CAMPANIA (Italian pronunciation: ) is a region in Southern
The region at the end of 2014 had a population of around 5,869,000
people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy; its total
area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated
region in the country. Located on the
Italian Peninsula , with the
Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean
Capri for administration as part of the region.
Campania was colonised by
Ancient Greeks and was part of _Magna
Græcia _. During the
Roman era , the area maintained a Greco-Roman
culture. The capital city of
Campania is rich in
culture, especially in regard to gastronomy , music , architecture ,
archeological and ancient sites such as
Velia . The name of
Campania itself is derived from Latin
, as the Romans knew the region as _
Campania felix_, which translates
into English as "fertile countryside ". The rich natural sights of
Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially
Amalfi Coast ,
Mount Vesuvius and the island of
* 1.1 Ancient tribes and
* 1.2 Roman period
* 1.3 Feudalism in the
* 1.4 The Kingdom
* 1.4.1 Norman to Angevin
* 1.4.2 Aragonese to Bourbon
* 1.5 World War II, "
* 2 Geography
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Government and politics
* 5.1 Administrative divisions
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Cuisine
* 6.2 Ancient, medieval, and early arts
* 6.3 Contemporary and modern arts
* 6.4 Sports
* 7 References
* 8 External links
ANCIENT TRIBES AND SAMNITE WARS
Samnite Wars and
Magna Græcia Temple of Hera,
Paestum , built 550 BC
The original inhabitants of
Campania were three defined groups of the
Ancient peoples of
Italy , who all spoke the
Oscan language , which is
part of the Italic family ; their names were the
Osci , the Aurunci
Ausones . During the 8th century BC, people from
Greece , known as Cumaeans , began to establish colonies in the area
roughly around the modern day province of
Naples . Another Oscan
tribe, the Samnites , moved down from central
Italy into Campania.
Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they easily
took over the cities of
Capua and Cumae, in an area which was one of
the most prosperous and fertile in the
Italian Peninsula at the time.
During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman
Republic in a dispute known as the
Samnite Wars , with the Romans
securing rich pastures of northern
Campania during the First Samnite
The major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis , and
when the town was eventually captured by the Samnites , the
Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans
, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second
Samnite War . The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured
Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some
autonomy as a _civitas foederata_ while strongly aligned with Rome.
Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern
Campania and additional regions further to the south.
Roman Republic ,
Roman Empire , and
Italia (Roman Empire)
Campania was a full-fledged part of the
Roman Republic by the end of
the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Its
Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic
civilization , creating the first traces of
Pyrrhic War the battle took place in
Campania at Maleventum
in which the Romans, led by consul
Curius Dentatus , were victorious.
They renamed the city Beneventum (modern day
Benevento ), which grew
in stature until it was second only to
Capua in southern Italy.
Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality
with Rome, allied with
Carthage . The rebellious Capuans were
isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained allies of Rome.
Hannibal due to the imposing walls.
eventually starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC ,
and the Romans were victorious. _ The Last Day of Pompeii_ –
The rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin
language as official and was
Romanised . As part of the Roman Empire
, Campania, with
Latium , formed the most important region of the
Augustan divisions of Italia ;
Campania was one of the main areas for
granary . Roman Emperors chose
Campania as a holiday destination,
Tiberius , the latter of whom is infamously
linked to the island of
Capri . It was also during this period that
Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles , St. Peter and St.
Paul , are said to have preached in the city of Naples, and there were
also several martyrs during this time. Unfortunately, the period of
relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount
Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of
With the Decline of the
Roman Empire , its last emperor, Romulus
Augustus , was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell\'Ovo ,
Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the
Middle Ages and a
period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
FEUDALISM IN THE MIDDLE AGES
Byzantine Empire ,
Principality of Salerno ,
Duchy of Amalfi ,
Duchy of Sorrento , and
Duchy of Apulia and Calabria
The area had many duchies and principalities during the
Middle Ages ,
in the hands of the
Byzantine Empire and the
Lombards . Under the
Normans , the smaller independent states were brought together as part
Kingdom of Sicily , before the mainland broke away to form the
Naples . It was during this period that elements of Spanish
, French and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania.
