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Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /-ʃɪər/; abbreviated Cambs.),[3] is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to the north, Norfolk
Norfolk
to the north-east, Suffolk
Suffolk
to the east, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
to the south, and Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
to the west. The city of Cambridge
Cambridge
is the county town. Modern Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
and Huntingdon
Huntingdon
and Peterborough, the former covering the historic county of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(including the Isle of Ely), and the latter covering the historic county of Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
and the Soke of Peterborough area of historic Northamptonshire. It contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen. Local government is divided between Cambridgeshire County Council
Cambridgeshire County Council
and Peterborough
Peterborough
City Council, which is a separate unitary authority. Under the county council, there are five district councils, Cambridge City Council, South Cambridgeshire
South Cambridgeshire
District Council, East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
District Council, Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
District Council and Fenland
Fenland
District Council.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Green belt

3 Politics 4 Economy 5 Education

5.1 Primary and secondary 5.2 Tertiary

6 Settlements 7 Climate 8 Culture

8.1 Sports 8.2 Contemporary Art

9 Places of interest 10 Notable people from Cambridgeshire 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
is noted as the site of Flag Fen
Flag Fen
in Fengate, one of the earliest-known Neolithic
Neolithic
permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, compared in importance to Balbridie
Balbridie
in Aberdeen, Scotland. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age
Iron Age
were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were found in Isleham. Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
was recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (related to the river Granta). Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for

the area in the south around Cambridge, and the liberty of the Isle of Ely.

In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and the Isle of Ely.[5] Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west, Huntingdon
Huntingdon
and Peterborough. (The latter had been organised in 1965 by the merger of Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
with the Soke of Peterborough
Peterborough
– previously a part of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
which had its own county council). The resulting county was called simply Cambridgeshire.[6] Since 1998, the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
has been a separately administered area, as a unitary authority. It is associated with Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and joint functions such as policing and the fire service.[7] In 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife
Plantlife
unofficially designated Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower. The Cambridgeshire Regiment
Cambridgeshire Regiment
(or Fen Tigers), the county-based army unit, fought in the Boer War
Boer War
of South Africa, the First World War and Second World War. Due to the county's flat terrain and proximity to the continent, during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, and the allied USAAF. In recognition of this collaboration, the Cambridge
Cambridge
American Cemetery and Memorial is located in Madingley. It is the only WWII burial ground in England
England
for American servicemen who died during that event. Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a "Tyke" from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire. The traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
are " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Camel" or " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Crane", referring to the wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens. The term "Fenners" was often applied to those who come from the flat country to the north of Cambridge. Since the late 20th century, this term is considered to be derogatory and has been discouraged in use. Original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
are held by Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Archives and Local Studies. Geography[edit]

See also Geology of Cambridgeshire

Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying and Holme Fen is notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2.75 m (9 ft) below sea level. The highest point is in the village of Great Chishill
Great Chishill
at 146 m (480 ft) above sea level. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill
Little Trees Hill
and Wandlebury Hill
Wandlebury Hill
(both at 74 m (243 ft)) in the Gog Magog Hills, Rivey Hill
Rivey Hill
above Linton, Rowley's Hill
Rowley's Hill
and the Madingley
Madingley
Hills. Green belt[edit] Further information: Cambridge
Cambridge
Green Belt Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
contains all its green belt around the city of Cambridge, extending to places such as Waterbeach, Lode, Duxford, Little & Great Abingdon
Great Abingdon
and other communities a few miles away in nearby districts, to afford a protection from the conurbation. It was first drawn up in the 1950s. Politics[edit]

The Flag of Cambridgeshire
Flag of Cambridgeshire
County Council

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
contains seven Parliamentary constituencies:

Constituency Member of Parliament

Cambridge   Daniel Zeichner

Huntingdon   Jonathan Djanogly

North East Cambridgeshire   Stephen Barclay

North West Cambridgeshire   Shailesh Vara

Peterborough   Fiona Onasanya

South Cambridgeshire   Heidi Allen

South East Cambridgeshire   Lucy Frazer

Economy[edit] This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[8] Agriculture[9] Industry[10] Services[11]

