) advanced into Syria
Syria
in the reign of Amenhotep III, and became even more threatening in that of his successor, displacing the Amorites
Amorites
and prompting a resumption of Semitic migration. Abd-Ashirta and his son Aziru, at first afraid of the Hittites, afterwards made a treaty with their king, and joining with the Hittites, attacked and conquered the districts remaining loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Hadda
Rib-Hadda
send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages. In the Amarna letters, we meet with the Habiri in northern Syria. Etakkama wrote thus to the Pharaoh,

"Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord to the SA-GAZ in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi. But I will go, and if thy gods and thy sun go before me, I will bring back the cities to the king, my lord, from the Habiri, to show myself subject to him; and I will expel the SA-GAZ."

Similarly, Zimrida, king of Sidon
Sidon
(named 'Siduna'), declared, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the Habiri." The king of Jerusalem, Abdi-Heba, reported to the Pharaoh,

"If (Egyptian) troops come this year, lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my lord."

Abdi-heba's principal trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Labaya, who are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Habiri. Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina. All these princes, however, maligned each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protested their own innocence of traitorous intentions. Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accused of disloyalty, wrote thus to the Pharaoh,

"Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAZ, and my Suti ?9 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands."[51]

From the mid 14th century BC through to the 11th century BC, much of Canaan
Canaan
(particularly the north, central and eastern regions of Syria and the north western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastal regions) fell to the Middle Assyrian Empire, and both Egyptian and Hittite influence waned as a result. Powerful Assyrian kings forced tribute on Canaanite states and cities from north, east and central Syria
Syria
as far as the Mediterranean.[52] Arik-den-ili (c. 1307–1296 BC), consolidated Assyrian power in the Levant, he defeated and conquered ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of the so-called Ahlamu group. He was followed by Adad-nirari I
Adad-nirari I
(1295–1275 BC) who continued expansion to the northwest, mainly at the expense of the Hittites
Hittites
and Hurrians, conquering Hittite territories such as Carchemish
Carchemish
and beyond. In 1274 BC Shalmaneser I
Shalmaneser I
ascended the throne. A powerful warrior king, he annexed territories in Syria
Syria
and Canaan
Canaan
previously under Egyptian or Hittite influence, and the growing power of Assyria was perhaps the reason why these two states made peace with one another.[52] This trend continued under Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244–1208 BC) and after a hiatus, Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BC) who conquered the Arameans
Arameans
of northern Syria, and thence he proceeded to conquer Damascus
Damascus
and the Canaanite/Phoenician cities of (Byblos), Sidon, Tyre and finally Arvad.[52] Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse[edit] Ann Killebrew has shown that cities such as Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were large and important walled settlements in the 'Pre-Israelite' Middle Bronze IIB and the Israelite Iron Age
Iron Age
IIC period (c. 1800–1550 and 720–586 BC), but that during the intervening Late Bronze (LB) and Iron Age
Iron Age
I and IIA/B Ages sites like Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were small and relatively insignificant and unfortified towns.[53] Just after the Amarna period
Amarna period
a new problem arose which was to trouble the Egyptian control of southern Canaan
Canaan
(the rest of the region now being under Assyrian control). Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Horemhab campaigned against Shasu
Shasu
(Egyptian = "wanderers") or living in nomadic pastoralist tribes, who had moved across the Jordan
Jordan
to threaten Egyptian trade through Galilee
Galilee
and Jezreel. Seti I
Seti I
(c. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered these Shasu, Semitic-speaking nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to "Ka-n-'-na". After the near collapse of the Battle of Kadesh, Rameses II had to campaign vigorously in Canaan
Canaan
to maintain Egyptian power. Egyptian forces penetrated into Moab
Moab
and Ammon, where a permanent fortress garrison (Called simply "Rameses") was established. Some believe the "Habiru" signified generally all the nomadic tribes known as "Hebrews", and particularly the early Israelites
Israelites
of the period of the "judges", who sought to appropriate the fertile region for themselves.[54] However, the term was rarely used to describe the Shasu. Whether the term may also include other related ancient Semitic-speaking peoples such as the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites is uncertain. It may not be an ethnonym at all; see the article Habiru for details. Iron Age[edit] Main articles: Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah

Map of the southern Levant,[original research?] c. 830s BC.   Kingdom of Judah   Kingdom of Israel   Philistine city-states   Phoenician states   Kingdom of Ammon   Kingdom of Edom   Kingdom of Aram-Damascus    Aramean
Aramean
tribes   Arubu tribes   Nabatu tribes   Assyrian Empire   Kingdom of Moab