Norman To Angevin
Kingdom of Sicily , Kingdom of
Naples , and List of
Naples Early kings ruled from
After a period as a Norman kingdom, the
Kingdom of Sicily passed to
the Hohenstaufens , who were a powerful Germanic royal house of
Swabian origins. The University of
Naples Federico II was founded by
Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world,
Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict
between the Hohenstaufen house and the
Papacy , led in 1266 to Pope
Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king.
Charles officially moved the capital from
Naples where he
resided at the _
Castel Nuovo _. During this period, much Gothic
architecture sprang up around Naples, including the
Naples Cathedral ,
the main church of the city.
In 1281, with the advent of the
Sicilian Vespers , the kingdom split
in half. The Angevin Kingdom of
Naples included the southern part of
the Italian peninsula, while the island of
Sicily became the Aragonese
Kingdom of Sicily . The wars continued until the peace of
Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of
the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of
Pope Boniface VIII . Despite the split,
Naples grew in
importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants, Tuscan bankers,
and with them some of the most championed Renaissance artists of the
time, such as Boccaccio ,
Giotto . Alfonso I conquered
Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king, René , and
Naples was unified for a brief period with
Aragonese To Bourbon
See also: Kingdom of
Parthenopaean Republic ,
Two Sicilies ,
and List of monarchs of the
Two Sicilies Revolutionary
Naples were separated in 1458 but remained as dependencies
Aragon under Ferrante . The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commerce
by establishing relations with the
Iberian peninsula .
became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana , da
Messina , Sannazzaro and
Poliziano arriving in the city. During 1501
Naples came under direct rule from
France at the time of Louis XII ,
as Neapolitan king Frederick was taken as a prisoner to France; this
lasted four years.
Naples at the Battle of Garigliano and,
as a result,
Naples then became part of the
Spanish Empire throughout
the entire Habsburg
Spain period. The Spanish sent viceroys to Naples
to directly deal with local issues: the most important of which was
Pedro Álvarez de Toledo , who was responsible for considerable
social, economic and urban progress in the city; he also supported the
Caserta Palace , inside
During this period
Naples became Europe's second largest city after
Paris . During the
Baroque era it was home to artists including
Caravaggio , Rosa and Bernini ; philosophers such as Telesio , Bruno ,
Campanella and Vico ; and writers such as Battista Marino . A
revolution led by local fisherman
Masaniello saw the creation of a
brief independent Neapolitan Republic , though this lasted only a few
months before Spanish rule was regained. Finally, by 1714, the
Spanish ceased to rule
Naples as a result of the War of the Spanish
Succession ; it was the Austrian Charles VI who ruled from
similarly, with viceroys. However, the War of the Polish Succession
saw the Spanish regain
Naples as part of a personal union ,
which in the Treaty of
Vienna were recognised as independent under a
cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons in 1738 under Charles VII .
Ferdinand , Bourbon king.
During the time of Ferdinand IV , the
French Revolution made its way
Horatio Nelson , an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in
the city in 1798 to warn against it. However, Ferdinand was forced to
retreat and fled to
Palermo , where he was protected by a British
fleet . Naples' lower classes (the _lazzaroni _) were pious and
Royalist , favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they
fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil war
. The Republicans conquered Castel Sant\'Elmo and proclaimed a
Parthenopaean Republic , secured by the
French Army . A
counter-revolutionary religious army of _lazzaroni_ under Fabrizio
Ruffo was raised; they had great success and the French surrendered
the Neapolitan castles and were allowed to sail back to
Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years
Napoleon conquered the kingdom and instated Bonapartist kings
including his brother
Joseph Bonaparte . With the help of the
Austrian Empire and allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the
Neapolitan War and Bourbon Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne
and the kingdom. The Congress of
Vienna in 1815 saw the kingdoms of
Sicily combined to form the
Two Sicilies , with
the capital city.