1995 5,896 228 1,646 4,022

2000 7,996 166 2,029 5,801

2003 10,154 207 2,195 7,752

AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the Huntingdon
Huntingdon
and St Ives area. RAF Waterbeach, 6 miles north of Cambridge, is a former RAF airfield, now used as an army barracks. RAF Alconbury, 3 miles north of Huntingdon, is being reorganised after a period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF, to be the focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with activities at Upwood and Molesworth being transferred there. Most of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
is agricultural. Close to Cambridge
Cambridge
is the so-called Silicon Fen
Silicon Fen
area of high-technology (electronics, computing and biotechnology) companies. ARM Limited
ARM Limited
is based in Cherry Hinton. Education[edit] Primary and secondary[edit] See also: List of schools in Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
has a completely comprehensive education system with 12 independent schools and over 240 state schools, not including sixth form colleges. Some of the secondary schools act as Village Colleges, institutions unique to Cambridgeshire. For example, Bottisham Village College. Tertiary[edit] Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
is home to a number of institutes of higher education:

The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
– second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, and regarded as one of the most prestigious academic institutions in the world Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University
– has a campus located in Cambridge
Cambridge
and a base at Fulbourn The Open University
Open University
– has a regional centre located in Cambridge The University Centre Peterborough
Peterborough
– operated by Anglia Ruskin University and Peterborough
Peterborough
Regional College, located in Peterborough The College of West Anglia
College of West Anglia
has a campus at Milton, on the northern outskirts of Cambridge

In addition, Cambridge
Cambridge
Regional College and Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
Regional College both offer a limited range of higher education courses in conjunction with partner universities. Settlements[edit]

Map of the Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
area (1904)

See also: Civil parishes in Cambridgeshire
Civil parishes in Cambridgeshire
and List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population These are the settlements in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
with a town charter, city status or a population over 5,000; for a complete list of settlements see list of places in Cambridgeshire.

Burwell Cambridge Chatteris Cottenham Ely Godmanchester Huntingdon Littleport March Peterborough
Peterborough
(no longer part of the administrative county) Ramsey Sawston Sawtry Soham St Ives St Neots Wisbech Whittlesey Yaxley

See the List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population
List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population
page for more detail. The town of Newmarket is surrounded on three sides by Cambridgeshire, being connected by a narrow strip of land to the rest of Suffolk. Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
has seen 32,869 dwellings created from 2002–2013 [12] and there are a further 35,360 planned new dwellings between now and 2023.[13] Climate[edit]

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Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
has a maritime temperate climate which is broadly similar to the rest of the United Kingdom, though it is drier than the UK average due to its low altitude and easterly location, the prevailing southwesterly winds having already deposited moisture on higher ground further west. Average winter temperatures are cooler than the English average, due to Cambridgeshire's inland location and relative nearness to continental Europe, which results in the moderating maritime influence being less strong. Snowfall is slightly more common than in western areas, due to the relative winter coolness and easterly winds bringing occasional snow from the North Sea. In summer temperatures are average or slightly above, due to less cloud cover. It reaches 25 °C (77 °F) on around 10 days each year, and is comparable to parts of Kent
Kent
and East Anglia.

Climate data for Cambridge
Cambridge
1971–2000 average

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 7.4 (45.3) 10.2 (50.4) 12.6 (54.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.4 (66.9) 22.2 (72) 22.3 (72.1) 18.9 (66) 14.6 (58.3) 9.9 (49.8) 7.8 (46) 14.1 (57.4)