See also: Archaeology of Israel
Archaeology of Israel
and History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah By the Early Iron Age, the southern Levant
Levant
came to be dominated by the kingdoms of Israel
Israel
and Judah, besides the Philistine city-states on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, and the kingdoms of Moab, Ammon
Ammon
and Aram- Damascus
Damascus
east of the Jordan
Jordan
River, and Edom
Edom
to the south. The northern Levant
Levant
was divided into various petty kingdoms, the so-called Syro-Hittite states
Syro-Hittite states
and the Phoenician city-states. The entire region (including all Phoenician/Canaanite and Aramean states, together with Israel, Philistia
Philistia
and Samarra) was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
during the 10th and 9th centuries BC, and would remain so for three hundred years until the end of the 7th century BC. Assyrian emperor-kings such as Ashurnasirpal, Adad-nirari II, Sargon II, Tiglath-Pileser III, Esarhaddon, Sennacherib
Sennacherib
and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
came to dominate Canaanite affairs. The Egyptians, then under a Nubian Dynasty, made a failed attempt to regain a foothold in the region, but were vanquished by the Assyrians, leading to an Assyrian invasion and conquest of Egypt
Egypt
and the destruction of the Kushite Empire. The Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
was forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Between 616 and 605 BC the Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
collapsed due to a series of bitter internal civil wars, followed by an attack by an alliance of Babylonians, Medes
Medes
and Persians and the Scythians. The Babylonians
Babylonians
inherited the western part of the empire of their Assyrian brethren, including all the lands in Canaan
Canaan
and Syria, together with Israel
Israel
and Judah. They successfully defeated the Egyptians, who had belatedly attempted to aid their former masters, the Assyrians, and then remained in the region in an attempt to regain a foothold in the Near East. The Babylonian Empire
Babylonian Empire
itself collapsed in 539 BC, and Canaan
Canaan
fell to the Persians and became a part of the Achaemenid Empire. It remained so until in 332 BC it was conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, later to fall to Rome in the late 2nd century BC, and then Byzantium, until the Arab
Arab
Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century.[52] Culture[edit] Canaan
Canaan
included what today are Lebanon, Israel, northwestern Jordan, and some western areas of Syria.[55] According to archaeologist Jonathan N. Tubb, "Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites
Israelites
and Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites", "the same people who settled in farming villages in the region in the 8th millennium BC."[56] There is uncertainty about whether the name Canaan
Canaan
refers to a specific Semitic-speaking ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, or a region under the control of this ethnic group, or perhaps any combination of the three. Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change. During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilizations of the Middle East—Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia), the Hittites, and Minoan Crete—to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology
Canaanite mythology
by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub
Teshub
(Hurrian) or Ba'al Hadad (Semitic Amorite/Aramean) and Ya'a, Yaw, Yahu
Yahu
or Yam, god of the sea and rivers. Early Canaanite civilization was characterized by small walled market towns, surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley. Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced—shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. Evidence of this cycle of agriculture is found in the Gezer
Gezer
calendar and in the biblical cycle of the year.

Canaanite sarcophagi ( Israel
Israel
Museum)

Periods of rapid climate change generally saw a collapse of this mixed Mediterranean
Mediterranean
farming system; commercial production was replaced with subsistence agricultural foodstuffs; and transhumance pastoralism became a year-round nomadic pastoral activity, whilst tribal groups wandered in a circular pattern north to the Euphrates, or south to the Egyptian delta with their flocks. Occasionally, tribal chieftains would emerge, raiding enemy settlements and rewarding loyal followers from the spoils or by tariffs levied on merchants. Should the cities band together and retaliate, a neighbouring state intervene or should the chieftain suffer a reversal of fortune, allies would fall away or intertribal feuding would return. It has been suggested that the Patriarchal tales of the Bible
Bible
reflect such social forms.[57] During the periods of the collapse of Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, the Hyksos
Hyksos
invasions and the end of the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, and the Late Bronze Age collapse, trade through the Canaanite area would dwindle, as Egypt, Babylonia, and to a lesser degree Assyria, withdrew into their isolation. When the climates stabilized, trade would resume firstly along the coast in the area of the Philistine and Phoenician cities. As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea, through Hebron, Lachish, Jerusalem, Bethel, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh through Galilee to Jezreel, Hazor and Megiddo. Secondary Canaanite cities would develop in this region. Further economic development would see the creation of a third trade route from Eilath, Timna, Edom
Edom
(Seir), Moab, Ammon
Ammon
and thence to the Aramean
Aramean
states of Damascus
Damascus
and Palmyra. Earlier states (for example the Philistines
Philistines
and Tyrians
Tyrians
in the case of Judah and Samaria, for the second route, and Judah and Israel
Israel
for the third route) tried generally unsuccessfully to control the interior trade.[58] Eventually, the prosperity of this trade would attract more powerful regional neighbours, such as Ancient Egypt, Assyria, the Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
and Romans, who would control the Canaanites politically, levying tribute, taxes and tariffs. Often in such periods, thorough overgrazing would result in a climatic collapse and a repeat of the cycle (e.g., PPNB, Ghassulian, Uruk, and the Bronze Age cycles already mentioned). The fall of later Canaanite civilization occurred with the incorporation of the area into the Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
world (as Iudaea
Iudaea
province), and after Byzantine
Byzantine
times, into the Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
and proto- Muslim
Muslim
Umayyad Caliphate. Western Aramaic, one of the two lingua francas of Canaanite civilization, is still spoken in a number of small Syrian villages, whilst Phoenician Canaanite disappeared as a spoken language in about 100 AD. A separate Akkadian-infused Eastern Aramaic is still spoken by the existing Assyrians of Iraq, Iran, northeast Syria
Syria
and southeast Turkey. Tel Kabri
Tel Kabri
contains the remains of a Canaanite city from the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2000–1550 BC). The city, the most important of the cities in the Western Galilee
Galilee
during that period, had a palace at its center. Tel Kabri
Tel Kabri
is the only Canaanite city that can be excavated in its entirety because after the city was abandoned, no other city was built over its remains. It is notable because the predominant extra-Canaanite cultural influence is Minoan; Minoan-style frescoes decorate the palace.[59] Legacy[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017)