Naples became the first city on the Italian
peninsula to have a railway in 1839, there were many factories
throughout the kingdom making it a highly important trade centre.
WORLD WAR II, "SALERNO CAPITAL"
In September 1943,
Salerno was the scene of the Operation Avalanche
and suffered a great deal of damage. From February 12 to July 17,
1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal
Pietro Badoglio . In those
Salerno was the temporary "Capital of the Kingdom of
and the King
Victor Emmanuel III lived in a mansion in its outskirts.
Salerno received the first "Tricolore" in an official ceremony on 7
January 2012 from the premier
Mario Monti , to celebrate the glorious
Italy and its old capitals.
Mount Vesuvius erupting in 1944
Campania has an area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) and a coastline of
350 km (217 mi) on the
Tyrrhenian Sea .
Campania is famous for its
Salerno and Policastro) as well as for three islands
Four other regions border Campania;
Lazio to the northwest,
Apulia (Puglia) to the northeast and
Basilicata to the
The mountainous interior is fragmented into several massifs , rarely
reaching 2,000 metres (Miletto of 2,050 m), whereas close to the coast
there are volcanic massifs:
Vesuvio (1,277 m) and
Campi Flegrei .
The climate is typically Mediterranean along the coast, whereas in
the inner zones it is more continental, with low temperatures in
winter. 51% of the total area is hilly, 34% mountainous and the
remaining 15% is made up of plains. There is a high seismic risk in
the area of the region.
The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of
Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to
higher levels of quality and salaries.
Campania mainly produces fruit
and vegetables, but has also expanded its production of flowers grown
in greenhouses, becoming one of the leading regions of the sector in
Italy. The value added of this sector represents around 6.5% of the
total value added of the region, equalling €213.7 million. Campania
produces over 50% of Italy's nuts and is also the leader in the
production of tomatoes, which reaches 1.5 million tonnes a year. A
weak point, however, for the region's agriculture is the very reduced
size of farms, equal to 3.53 hectares. Animal breeding is widespread
(it was done in 70,278 farms in 2000) and the milk produced is used to
process typical products, such as mozzarella .
Olive trees cover over
74,604 hectares of the agricultural land and contribute by €620.6
million to the value added of agriculture, together with the
production of fruit. Wine production has increased, together with the
quality of the wine.
The region has a dense network of road and motorways, a system of
maritime connections and an airport (
Naples Airport ), which connect
it rapidly to the rest of the Country.
Campania has a series of
historical problems and internal contrasts, although they are
improving. The regional capital, Naples, one of the most populated and
interesting cities in Italy, rich in history and natural beauty, both
artistic and archaeological, still represents the centre of regional
life. The port connects the region with the whole Mediterranean basin
, and brings tourists to the archaeological sites , the cities of art
Naples and Caserta), to the beautiful coastal areas and to the
islands. The services sector makes up for 78% of the region's gross
The GDP pro-capita of
Campania is the highest among the regions of
South Italy, yet it is only 66.7% of the Italian average, which
highlights the steep economic gap between the North and the South of
Italy. The situation of Campania's economy is considered "anomalous",
as it is believed to have a large potential not properly exploited, as
well as high rates of unemployment and of submerged economy. It was
speculated that one factor could have been a failure of
connect with the economy of the unitary Italian state, while another
factor is its peripheral position too distant from the developed
central areas of Europe.
Heavy industry used to be concentrated in the
area, in which the largest industrial area was
Bagnoli , a suburb
located North of the city.
Bagnoli enjoyed a favourable logistic
position due its proximity to the sea and to an industrial harbour,
and included Steel factories that were among the largest in Europe.
The steel factories operated since 1905 for about 80 years, but by the
end of the sixties, all industries of
Bagnoli area gradually started
to loose competitiveness, and the steel factories were definitively
closed in 1991. At the beginning of the 70s, plans for the
de-industrialization of the area were presented, as it was perceived
that the causes of competitiveness loss were impossible to remove. In
1970 the City Council decided that 30% of space of the industrial
should be dismantled and turned into public parks. In 1976, a
definitive report concluded that the lack of competitiveness was due
to "impossibility to expand the facilities because of lack of space".