Average low °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 1.1 (34) 2.9 (37.2) 4.0 (39.2) 6.7 (44.1) 9.8 (49.6) 12.0 (53.6) 11.9 (53.4) 10.1 (50.2) 7.1 (44.8) 3.7 (38.7) 2.3 (36.1) 6.1 (43)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 45.0 (1.772) 32.7 (1.287) 41.5 (1.634) 43.1 (1.697) 44.5 (1.752) 53.8 (2.118) 38.2 (1.504) 48.8 (1.921) 51.0 (2.008) 53.8 (2.118) 51.1 (2.012) 50.0 (1.969) 553.5 (21.791)

Source: Met Office

Culture[edit] Sports[edit]

The logo of England
England
Bandy
Bandy
Federation, based in Cambridgeshire

Various forms of football have been popular in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
since medieval times at least. In 1579 one match played at Chesterton between townspeople and Cambridge
Cambridge
University students ended in a violent brawl that led the Vice-Chancellor to issue a decree forbidding them to play "footeball” outside of college grounds.[14] Despite this and other decrees, football continued to be popular. George Elwes Corrie, Master of Jesus College, observed in 1838, that while walking past a park named Parker's Piece
Parker's Piece
he "saw some forty Gownsmen playing at football. The novelty and liveliness of the scene were amusing!"[15] By 1839, Albert Pell was organising football matches at the university; because each town or school had different rules, students had to devise a compromise set of rules.[16] At Cambridge
Cambridge
University in 1846, H. de Winton and J. C. Thring formed a pioneering football club. Only a few matches were played, but in 1848 interest in football increased and that year the Cambridge
Cambridge
rules, the first attempt to codify a form of football were drawn up in Cambridge. The Cambridge
Cambridge
rules are generally regarded as the main precursor of Association football. As a result of its role in the formation of the first football rules, Parker's Piece
Parker's Piece
remains hallowed turf for football fans and historians.[17] In commemoration of the creation of Football; a statue is to be raised in the middle of the park where the game was invented. Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
is also the birthplace of bandy,[18] now an IOC accepted sport.[19] According to documents from 1813, Bury Fen Bandy Club was undefeated for 100 years. A member of the club, Charles Goodman Tebbutt, wrote down the first official rules in 1882.[18] Tebbutt was instrumental in spreading the sport to many countries.[20] Great Britain Bandy
Bandy
Federation is based in Cambridgeshire.[21] On 6–7 June 2015, the inaugural Tour of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
cycle race took place on closed roads across the county. The event was an official UCI qualification event, and consisted of a Time Trial on the 6th, and a Gran Fondo event on the 7th. The Gran Fondo event was open to the public, and over 6000 riders took part in the 128 km (80 mi) race. Contemporary Art[edit] Cambridge
Cambridge
is home to the Kettle's Yard
Kettle's Yard
gallery and the artist run Aid and Abet project Space. Nine miles west of Cambridge
Cambridge
next to the village of Bourn
Bourn
is Wysing Arts Centre.[22] Places of interest[edit]

Key

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Anglesey Abbey
Anglesey Abbey
Brampton Wood Buckden Towers
Buckden Towers
Cambridge
Cambridge
American Cemetery and Memorial Cambridge
Cambridge
University Museum of Zoology Castor Hanglands NNR Cherry Hinton
Cherry Hinton
Chalk Pits Denny Abbey
Denny Abbey
Devil's Dyke Down Field Windmill Duxford
Duxford
Chapel Duxford
Duxford
Airfield Elton Hall
Elton Hall
Ely Cathedral
Ely Cathedral
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge Flag Fen Fowlmere RSPB reserve Gamsey Wood
Gamsey Wood
Nature Reserve Grafham Water Nature Reserve Great Gransden Post Mill Hereward Way Hinchingbrooke House
Hinchingbrooke House
Houghton Mill
Houghton Mill
Icknield Way Imperial War Museum Duxford
Duxford
Kettle's Yard Kimbolton Castle
Kimbolton Castle
King's College, Cambridge Lattersey
Lattersey
Nature Reserve Lode Watermill Longthorpe Tower Magog Down Milton Country Park
Milton Country Park
Nene Park
Nene Park
Nene Valley Railway
Nene Valley Railway
Nene Way New Bedford River Octavia Hill Birthplace Museum Old Bedford River Oliver Cromwell's House Ouse Valley Way Ouse Washes Parker's Piece, Cambridge, birthplace of modern football Paxton Pits Nature Reserve Peckover House & Garden Peterborough
Peterborough
Cathedral Prickwillow Drainage Engine Museum Ramsey Abbey
Ramsey Abbey
River Cam River Great Ouse Round Church, Cambridge RSPB Nene Washes RSPB Ouse Washes Stretham Old Engine
Stretham Old Engine
Three Shires Bridleway University of Cambridge
Cambridge
Museum of Archaeology
Archaeology
and Anthropology Wandlebury Country Park Wicken Fen
Wicken Fen
Wimpole Hall
Wimpole Hall
Wisbech
Wisbech
and March Bramley Line WWT Welney Wysing Arts Centre