"Canaan" is used as a synonym of the Promised Land; for instance, it is used in this sense in the hymn, Canaan's Happy Shore, with the lines: "Oh, brothers, will you meet me, (3x)/On Canaan's happy shore," a hymn set to the tune later used in The Battle Hymn of the Republic. List of Canaan's rulers[edit] Further information: Kings of Ugarit Names of Canaanite kings or other figures mentioned in historiography or known through archaeology

Confirmed archaeologically

Niqmaddu I of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Known from a seal used by Ugaritan Kings) Yaqarum I of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Known from a seal used by Ugaritan Kings) Ammittamru I
Ammittamru I
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Amarna letters) Niqmaddu II
Niqmaddu II
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Amarna letters) (1349–1315 BC) Arhalba
Arhalba
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1315–1313 BC) Niqmepa
Niqmepa
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1313–1260 BC) Ammittamru II
Ammittamru II
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1260–1235 BC) Ibiranu
Ibiranu
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1235–1220 BC) Ammurapi
Ammurapi
of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1215–1185 BC) Aziru, ruler of Amurru (Amarna letters) Labaya, lord of Shechem
Shechem
(Amarna letters) Abdikheba, mayor of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Amarna letters) Šuwardata, mayor of Qiltu (Amarna letters)

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
and other historiography

Canaan, son of Ham
Canaan, son of Ham
(Gen. 10:6) Sidon, firstborn son of Canaan
Canaan
(Gen. 10:15) Heth, son of Canaan
Canaan
(Gen. 10:15) Cronos (Ilus), founder of Byblos
Byblos
according to Sanchuniathon Mamre, an Amorite
Amorite
chieftain (Gen. 13:18) Makamaron, king of Canaan
Canaan
(Jubilees 46:6) Sihon, king of Amorites
Amorites
(Deut 1:4) Og, king of Bashan (Deut 1:4) Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Josh. 10:1) Debir, king of Eglon (Josh. 10:3) Jabin, name of two kings of Hazor (Josh. 11:1; Judges 5:6)

Rulers of Tyre

Abibaal 990–978 BC Hiram I 978–944 BC Baal-Eser I (Balbazer I) 944–927 BC Abdastartus 927–918 BC Methusastartus 918–906 BC Astarymus 906–897 BC Phelles 897–896 BC Eshbaal I 896–863 BC Baal-Eser II (Balbazer II) 863–829 BC Mattan I 829–820 BC Pygmalion 820–774 BC Eshbaal II 750–739 BC Hiram II 739–730 BC Mattan II 730–729 BC Elulaios 729 694 BC Abd Melqart 694–680 BC Baal
Baal
I 680–660 BC Tyre may have been under control of Assyria
Assyria
and/or Egypt
Egypt
for 70 years Eshbaal III 591–573 BC— Carthage
Carthage
became independent of Tyre in 574 BC Baal
Baal
II 573–564 BC (under Babylonian overlords) Yakinbaal 564 BC Chelbes 564–563 BC Abbar 563–562 BC Mattan III and Ger Ashthari 562–556 BC Baal-Eser III 556–555 BC Mahar- Baal
Baal
555–551 BC Hiram III 551–532 BC Mattan III (under Persian Control) Boulomenus Abdemon c.420–411 BC

In Jewish and Christian
Christian
Scriptures[edit]

Map of Canaan, with the border defined by Numbers 34:1–12 shown in red.

Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] In Biblical usage, the name was confined to the country west of the Jordan
Jordan
River. Canaanites were described as living "by the sea, and along by the side of the Jordan" ( Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
33:51; Book of Joshua
Joshua
22:9). Canaan
Canaan
was especially identified with Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Book of Isaiah 23:11).[60] The Philistines, while an integral part of the Canaanite milieu, do not seem to have been ethnic Canaanites, and were listed in the Table of Nations
Table of Nations
as descendants of Mizraim; the Arameans, Moabites, Ammonites, Midianites and Edomites were also considered fellow descendants of Shem
Shem
or Abraham, and distinct from generic Canaanites/Amorites. "Heth", representing the Hittites, is a son of Canaan. The later Hittites
Hittites
spoke an Indo-European language (called Nesili), but their predecessors the Hattians
Hattians
had spoken a little-known language (Hattili), of uncertain affinities.[citation needed] The Horites, formerly of Mount Seir, were implied to be Canaanite (Hivite), although unusually there is no direct confirmation of this in the narrative. The Hurrians, based in Upper Mesopotamia, spoke the Hurrian
Hurrian
language. Their language was a language isolate. In the Bible, the renaming of the Land of Canaan
Land of Canaan
as the Land of Israel marks the Israelite conquest of the Promised Land.[61] Canaan
Canaan
and the Canaanites are mentioned some 160 times in the Hebrew Bible, mostly in the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua
Joshua
and Judges.[62] An eponymous ancestor called Canaan
Canaan
first appears as one of Noah's grandsons. He appears during the narrative known as the Curse of Ham, in which Canaan
Canaan
is cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had "looked upon" the drunk and naked Noah.[citation needed] God
God
later promises the land of Canaan
Canaan
to Abraham, and eventually delivers it to descendants of Abraham, the Israelites.[62] The biblical history has become increasingly problematic as the archaeological and textual evidence supports the idea that the early Israelites
Israelites
were in fact themselves Canaanites.[62] The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
lists borders for the land of Canaan. The Book of Numbers, 34:2, includes the phrase "the land of Canaan
Canaan
as defined by its borders." The borders are then delineated in Numbers 34:3–12. The term "Canaanites" in biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
is applied especially to the inhabitants of the lower regions, along the sea coast and on the shores of the Jordan
Jordan
River, as opposed to the inhabitants of the mountainous regions. By the Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(530 BC–70 AD),[63] "Canaanite" in the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for "merchant", as it is interpreted in, for example, Book of Job
Book of Job
40:30, or Book of Proverbs 31:24.[64] John N. Oswalt notes that " Canaan
Canaan
consists of the land west of the Jordan
Jordan
and is distinguished from the area east of the Jordan." Oswalt then goes on to say that in Scripture, Canaan
Canaan
"takes on a theological character" as "the land which is God's gift" and "the place of abundance".[65] The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
describes the Israelite conquest of Canaan
Canaan
in the "Former Prophets" ( Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim, נביאים ראשונים‬ ), viz. the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. These books of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon give the narrative of the Israelites
Israelites
after the death of Moses
Moses
and their entry into Canaan
Canaan
under the leadership of Joshua.[66] In 586 BC, the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
was annexed into the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
fell after a siege which lasted either eighteen or thirty months.[67] By 586 BC, much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population.[68] The descendants of the Israelites thus lost control of the land.[citation needed] These narratives of the Former Prophets are also "part of a larger work, called the Deuteronomistic History".[69] The passage in the Book of Genesis often called the Table of Nations presents the Canaanites as descendants of an eponymous ancestor called Canaan, the son of Ham and grandson of Noah
Noah
(Hebrew: כְּנַעַן‎, Knaan). (Genesis 10:15–19) states:

Canaan
Canaan
is the father of Sidon, his firstborn; and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan
Canaan
reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon
Sidon
toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then [inland around the Jordan
Jordan
Valley ] toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

The Sidon
Sidon
whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan
Canaan
has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon
Sidon
in Lebanon. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the "Land of Canaan".[citation needed] Similarly, Canaanite populations are said to have inhabited:

the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastlands ( Joshua
Joshua
5:1), including Lebanon corresponding to Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Isaiah 23:11) and the Gaza Strip corresponding to Philistia
Philistia
(Zephaniah 2:5). the Jordan
Jordan
Valley ( Joshua
Joshua
11:3, Numbers 13:29, Genesis 13:12).