The metropolitan area of
Naples is limited by two dangerous areas,
Mount Vesuvius on the South, and supervolcano
Campi Flegrei on the
North, leaving little space in proximity of the sea.
Some factors may contribute in keeping the economy less competitive
or less flexible compared to Northern Italian and European regions,
among them, a larger public administration sector (which accounted for
20.4% of the whole economy in 2013, while in
Italy the figure is 13.6)
suggesting a too large number of public employees or white collars .
The number of lawyers is 5.7 every 1000, by comparison in Northern
Trentino-Alto Adige the number is 1.7. Because of a less
Campania may have suffered less the negative
effects of recent economic cycles.
Sea-based activity accounts about 3.9% of the economy, that includes
port movements of goods and passengers and sea transportation, as well
as a siezable seaside tourism economy. There is a massive automotive
industrial production, focused on high-quality models of brands Alfa
Romeo , in facilities located in Pomigliano d\'Arco in the Naples
metropolitan area and in
Cassino . There is also a significant
aerospace industry . A
Mars mission named Exo
Mars in 2016 had a major
part of its technology designed in Naples.
Source: ISTAT 2001, 2011, 2014
The region, with a population of over 5.8 million inhabitants, is
divided into five provinces: Naples, Benevento, Avellino,
Salerno. Over half of the population is resident in the province of
Naples, where there is a population density of 2,626 inhabitants per
km2. Within the province, the highest density can be found along the
coast, where it reaches 13,000 inhabitants per km2 in the city of
Portici. The region, which was characterised until recently by an
acute economic contrast between internal and coastal areas, has shown
an improvement in the last decade thanks to the development of the
Benevento and Avellino. At the same time, the provinces
Caserta and in part Salerno, have developed a variety of
activities connected to advanced types of services.
Unlike central and northern
Italy , in the last decade the region of
Campania has not attracted large numbers of immigrants. The Italian
national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated in January 2007 that
98,052 foreign-born immigrants live in Campania, equal to 1.7% of the
total regional population. Part of the reason for this is in recent
times, there have been more employment opportunities in northern
regions than in the Southern Italian regions.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Campania
Politics of Campania , takes place in a framework of a
presidential representative democracy , whereby the President of
Regional Government is the head of government , and of a pluriform
multi-party system .
Executive power is exercised by the Regional
Legislative power is vested in both the government and the
The Regional Council of
Campania (_Consiglio Regionale della
Campania_) is composed of 60 members, of which 47 are elected in
provincial constituencies with proportional representation , 12 from
the so-called "regional list" of the elected President and the last
one is for the candidate for President who comes second, who usually
becomes the leader of the opposition in the Council. If a coalition
wins more than 55% of the vote, only 6 candidates from the "regional
list" will be elected and the number of those elected in provincial
constituencies will be 53.
Campania is divided into five provinces:
Province of Avellino
Province of Caserta
Province of Salerno
Neapolitan cuisine An authentic Neapolitan pizza
Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes
centre on seafood, Casertan and Aversan ones rely more on fresh
vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from
Sorrento combines the
culinary traditions from both
Naples and Salerno.
Pizza was conceived in Naples. Historical and original pizzas from
Naples are pizza fritta (fried pizza); calzone (literally "trouser
leg"), which is pizza fritta stuffed with ricotta cheese; pizza
Marinara , with just olive oil , tomato sauce and garlic; and pizza
Margherita , with olive oil, tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese and basil
leaves. Neapolitans were among the first Europeans to use tomatoes not
only as ornamental plant , but also as food and garnish.
Spaghetti is also a well-known dish from southern
Italy and Campania.