Notable people from Cambridgeshire[edit] See Category:People from Cambridgeshire See also[edit]

List of Lord Lieutenants of Cambridgeshire List of High sheriffs of Cambridgeshire Custos Rotulorum of Cambridgeshire – Keepers of the Rolls for Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
constituency Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Archives and Local Studies Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
local elections Healthcare in Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Constabulary Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Police and Crime Commissioner

Notes[edit]

^ "Lord Lieutenant".  ^ "High Sheriff - Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Home page". www.highsheriffs.com.  ^ Archaically known as the County of Cambridge
Cambridge
(EB 1878). ^ "Local government in Cambridgeshire". Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
County Council. Retrieved 25 July 2016.  ^ The Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Order 1964 (SI 1964/366), see Local Government Commission for England
England
(1958 - 1967), Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3), 31 July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9), 7 May 1965 ^ The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire ^ The Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government Commission for England
England
(1992), Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire, October 1994 and Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin, December 1995 ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ "Housing Development in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
2013" (PDF).  ^ "Dwelling Commitments in Cambridgeshire" (PDF).  ^ Association, The Football. "Sorry. Something's wrong with the pitch. - Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
FA". www.cambridgeshirefa.com.  ^ http://www.cuafc.org/history.php ^ Harvey 2005, p. 48 ^ Cambridge... the birthplace of football?!, BBC, Cambridgeshire, UK, 2006. ^ a b BBC. "A handy Bandy
Bandy
guide..." Retrieved 9 June 2017.  ^ "Federation of International Bandy-Olympic". Internationalbandy.com. 12 August 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ " Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
– History – A handy Bandy
Bandy
guide". BBC. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ "Members - Federation of International Bandy". www.worldbandy.com.  ^ "cultunet". cultunet.com. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 

References[edit]

 Arnold, F. (1878), "County of Cambridge", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 726–728 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cambridgeshire.

 "Cambridgeshire", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (11th ed.), 1911, pp. 97–99  Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
County Council Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
Community Archive Network. Images of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
at the English Heritage
English Heritage
Archive Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Cambridge
Cambridge
Military History Blog The Flag Institute: Cambridgeshire

Neighbouring counties

Rutland Lincolnshire Norfolk

Northamptonshire

Cambridgeshire

Suffolk

Bedfordshire Hertfordshire Essex

v t e

Ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire

Unitary authorities

City of Peterborough

Boroughs or districts

City of Cambridge District of East Cambridgeshire District of Fenland District of Huntingdonshire District of South Cambridgeshire

Major settlements

Cambridge Chatteris Ely Godmanchester Huntingdon March Peterborough Ramsey St Ives St Neots Soham Whittlesey Wisbech See also: List of civil parishes in Cambridgeshire

Rivers

Great Ouse (Old Bedford New Bedford Cam Kym Lark Little Ouse) Nene Stour Welland

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Churches Grade I listed buildings History Lord Lieutenants Custodes Rotulorum High Sheriffs Schools Museums Diocese of Ely Diocese of Peterborough Isle of Ely Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Isle of Ely Soke of Peterborough Huntingdon
Huntingdon
and Peterborough

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