The Canaanites (Hebrew: כנענים‬, Modern Kna'anim, Tiberian Kənaʻănîm) are said to have been one of seven regional ethnic divisions or "nations" driven out by the Israelites following the Exodus. Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites (Deuteronomy 7:1). According to the Book of Jubilees, the Israelite conquest of Canaan
Canaan
is attributed to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile, and instead "squatting" on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, within the inheritance delineated for Shem. Canaan
Canaan
thus incurs a further curse from Noah
Noah
for disobeying the agreed apportionment of land.[citation needed] One of the 613 commandments
613 commandments
(precisely n. 596) prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, were to be left alive.[citation needed] While the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
distinguishes the Canaanites ethnically from the ancient Israelites, modern scholars Jonathan Tubb and Mark S. Smith have theorized—based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations—that the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Kingdom of Judah represented a subset of Canaanite culture.[24][70] The usage of the names Canaanites and Phoenicians
Phoenicians
in later books of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
(such as at the end of the Book of Zechariah, where it is thought[by whom?] to refer to a class of merchants or to non-monotheistic worshippers in Israel
Israel
or neighbouring Sidon
Sidon
and Tyre), as well as in its single independent usage in the New Testament (where it alternates with the term "Syrophoenician" in two parallel passages). New Testament[edit] Canaan
Canaan
(Greek: Χαναάν, Chanaán) is used only three times in the New Testament: twice in Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
when paraphrasing Old Testament stories,[71] and once in the exorcism of the Syrophoenician woman's daughter. The latter story is told by both the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew and the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark; Matthew uses the term Chananaia (Greek: Χαναναία), where Mark calls the woman Syrophoenician (Greek: Συροφοινίκισσα). Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
describes the term Chananaia as "in Christ's time equivalent to Phoenician".[72] Black Africans as descendants of Canaan[edit] Further information: Curse of Ham
Curse of Ham
and Book of Abraham During the Atlantic slave trade, many Christians began teaching that black Africans were descendants of Canaan
Canaan
and used the Curse of Ham
Curse of Ham
to justify enslaving black Africans.[73][74] This belief was especially strong in the Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, who canonized the Book of Abraham, which teaches that Canaan
Canaan
was a descendant of Cain, that his descendants settled Africa, and that they were cursed. Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
and Brigham Young
Brigham Young
both used the Curse of Ham to justify slavery in Mormonism.[75][76] This was also their rationale in denying Africans access to their priesthood until June 1978, at which point their prophet at the time, President Spencer W. Kimball, announced that as far as priesthood was concerned, the curse was lifted.[77] Modern scholars do not believe that black Africans are related to the Canaanites based upon race as depicted throughout local and Egyptian arts and Genetics and Physical Anthropology.[78] See also[edit]

Amarna letters–localities and their rulers Canaanite religion History of the name Palestine Names of the Levant

Notes[edit]

^ Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King, 'Genetics and the Archaeology of Ancient Israel,' Human Biology, Wayne State University 12-1-2013. ^ William G. Dever, Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come From?, p.219, quote: "Canaanite is by far the most common ethnic term in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The pattern of polemics suggests that most Israelites
Israelites
knew that they had a shared common remote ancestry and once common culture." ^ Thomas B. Dozeman, Joshua
Joshua
1–12: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, Yale University Press, 2015 p.259: "In the ideology of the book of Joshua, the Canaanites are included in the list of nations requiring extermination (3:10; 9:1; 24:11)." ^ a b Drews 1998, pp. 48–49: "The name 'Canaan' did not entirely drop out of usage in the Iron Age. Throughout the area that we—with the Greek speakers—prefer to call 'Phoenicia', the inhabitants in the first millennium BC called themselves 'Canaanites'. For the area south of Mt. Carmel, however, after the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
ended references to 'Canaan' as a present phenomenon dwindle almost to nothing (the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
of course makes frequent mention of 'Canaan' and 'Canaanites', but regularly as a land that had become something else, and as a people who had been annihilated)." ^ David
David
Asheri, Alan Lloyd, Aldo Corcella, A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1–4, Oxford University Press, 2007 p.75. ^ Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebrew
Hebrew
Lexicon, 1833 ^ Bible
Bible
Places: The Topography of the Holy Land, Henry Baker Tristram, 1884 ^ Drews 1998, pp. 47–49:"From the Egyptian texts it appears that the whole of Egypt’s province in the Levant
Levant
was called ‘Canaan’, and it would perhaps not be incorrect to understand the term as the name of that province...It may be that the term began as a Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
common noun, ‘the subdued, the subjugated’, and that it then evolved into the proper name of the Asiaticland that had fallen under Egypt’s dominion (just as the first Roman province in Gaul eventually became Provence)" ^ Drews 1998, p. 48: "Until E.A. Speiser proposed that the name ‘Canaan’ was derived from the (unattested) word kinahhu, which Speiser supposed must have been an Akkadian term for reddish-blue or purple, Semiticists regularly explained ‘Canaan’ (Hebrew këna‘an; elsewhere in Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
kn‘n) as related to the Aramaic verb kn‘: ‘to bend down, be low’. That etymology is perhaps correct after all. Speiser’s alternative explanation has been generally abandoned, as has the proposal that ‘Canaan’ meant ‘the land of merchants’." ^ Lemche 1991, pp. 24–32 ^ Zarins, Juris (1992), "Pastoral nomadism in Arabia: ethnoarchaeology and the archaeological record—a case study" in O. Bar-Yosef and A. Khazanov, eds. " Pastoralism
Pastoralism
in the Levant" ^ a b Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998), "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) ^ Woodard, Roger (2008), The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia . ^ Naveh, Joseph
Joseph
(1987), "Proto-Canaanite, Archaic Greek, and the Script of the Aramaic Text on the Tell Fakhariyah Statue", in Miller; et al., Ancient Israelite Religion . ^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21481-X.  ^ G. Ahlstrom, The History of Ancient Palestine p. 141. ^ J. Dahood, 1978, "Ebla, Ugarit
Ugarit
and the Old Testament", in Congress Volume, International Organization for Study of the Old Testament, p. 83. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.15 ^ "Une mention de Cananéens dans une lettre de Mari". JSTOR 4197896.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b c d e f g h Na'aman 2005, pp. 110–120. ^ Lemche, pp. 27–28: "However, all but one of the references belong to the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, the one exception being the mention of some Canaanites in a document from Marl from the 18th century BC. In this document we find a reference to LUhabbatum u LUKi-na-ah-num. The wording of this passage creates some problems as to the identity of these 'Canaanites', because of the parallelism between LUKh-na-ah-num and LUhabbatum, which is unexpected. The Akkadian word habbatum, the meaning of which is actually 'brigands', is sometimes used to translate the Sumerian expression SA.GAZ, which is normally thought to be a logogram for habiru, 'Hebrews'. Thus there is some reason to question the identity of the 'Canaanites' who appear in this text from Marl We may ask whether these people were called 'Canaanites' because they were ethnically of another stock than the ordinary population of Mari, or whether it was because they came from a specific geographical area, the land of Canaan. However, because of the parallelism in this text between LUhabbatum and LUKi-na-ah-num, we cannot exclude the possibility that the expression 'Canaanites' was used here with a sociological meaning. It could be that the word 'Canaanites' was in this case understood as a sociological designation of some sort which shared at least some connotations with the sociological term habiru. Should this be the case, the Canaanites of Marl may well have been refugees or outlaws rather than ordinary foreigners from a certain country (from Canaan). Worth considering is also Manfred Weippert's interpretation of the passage LUhabbatum u LUKi-na-ah-num—literally 'Canaanites and brigands'—as 'Canaanite brigands', which may welt mean 'highwaymen of foreign origin', whether or not they were actually Canaanites coming from Phoenicia." ^ Reallexikon der Assyriologie, "Kanaan", Manfred Weippert, volume 5, p.352 ^ Drews 1998, p. 46: "An eighteenth-century letter from Mari may refer to Canaan, but the first certain cuneiform reference appears on a statue base of Idrimi, king of Alalakh
Alalakh
c. 1500 BC." ^ a b Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.16 ^ Breasted, J.H. (1906) "Ancient records of Egypt" (University of Illinois Press) ^ Redford, Donald B. (1993) Egypt, Canaan, and Israel
Israel
in Ancient Times (Princeton University Press) ^ Drews 1998, p. 61: "The name 'Canaan', never very popular, went out of vogue with the collapse of the Egyptian empire." ^ For details of the disputes, see the works of Lemche and Na'aman, the main protagonists. ^ Higginbotham, Carolyn (2000). Egyptianization and Elite Emulation in Ramesside Palestine: Governance and Accommodation on the Imperial Periphery. Brill Academic Pub. p. 57. ISBN 978-90-04-11768-6.  ^ Hasel, Michael (Sep 2010). "Pa- Canaan
Canaan
in the Egyptian New Kingdom: Canaan
Canaan
or Gaza?". University of Arizona Institutional Repository logo Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. 1 (1). Retrieved 12 September 2011.  ^ Drews 1998, p. 49a:"In the Papyrus Harris, from the middle of the twelfth century, the late Ramesses III
Ramesses III
claims to have built for Amon a temple in 'the Canaan' of Djahi. More than three centuries later comes the next—and very last—Egyptian reference to 'Canaan' or 'the Canaan': a basalt statuette, usually assigned to the Twenty-Second Dynasty, is labeled, 'Envoy of the Canaan
Canaan