Spaghetti alla puttanesca , a spicy pasta dish topped with a
sauce made of tomatoes, olives, anchovies and capers
Campania produces wines including
Lacryma Christi , Fiano , Aglianico
Greco di Tufo , Pere \'e palomma , Ischitano ,
Taurasi . The cheeses of
Campania consist of
Mozzarella di Bufala
(buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte
("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk , ricotta from
sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from
goat milk. Buffalo are bred in
Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania.
is made during
Easter . Casatiello and tortano are
made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough
and garnishing it with slices of salami . Babà cake is a well known
Neapolitan delicacy, best served with
Rum or limoncello (a liqueur
invented in the
Sorrento peninsula ). It is an old Austrian cake,
which arrived in
Campania during the Austrian domination of the
Two Sicilies and was modified there to become a "walking
cake" for citizens always in a hurry for work and other pursuits.
Sfogliatella is another cake from the
Amalfi Coast , as is
traditionally eaten on
Saint Joseph 's day.
Struffoli , little balls
fried dough dipped in honey , are enjoyed during the Christmas
holidays. Dried red peppers and lemons hanging from a shop in
Another Campanian dish is the so-called
Russian salad (which is based
on similar dishes from
France ), made of potatoes in mayonnaise
garnished with shrimp and vegetables in vinegar. Russians call this
same dish Olivier Salad , and Germans call it Italian salad . Another
French-derived dish is "gattò" or "gâteau di patate" (oven-baked pie
made of boiled potatoes). As with the
Russian salad ,
Campania is home
to popular seafood-based dishes, such as "insalata di mare " (seafood
salad ), "zuppa di polpo" (octopus soup), and "zuppa di cozze" (mussel
soup). Other regional seafood dishes include "frittelle di mare"
(fritters with seaweed), made with edible poseidonia algae, "triglie
al cartoccio" (red mullet in the bag), and "alici marinate" (fresh
anchovies in olive oil). The island of
Ischia is famous for its fish
dishes, as well as for cooked rabbit.
Campania is also home to the
Rapini (or Broccoli rabe), known locally as
_friarielli_, are often used in the regional cooking.
produces many nuts, especially in the area of Avellino,
Benevento. Hazelnut production is especially relevant in the province
of Avellino – in Spanish , in Portuguese and in Occitan the hazelnut
is respectively called _avellana_, _avelã_ and _avelano_, after the
Avella . That is also the case of ancient Italian _avellana_,
which is however not in use anymore.
ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL, AND EARLY ARTS
The grand gardens of the baroque Palace of
The region of
Campania is rich with a vast array of culture and
history. Since the Greek colony of Elea , now
home to philosophers of the
Pre-Socratic philosophy school, such as
Zeno of Elea , who came to prominence around 490–480
Vergil (70 BC–19 BC) settled in
Naples in his
late life: parts of his epic poem
Aeneid are located in Campania. The
Pliny the Elder studied Mount Vesuvius, and died
after being poisoned and killed by gas emitted from the volcano during
the 79 AD eruption.
Augustus , the last emperor of the Western
Roman Empire ,
died as a prisoner of the German general
Naples around 500.
Middle Ages , the artist
Giotto made some frescoes in Castel
Nuovo . These works of art were subsequently destroyed by an
By the end of the Middle Ages, the medical school of
Salerno , which
combined ancient Roman and Greek medicine with Arab medicine, was
known throughout Europe and its methods were adopted across the
continent. Some have suggested that this may have been one of the
first universities in Europe. Boccaccio , the Tuscan poet, visited
Naples on various occasions, and in the Decameron described it as a
dissolute city. He also wrote a love story involving a noble woman
close to the King of Naples.
Pulcinella with a guitar
In 1570, the Spanish writer
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes , who wrote the
romance novel _
Don Quixote _, served as a Spanish soldier for a period
in Naples. Poet
Torquato Tasso was born in
Sorrento in 1575. Years
earlier in 1558, the first modern description and studies of the
"camera obscura" ("dark chamber "), were established in
Giovanni Battista della Porta in his _
Magiae Naturalis _.
Giordano Bruno was born in
Nola . He was the first to
theorize infinite suns and infinite worlds in the universe. He was
Rome by the
Spanish Inquisition in 1600. Later, in c. 1606,
Caravaggio established his studio in Naples.
Cosimo Fanzago from
Bergamo also decided to
move to Naples.
In the 18th century,
Naples was the last city to be visited by
philosophers who created the "Grand Tour" which was the big touring
voyage to visit all the important cultural sites of the European
continent. Italian architect
Luigi Vanvitelli son of Dutch architect
Kaspar van Wittel built the Kingdom Palace in
Caserta in c. 1750. He
contributed to the construction of many neoclassic-style palaces in
which the nobles of
Naples spent their holidays. These palaces are now
known worldwide as "Ville Vesuviane ". The island of Capri, often
seen as a cultural symbol of Campania.
Raimondo di Sangro , prince of Sansevero, was a scientist and one of
the last alchemists. Around this time, in 1786, German writer Goethe
Campania and Naples. German archaeologist Johann Joachim
Winckelmann also visited Naples, Paestum,
1748 and later, studying how archaeological surveys were conducted in
the kingdom of Naples. He was one of the first to study drawings,
statues, stones, and ancient burned scrolls made of papyrus found in
the excavations of the city of Herculaneum. Archaeological excavations
Pompeii were initiated by King Charles III of
Naples in 1748. He
issued the first modern laws in Europe to protect, defend and preserve
archaeological sites. Neapolitan musicians of that period include
Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli and
Giovanni Paisiello .
Gioachino Rossini lived for several years in Naples, where
he wrote numerous compositions. Italian poet and writer Giacomo
Leopardi established his home in
Torre del Greco ,
remaining there at the end of his brief young life. He died at Naples
in 1837. The first volcano observatory , the
Vesuvius Observatory ,
was founded in
Naples in 1841. Geologist
Giuseppe Mercalli , born in
Milan in 1850, was a director of the
In February 1851, British statesman
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone was
allowed to visit the prison where Giacomo Lacaita, legal adviser to
the British embassy, was imprisoned by the Neapolitan government,
along with other political dissidents. He deplored their condition,
and in April and July published two _Letters to the Earl of Aberdeen_
against the Neapolitan government, followed by _An Examination of the
Official Reply of the Neapolitan Government_ in 1852. His pamphlets
may have contributed to the cause of the unification of
Italy in 1861.
Alexandre Dumas, père was directly involved in the
process of the Unification of Italy, and sojourned two or three years
in Naples, where he wrote several historical novels regarding that
city. He was also a known newspaper correspondent. Francesco de
Sanctis , writer, politician and twice Minister of Instruction after
the re-unification of
Italy in 1861, was born in
Morra De Sanctis near
Anton Dohrn founded in
Naples the first public
aquarium in the world and laboratory for the study of the sea, known
as Maritime Zoological Station. The Astronomic Observatory of
Capodimonte was founded by King
Joachim Murat , in 1816. The
observatory now hosts the Italian Laboratory of Astrophysics. Doctors
Antonio Cardarelli and
Giuseppe Moscati were
representatives of medical studies in Naples.
CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN ARTS
The so-called "
School of Posillipo " and "
School of Resina ", dating
from the late 19th to early 20th centuries, included painters such as
Giacinto Gigante ,
Federico Cortese ,
Domenico Morelli , Saverio
Giuseppe De Nittis ,
Vincenzo Gemito ,
Antonio Mancini ,
Raffaello Pagliaccetti .
Amongst the painters who inspired directly these schools, are
Salvator Rosa , Pierre Jacques-Antoine Volaire , Anton Sminck van
Pitloo who spent his last years in Naples. Opera singer Enrico Caruso
was also a native of Naples. Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir
Lenin lived for a period in
Capri . In the 20th century, the music
Neapolitan song became popular worldwide, with songs such
O sole mio ", "
Funiculì, funiculà ", "O surdato nnamurato ",
Torna a Surriento ", "Guapparia , "
Santa Lucia ", "
"Marechiaro ", "Spingule Francese ".