and of Palestine, Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy'." ^ Drews 1998, p. 49b:"Although New Assyrian inscriptions frequently refer to the Levant, they make no mention of ‘Canaan’. Nor do Persian and Greek sources refer to it." ^ a b Cohen, Getzel (2006), The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea
Sea
Basin, and North Africa, University of California Press, p. 205, ISBN 978-0-520-93102-2, Berytos, being part of Phoenicia, was under Ptolemaic control until 200 B.C. After the battle of Panion Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and southern Syria
Syria
passed to the Seleucids. In the second century B.C. Laodikeia issued both autonomous as well as quasi-autonomous coins. The autonomous bronze coins had a Tyche on the obverse. The reverse often had Poseidon or Astarte standing on the prow of a ship, the letters BH or [lambda alpha] and the monogram [phi], that is, the initials of Berytos/Laodikeia and Phoenicia, and, on a few coins, the Phoenician legend LL'DK' 'S BKN 'N or LL'DK' 'M BKN ’N, which has been read as "Of Laodikcia which is in Canaan" or "Of Laodikcia Mother in Canaan." The quasi-municipal coins—issued under Antiochos IV Epiphanes (175–164 B.c.) and continuing with Alexander I Balas (150–145 B.c.), Demetrios II Nikator (146–138 B.C.), and Alexander II Zabinas
Alexander II Zabinas
(128–123 n.c.)—contained the king's head on the obverse, and on the reverse the name of the king in Greek, the city name in Phoenician (LL'DK' 'S BKN ’N or LL'DK’ 'M BKN 'N), the Greek letters [lambda alpha], and the monogram [phi]. After c.123 B.C. the Phoenician "Of Laodikcia which is in Canaan" / "Of Laodikcia Mother in Canaan" is no longer attested  ^ The Popular and Critical Bible
Bible
Encyclopaedia, The three occasions are Acts 11:19, Acts 15:3 and Acts 21:2 ^ Epistulae ad Romanos expositio inchoate expositio, 13 (Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol.35 p.2096):'Interrogati rustici nostri quid sint, punice respondents chanani.' ^ Brent D. Shaw, [Sacred Violence: African Christians and Sectarian Hatred in the Age of Augustine,] Cambridge University Press, 2011 p.431 ^ Mark Ellingsen, The Richness of Augustine: His Contextual and Pastoral Theology, Westminster John Knox Press, 2005 p.9. ^ "Cambridge History of Judaism". Cambridge.org. p. 210. Retrieved 16 August 2011.  "In both the Idumaean
Idumaean
and the Ituraean alliances, and in the annexation of Samaria, the Judaeans had taken the leading role. They retained it. The whole political–military–religious league that now united the hill country of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba, whatever it called itself, was directed by, and soon came to be called by others, 'the Ioudaioi'" ^ A History of the Jewish People, edited by Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, page 226, "The name Judea no longer referred only to...." ^ a b Feldman, Louis (1990). "Some Observations on the Name of Palestine". Hebrew
Hebrew
Union College Annual. 61: 1–23. Retrieved 12 Feb 2011.  ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria
Syria
Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2008-07-06.  ^ Sharon, 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon, "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it Palaestina or Syria
Syria
Palaestina. ^ Jacobson, David
David
(1999). "Palestine and Israel". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: 65–74. JSTOR 1357617.  ^ Noll 2001, p. 26 ^ Woodard. The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-139-46934-0. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ See Archived 2015-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Golden 2009, p. 5 ^ a b Golden 2009, pp. 5–6 ^ Golden 2009, pp. 6–7 ^ F Leo Oppenheim – Ancient Mesopotamia ^ El Amarna letter, EA 189. ^ a b c d Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq ^ Killebrew Ann E. "Biblical Jerusalem: An Archaeological Assessment" in Andrew G. Vaughn and Ann E. Killebrew, eds., " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period" (SBL Symposium Series 18; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003) ^ Wolfe, Robert. "From Habiru
Habiru
to Hebrews: The Roots of the Jewish Tradition". Retrieved 2013.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Tubb 1998, p. 13 ^ Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14 ^ Seters John van, (1987), Abraham
Abraham
in Myth and Tradition (Yale University Press) ^ Thompson, Thomas L. (2000), Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources (Brill Academic) ^ "Remains Of Minoan-Style Painting Discovered During Excavations Of Canaanite Palace", ScienceDaily (Dec. 7, 2009) [1] ^ The Septuagint
Septuagint
translates "Canaanites" by "Phoenicians", and "Canaan" by the "land of the Phoenicians" ( Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus
16:35; Book of Joshua
Joshua
5:12). "Canaan" article in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia online ^ The Land of Israel: National Home Or Land of Destiny, By Eliezer Schweid, Translated by Deborah Greniman, Published 1985 Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, ISBN 0-8386-3234-3, pp. 16–17: ... let us begin by examining the kinds of assertions about the land of Israel that we encounter in persuing [sic] the books of the Bible. ... A third kind of assertion deals with the history of the Land of Israel. Before its settlement by the Israelite tribes, it is called The Land of Canaan ^ a b c Killebrew 2005, p. 96 ^ Figures based purely upon scientific dating and the proclivity among some scholars to bypass Jewish sources. However, Jewish tradition avers that the Second Temple stood for only four-hundred and twenty years, i.e. from 352 BCE – 68 CE. See: Maimondes' Questions & Responsa, responsum # 389, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1960 (Hebrew) ^ Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebrew
Hebrew
Dictionary [2] ^ John N. Oswalt, "כנען‬," in R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke (eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody, 1980) 445–446. ^ The Making of the Old Testament
Old Testament
Canon. by Lou H. Silberman, The Interpreter’s One-Volume Commentary on the Bible. Abingdon Press – Nashville 1971–1991, p1209 ^ Malamat, Abraham
Abraham
(1968). "The Last Kings of Judah and the Fall of Jerusalem: An Historical—Chronological Study". Israel
Israel
Exploration Journal. 18 (3): 137–156. JSTOR 27925138. The discrepancy between the length of the siege according to the regnal years of Zedekiah (years 9-11), on the one hand, and its length according to Jehoiachin's exile (years 9-12), on the other, can be cancelled out only by supposing the former to have been reckoned on a Tishri basis, and the latter on a Nisan basis. The difference of one year between the two is accounted for by the fact that the termination of the siege fell in the summer, between Nisan and Tishri, already in the 12th year according to the reckoning in Ezekiel, but still in Zedekiah's 11th year which was to end only in Tishri.  ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism in the Second Temple Period. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN 0-567-08998-3.  ^ by Michael Coogan A brief Introduction to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press New York, 2009, p4 ^ Mark Smith in The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel
Israel
states,

Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites
Israelites
were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites
Israelites
and Canaanites in the Iron I period (ca. 1200–1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites
Israelites
for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7).Smith, Mark (2002) The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel, (Eerdman's)

^ Acts 7:11 and Acts 13:19 ^ NT 5478 ^ Benjamin Braude, "The Sons of Noah
Noah
and the Construction of Ethnic and Geographical Identities in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods, "William and Mary Quarterly LIV (January 1997): 103–142. See also William McKee Evans, "From the Land of Canaan
Land of Canaan
to the Land of Guinea: The Strange Odyssey
Odyssey
of the Sons of Ham,"American Historical Review 85 (February 1980): 15–43 ^ John N. Swift and Gigen Mammoser, "Out of the Realm of Superstition: Chesnutt's 'Dave's Neckliss' and the Curse of Ham", American Literary Realism, vol. 42 no. 1, Fall 2009, 3 ^ Smith, Joseph
Joseph
(1836).  Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate/Volume 2/Number 7/Letter to Oliver Cowdery from Joseph
Joseph
Smith, Jr. (Apr. 1836). Wikisource. pp. 290. "As the fact is uncontrovertable, that the first mention we have of slavery is found in the holy bible...'And he said cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren'...the people who interfere the least with the decrees and purposes of God
God
in this matter, will come under the least condemnation before him; and those who are determined to pursue a course which shows an opposition and a feverish restlessness against the designs of the Lord, will learn, when perhaps it is too late for their own good, that God
God
can do his own work without the aid of those who are not dictate by his counsel."  ^ Young, Brigham (1863).  Journal of Discourses/Volume 10/Necessity for Watchfulness, etc.. Wikisource. pp. 248–250.  ^ "Race and the Priesthood". Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ Van-Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation. Yale University Press. 1966.

Bibliography[edit]

Bishop Moore, Megan; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible
Bible
and History. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0.  Day, John (2002). Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-6830-7.  Coogan, Michael D. (1978). Stories from Ancient Canaan. Westminster Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X.  Finkelstein, Israel
Israel
(1996). "Towards a new periodization and nomenclature of the archaeology of the southern Levant". In Cooper, Jerrold S.; Schwartz, Glenn M. The study of the ancient Near East
Near East
in the twenty-first century. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-96-6.  Golden, Jonathan M. (2009). Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537985-3.  Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). Biblical peoples and ethnicity. SBL. ISBN 978-1-58983-097-4.  Na'aman, Nadav (2005). Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd millennium B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-113-9.  Lemche, Niels-Peter (1991). The Canaanites and their land: the tradition of the Canaanites. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-567-45111-8.  Noll, K.L. (2001). Canaan
Canaan
and Israel
Israel
in antiquity: an introduction. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84127-318-1.  Smith, Mark S. (2002). The early history of God. Eerdmans. ISBN 9004119434.  Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X.  Drews, Robert (1998), "Canaanites and Philistines", Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 81: 39–61 

External links[edit]

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Canaan, Canaanites.

Canaan
Canaan
& Ancient Israel, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Explores their identities (land-time, daily life, economy & religion) in pre-historical times through the material remains that they have left behind. Catholic Encyclopedia. Antiquities of the Jews
Jews
by Flavius Josephus. When Canaanites and Philistines
Philistines
Ruled Ashkelon Biblical Archaeology Society

v t e

Ancient states and regions in the history of the Levant

Bronze Age

Akkadian Empire Amurru Bashan Canaan Ebla Edom Hittite Empire Mari Mitanni Moab Nagar Qatna Tyre Ugarit Urkesh Yamhad

Iron Age

Ammon Aramea Aram-Damascus Assyrian Empire Canaan Egyptian Empire Israel
Israel
(Samaria) Israel
Israel
and Judah Judah Neo-Babylonian Empire Philistia Phoenicia Syro-Hittite

Classical Age

Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire Hasmonea Herodian Judaea Herodian Tetrarchy Macedonian Empire Nabataea Neo-Babylonian Empire Parthian Empire Palmyrene Empire Persian Empire Roman Empire Roman Republic Sasanian Empire Seleucid Empire

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Coordinates: 32°N 35°E / 32°N

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