Renato Caccioppoli , nephew of the Russian anarchic
Mikhail Bakunin , was born in
Naples . The first
President of the Italian Republic in 1946 (with a pro-tempore mandate
of six months) was
Enrico De Nicola from Torre del Greco.
also home to the former Prime Minister and 6th President of the
Giovanni Leone , as well as the 11th President, Giorgio
Napolitano . Late
Baroque art inside the Palace of Caserta.
The 20th century's best known philosopher and literate in
Benedetto Croce , famous for his studies in aesthetics , ethics ,
logic , economy , history , politics .
Famous Neapolitan artists, actors, playwrights, and showmen were
Eduardo De Filippo and
Peppino De Filippo , and their sister Titina De
Totò (byname of Antonio de Curtis) was one of the most
important comedians in
Naples in the 20th century. He is also known
for the song "Malafemmena".
Andy Warhol created two famous paintings of the 1980
Irpinia earthquake : _Fate presto _ and _
Vesuvius _. Both originals
are hosted in the exhibit Terrae Motus in the Palace of
Oscar –winning actress
Sophia Loren grew up in
Oscar and David -winning film producer
Dino De Laurentiis was born
Torre Annunziata . One of his grandchildren is Food Network
Giada De Laurentiis .
Contemporary Campanian writers include
Curzio Malaparte and Domenico
20th- and 21st-century Campanian actors and directors include
Francesco Rosi ,
Iaia Forte ,
Pappi Corsicato ,
Teresa De Sio , Lello
Massimo Troisi and director
Gabriele Salvatores .
Modern Italian singers and musicians from
Campania include Peppino di
Renato Carosone ,
Edoardo Bennato ,
Eugenio Bennato , Mario
Sergio Bruni ,
Aurelio Fierro ,
Roberto Murolo , Tony Tammaro
Teresa De Sio ,
Eduardo De Crescenzo ,
Alan Sorrenti , Toni Esposito
Tullio De Piscopo ,
Massimo Ranieri ,
Pino Daniele , James Senese
and his group Napoli Centrale ,
Enzo Avitabile ,
Enzo Gragnaniello ,
Nino D\'Angelo , Gigi D\'Alessio ,
99 Posse ,
Almamegretta , Bisca ,
24 Grana .
Artists who directed movies about
Naples or actors who played in
movies in Campania, or interpreted Neapolitans on-screen, include
Vittorio De Sica , Nanni Loi ,
Domenico Modugno ,
Renzo Arbore , Lina
Mario Lanza as _Caruso _,
Clark Gable in "_It Started in
Jack Lemmon in the movies "_
Maccheroni _" (which co-starred
Marcello Mastroianni ) and "_
Giffoni Film Festival
Giffoni Film Festival , established in 1971, is the
first and most important festival for a young public.
Stadio San Paolo
Stadio San Paolo is the home ground of
SSC Napoli of Serie A
Campania is home to several national football, water polo ,
volleyball, basketball and tennis clubs.
The fencing school in
Naples is the oldest in the country and the
only school in
Italy in which a swordsman can acquire the title
"master of swords", which allows him or her to teach the art of
The "Circolo Savoia" and "Canottieri Napoli" sailing clubs are among
the oldest in
Italy and are famous for their regattas. These are also
home of the main water polo teams in the city. Many sailors from
Campania participate as crew in the America\'s Cup sailing
Giuseppe Abbagnale and
Carmine Abbagnale were born in
Castellammare di Stabia
Castellammare di Stabia : they were four times rowing world champions
and Olympic gold medalists .
The football teams in
S.S.C. Napoli playing in
Serie A , and the only team in the south
Italy to have won the
Serie A title.
U.S. Avellino 1912 playing in
S.S. Juve Stabia from
Castellammare di Stabia
Castellammare di Stabia currently playing in
U.S. Salernitana 1919 playing in
Benevento Calcio playing in
A.C. Savoia 1908 , runners-up of an early equivalent of the Serie
A in 1924, who are currently playing in
A.S.D. Battipagliese , playing in
A.S.G. Nocerina from
Nocera Inferiore currently playing in the
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